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Indo-European Roots


*ab- 'water, river'

*abh- 'quick, abrupt'

*abhro- 'strong, mighty'

*abel- 'apple'

*ad(u)- 'water current'

Extension: *ad-ro-
  • Reconstructed from place-names
  • Suffixed form *adr-ia- in Hadria (Picenum)

*aidh- 'to burn'

*ak'- 'sharp'

Extension: *ak't- 'promontory, hill'

U-stem *ak'u-

N-stem *ak'en-

Extension: *ok'ri-
  • Reconstructed from Greek okris 'mountain top', Old Latin ocris 'mount', Umbrian ocar 'mount', Middle Irish ochair 'edge'
  • O-grade *ok'ri- in Interocrium (Samnium), Ocriculum (Umbria)

S-stem: *ak'es-

*akwa- 'water, river'

*al- 'to grow, nourish'

Parallel root *ale- 'to grind'
  • Reconstructed from Armenian alauri (*alatrio-) 'mill', Greek aleo 'I grind'
  • Suffixed form *ale-tr-io in Aletrium (Latium), Aletrium (Hirpinia)

Extension: *alt-

Extension: *alm-

*albho- 'white'

*algh- 'frost, cold'

*ambhi- 'around, from both sides'

*ames- 'blackbird, merl'

*ank- 'to bend, bow'

*ant- 'forward, before'

*ap- 'water, river'

*ar(e)g'- 'glittering, white'

*arkwu- 'something bent'

*as- 'to burn

*at(e)r- 'fire'

*au(e)- 'to flow'

Extension: *(a)uer- 'water, rain, flow'

Extension: *(a)ued- 'water'

*au(e)g- 'to magnify, increase'

*aues- 'to shine'

*aus- 'to draw water'

*b(h)eu- 'to swell, puff'

Extension: *beus- 'sac, bag'
  • Reconstructed from Middle Irish buas (*bous-to-) 'sac, bag, belly', Old Norse puss 'bag, sac'
  • Suffixed A-grade form *beus- in Pausulae (Picenum) Bausta (Apulia)

*bhago- 'beech'

*bheid- 'to prick, pierce'

*bhel(e)- 'shining, white'

Extension: *bheleg- 'to shine'

Extension: *bhles- 'to shine'

*bhelg'- 'plank, timber'

*bher- 'to bear, carry'

*bheredh- 'board'

*bhereg'- 'to shine, white'

*bher(e)g'h- 'high, mountain'

*bhes- 'to smear, spread'

*bheug- 'to clear away'

*bhreg'- 'to break'

*bhren- 'horn' ('herdsman' ?)

*bhres- 'to break'

*bhudh- 'bottom'


*del- 'to split, divide'

*der- 'to run'

Extension *d(e)reu- 'to run'

*deru- 'tree'

*dhabh- 'proper'

*dheig'h- 'to knead clay, to build'

*dhel- 'curve, hollow'

*dheu- 'to run'

*dhuer- 'door'

*eg'hi- 'hedgehog'

*eis- 'to move rapidly'

*el- 'red, brown'

Extension: *al-eno-, *al-is- 'alder'

*er- 'to move' Extension: *ereu- 'swift, speedy'

*ereb(h)- 'a kind of dark colour'

*er(e)dh- 'high, to grow'

*ered- 'to flow, dampness'

*eres- 'to flow'

*eudh- 'udder, fecund'

*gei- 'to turn, bend'

Extension: *geis-

*g'enu- 'knee, joint'

*ger- 'to gather, put together'

Reduplication extension: *greg-

*g'hel- 'to shine, green, gold, blue'

Form *g'hle-
  • Reconstructed from Irish glan 'clean', Icelandic glan 'shine'
  • Suffixed form *gh'l-no- in Clanis fl. (Latium)

*g'her- 'to gripe, grab, enclose'

Extension: *gherdh- 'to encircle, enclose'

*g'hers- 'rigid'


*grem- 'damp, to sink'

*greu- 'to scrape together'
  • Reconstructed from Greek gru 'the dirt under the nails', Norwegian kryl 'hump'

Extension: *greu-mo-

*gwabh- 'to sink, submerge, plunge'

*gwhei- 'bright, shining'

*g'hei- 'winter, snow'

Extension: *g'hei-m(n)- 'cold, snow'

*gwher- 'hot, warm'

*gwer- 'mountain'

*gwou- 'cattle'

*ieu- 'young'

*k'ad- 'to shine, flaunt, excel'


*kap- 'a piece of land'

*kaput 'head'

*kar- 'hard'
  • Reconstructed from Greek karuon 'nut', Latin carina 'nutshell', Welsh ceri (*kariso-) 'stone', Gothic hardus 'hard, strong', Old irish carrac 'rock, cliff'

*kars- 'to scratch, rub'

*k'as- 'gray'

*kau- 'to hit, cut'

*kel- 'spotted'
  • Reconstructed from Sanskrit kalanka 'spot', kalka 'mud, smut', Greek kelainos 'black', Middle High german hilwe 'fine fog'

Variant: *kal- (or *kwal- ?)

*kel- 'to tower, be high, hill'

*kenk- 'to bind, girdle'

*k'er- 'head, horn'

Extension: *k(e)r(e)u- 'horned'

*k'ers- 'to run'

*kert- 'to turn, roll, wind'

*kes- 'to scratch, itch'

*keu- 'to bend'

Extension: *keub-

*k'lei- 'to tip, incline, lean'

*k'leu- 'to hear'

*k'leu- 'to rinse, clean'

*kreu- 'blood, raw flesh, ice, crust'

*(k)seud- 'to grind in little pieces'

*k'u- 'sharp, pike'

*k'uei- 'shining, white'

*lama- 'swamp, puddle'

*legh- 'to put down, to lie down'

*lek- 'to tear'

*leu- 'dirt'

*leuk- 'bright, to shine, to see'

*lou(e)- 'to wash'

*mad- 'wet'

*mand- 'hurdle, plaited twigs'

*mat- 'hack, flapper'

*me- 'in the middle of, by, around, with'

Extension: *met(a)-

*medh- 'middle'

*mei- 'to wander, go'
  • Reconstructed from Latin meo, -are 'to go, wander', Polish mijam 'to go, flee'
Extension: *mein- (?, or independent root ?)

*mend- 'to suck, breast'

*mergw- 'to shimmer, shine'

*mereg'- 'edge, border'

*meregh- 'to soak, drizzle'

*meu- 'wet, dirt, to wash'

Extension: *meud- 'frisky'

Extension: *meus- 'moss, mould'

*mori- 'sea'

*(e)nebh- 'wet, damp, water, clouds'

Extension *mebh-ro-

*ner- 'vital energy, man'

*ner- 'to conceal, cover, hiding place, hollow'

*neuk- 'dark, indistinct'

*neuos 'new'

*ous- 'mouth'

Extension: *oust-
  • Reconstructed from Sanskrit ostha 'lip', Latin ostium 'mouth of a river', Old Church Slavonic usta 'mouth', Lithuanian uosta 'mouth of a river'
  • O-grade form *ost- from whence Ostia (Latium)

*pei- 'fat, milk'

*pand- 'crooked'

*pent- 'to go, walk, way'

*ped- 'foot'
  • Reconstructed from Sanskrit pad- 'foot', Avestan pad- 'foot', Greek pos 'foot', Latin pes, pedis 'foot', Umbrian pers- 'foot', Gothic fotus 'foot'

Form *pedo-m 'trace, track, soil'

Extension: *peit-

Extension: *peid-

*pel- 'wide and flat'

Extension *pelt- 'plain'
  • Reconstructed from Old High German feld 'field', Old Icelandic fold 'earth, land'
  • Suffixed U-stem *peltu- from whence Peltuinum (Samnium)

*pele- 'swamp'

*pel(i)-s- 'rocky'

*per- 'to go over'

Flexional form: *pr-ai (prei, pri)

*perk'- 'to tear out, dig out, furrow'

*per(u)- ‘rock (?)’

*pet- 'to open wide'

*reg'- 'damp, rain'

*rei- 'to flow'

*reu- 'to tear out, dig out, open, acquire'

*rek'sos 'bear'

*rem- 'to rest, to support'

*reudh- 'red'

*reu- 'to tear out, dig out, open, acquire'

Extension: *reus-
  • Reconstructed from Old Icelandic rust 'ruinous wall', Lithuanian rusys 'pit for potatoes', Latvian rusa 'piled debris'.

Extension: *reub- 'to break'

*sab- 'to taste, perceive'

*saip- 'stall, fence'

*sal- 'salt, salty water'

*sei- 'to be damp, to drip'

Extension: *seil-

Extension: *sein-

Extension: *sei-r-
  • No appellatives found
  • Zero-grade I-stem *siri- in Siris fl. (Lucania)

Extension: *seit-

*sem- 'to pour'

*sent- 'to take a direction, go'

*ser- 'to flow'

*serk- 'hedge, to fence'

*seu- 'juice, liquid'

*(s)keb(h)- 'to work with a sharp instrument'

*skel- 'to cut' (in origin, the silicic cutter ?)

Variant: *(s)kep-

*(s)ker- 'to cut'

Extension *sker-d(h)-
  • Reconstructed from Lithuanian skardus 'cliffy, scarped', Old Irish scerdid '(he) scrapes off'
  • Suffixed O-grade form *kordh-no- from whence Corfinium (Samnium)
  • Suffixed N-stem (?) *kerdhen- from whence Cerfennia (Samnium)

*(s)kerbh- 'to turn, curve'

Extension: *(s)ker-k-

*(s)keu- 'to cover, wrap'

Extension: *(s)k(e)rei- 'to cut, separate'

*(s)lei- 'to pour, slimy' Extension: *(s)leib- 'slimy' Extension: *(s)leit-

*sne- 'to flow, swim, damp'

Extension: *sneu-

Extension *sne-t-
  • Reconstructed from Latin nato, -are 'to swim', Welsh naid 'jump', Armenian nay 'wet', Greek notis 'wetness'
  • Suffixed zero-grade form *neti- from which Natiolum (Apulia)

*(s)pel- 'to split, cut off'

*sta- 'to stand'

Extension: *stat- Reduplication: *si-sta-

*steb(h)- 'post, pillar, to support'

*(s)tei- 'sharp'

*stel- 'to put, place'

*(s)ter- 'stiff, solid'

Extension: *(s)terg- 'strong'

*s(u)ebh- 'of its own kind'

*sueid- 'to shine'

*suel- 'to drink (?)'

*tel- 'to be still'

*tel(e)- 'flat, flat ground, board'

*tem(e)- 'dark'

*ter- 'to cross, transgress, to stay'

*tergh- ?

*ters- 'dry, thirst'

*teu- 'to swell, crowd, folk, fat, strong, boil, abscess'

Extension: *teur-

Extension: *teuta- 'people, land'

*tei- 'to melt, dissipate, decay'

Extension: *tibh-

Extension *tin-

*treb- 'building, dwelling'

*tres- 'to tremble'

*ueib- 'to turn, sway'

*ueis- 'to flow, poison'

*uel(e)- 'to turn, wind, round'

*uelk- 'wet, damp'

Variant: *uelg-
  • Reconstructed from Old High German welc 'damp', Lithuanian vilgau, -yti 'to dampen', Russian vulguku 'damp', vologa 'liquid'
  • O-grade form *volk- (or *volg-) in Volci (Etruria)

*uen(e)- 'to strive, wish for, love'


*uer-t 'to turn, wind'

*urag'h- 'thorn, spike'

Last modified: February 23, 2003
by Antonio Sciarretta
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