Summa Theological

Summa Theological

Reflection
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ST Thomas Aquinas
Excerpt from Summa Theological

- The confession
- Vices and sins

Vices and sins are what?
Vice is contrary to virtue, why is opposed to reason and be directed towards evil.
What distinguishes human nature is the reason and virtue, vice, vice versa, is contrary to reason and human nature.
A mortal sin is to stop the infused virtues (supernatural), but not acquired, because those with a single act cannot be bought or even lost. The mortal sin expels the charity may be the faith and hope in a confused and thus lack of virtue.
Sin is an act of human evil, and now, bad can be said in comparison to a standard, and the rules are two: the right reason and the eternal law: then you go against the norm of actions, words and desires.

Distinction
Every act is specified by its object, the act is a sin, so sin is a different species from one another according to the diversity of the object.
The object of sin produces an inordinate pleasure and enjoyment as this can be either spiritual or corporeal, sins are divided into spiritual and carnal sins.
Sin is a messy three-act that is directed against God, neighbor and self.
The sins are not distinguished according to the offense, because this does not precede but follows sin: hence the distinction between venial and mortal sins is not a specific distinction, or lack of specific acts, such as the greedy sin of stealing money others, because they do not pay their debts.
The distinction between the sins of: thought, words and deeds is correct, but no distinction as to what kind of measure.
Sins such as excess and deficiency are opposed to each other and then in different species: the same is for the greed and generosity. The circumstances do not change the kind of sins, unless there is in them a special reason, which becomes the end of the act, because the order specifies the documents and therefore sins.

Gravity
The virtues are linked to one another, because they are to be linked, but the sins are not connected, because there are those who are against such prodigality and avarice.
The sins are more or less severe in that more or less away from the rectitude of reason and therefore are not all equal.
The gravity of sins varies depending on the subject so Graduated: things, people, God also varies according to the dignity of the virtues which go against, because they take particular object.
The sins of the flesh are of greater infamy, but the sins of the spirit are more serious, because in these the incentive is less.
The causes which diminish the use of reason and will decrease the shame, because the causes are proportional effect.
The condition affects him in sin and sometimes serious, sometimes it multiply, sometimes even changes the present.
The damage that sin produces a serious sin if the effect was expected and understood. Serious sin against the dignity of the person whom you make, because it is somehow the subject of sin, and it also aggravates the dignity of the person committing it, because sin is more than unseemly scandal.

Subject
Sin II is a human act, since what determines the human act is the will, the subject of sin is the will. Besides the will the subject of sin and sensuality, that is, the sensitive appetite disorder.
The reason for the trap of sin, cannot fail in his task by setting good acts both inside and outside and can fail in his task when ordering the movements of bad and not repress them. Give it to the final decision on the act right, because when you agree by consensus to be achieved.
If we thought there is a bad time and you agree, if the matter in question is serious then he makes a deadly act.
If the reason is surprised and taken to a consensus without real deliberation in the case of venial sin for the imperfection of the act.

Cause
Sin II is a bad act, and the lack of righteousness.
The internal cause of sin is the imagination and sensitive appetite.
External cause of sin can be worldly things, the men, the devil, but the external cause is indirect and is moving as the reason and the sensitive appetite: it can only move, but not compel to sin.
A shame in many ways may be the cause of another sin, especially because it has to other sins and prepare the material.
Ignorance can lead to sin when it is deprived of that science that, if there was, would brighten the reason so that it would otherwise direct our action.
It is a sin not to know what you can and you should know, then everyone must know: - 1. The things of faith.
- 2. The main things of the law.
- 3. The special duties of their state.
Only ignorance can excuse from sin altogether. When we sin through ignorance diminishes sin, because it decreases the desire to sin, but if it was searched for the sin grows.

Confession

His need
Sin II is not restored, but by a sacrament of the Church received in action or at least in desire and in this way one submits to the power of the Church, but because the Church can not apply the remedy if you do not know what is wrong and obtained by the confession of a sinner, so the confession for those who sinned, this is necessary.

The sacraments are not of natural right, but of supernatural divine right, so also the confession of law is necessary not natural but supernatural by divine right.

By divine law they are obliged to confess all those who have sinned mortally, for ecclesiastical precept were required to confess all, because it the shepherd knows his sheep. The confession is not only for the remission of sins, but also for spiritual direction.

The confession is made to express the conscience to his confessor, but instead of manifesting the occult so much who does not confess the sins that people confess sins committed: in this case because you make something illegal.

II urge the precept of confession by accident when you should receive another sacrament that should be in the grace of God, but to urge him when the deferral is based on reasons or sinful, or involves the danger of dying without confession.

The confession for those who have sinned mortally need of divine law, not ecclesiastical, so even the Pope can dispense with the confession.

Essence
Confession is one for which the hidden evil manifests itself in the hope of forgiveness: this definition of St. Augustine is the most complete because it covers all essential circumstances of the act and its effects.

The confession, which has provided the fundamental truth is an exercise in sincerity and therefore is an act of virtue.

And since this confession has the same aim sought by the virtue of penance, namely the cancellation of sin, so is an act of the virtue of penance and the confession of an accused to trial is an act of justice and the confession of the benefits received is liable of gratitude.

Quality
The confession as an act of virtue cannot be formless, that is unaccompanied by grace, because it would not be meritorious, but instead as part of the sacrament, the priest's prior acquittal, it may be informed that fake, but who does not receive the result if when it makes up for the fiction.

As the patient if he wants to heal, must show all his evil doctor, because it shows only part of the remedy cannot be adjusted, so the sinner must show all their evils, if he does cannot be said that confess, but pretending to confess.

The confession, as part of the sacrament has its own particular transaction which is to express their guilt, saying with his mouth so confession by another or by means of a script can be a replacement was only when there is no need. A confession made to perfection requires several conditions: the most important being that is complete, simple, humble, discreet, loyal, vocal, sad, pure and ready obedience.

Effects
The confession of sin, delivers from death, especially because it is the sacrament, the actual confession is so full of contrition and the absolution of the priest gives the first grace if the pain did not come earlier to contrition.

The confession is not only free from eternal punishment, but also decreases the temporal punishment, because it is itself a penalty for the blush that matter, and thereby to the confession opens the door to Paradise, because they are crimes of guilt and sorrow, remove it, those that prevent the entrance.

The confession gives hope of eternal salvation, because in it the faithful will submit to the power of the keys, which is reserved to apply the merits of Christ.

The sins committed which was extended contrition, are deleted from the general confession, even if there are forgotten, because the power of the keys affects all, if the penitent makes no obstacle.

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