Computer History Museum - Exhibits - Internet History
Traces the phenomena from 1962 (before the term "Internet" was even coined) to
the modern era.

  • And ARPA said, 'Let there be more networks, ' and it was so.' -- Danny Cohen This Internet Timeline begins in 1962, before the word ‘Internet’ is invented

  • Domestically, data communication over the phone lines is an AT&T monopoly

  • By 1992, when this timeline ends, the Internet has one million hosts the ARPANET has ceased to exist computers are nine orders of magnitude faster network bandwidth is twenty million times greater

  • On-line transaction processing debuts with IBM’s SABRE air travel reservation system for American Airlines

  • SABRE (Semi-Automatic Business Research Environment) links 2, 000 terminals in sixty cities via telephone lines

  • They connect the TX-2 at MIT to the Q-32 in Santa Monica via a dedicated telephone line with acoustic couplers

  • The system confirms the suspicions of the Intergalactic Network researchers that telephone lines work for data, but are inefficient, wasteful of bandwidth, and expensive

  • The ARPA-funded JOSS (Johnniac Open Shop System) at the RAND Corporation goes on line

  • The JOSS system permits online computational problem solving at a number of remote electric typewriter consoles

    Chronology of Personal Computers
    Timeline of microcomputers from the development of the microprocessor in the
    1960s through to the present day. Includes hardware, software, peripherals, ...

  • URL: This document is an attempt to bring various published sources together to present a timeline about Personal Computers

  • NOTE: The complete timeline is not available for free on the Web

  • The start of the timeline is presented here to show you the quality of the material

  • The complete detailed timeline emailed in a document file can be for US$20 from the author

  • [110] [556.9] [732.23] [766.151] [1298.154] [1697.3] (October [1064.237]) (1959 [9] [606.5]) 1959 (month unknown) At Fairchild Semiconductor, Robert Noyce constructs an integrated circuit with components connected by aluminum lines on a silicon-oxide surface layer on a plane of silicon

  • Sponsored links: 1947-1968 The complete timeline is not available for free on the Web

  • The start of the timeline is presented to show you the quality of the material

  • The complete detailed timeline in a document file can be for US$20 from the author

  • A free but brief timeline is

    UNIX History
    A detailed family tree.

  • Unix History Unix Timeline Below, you can see the preview of the Unix History (click on the white zone to get a bigger image): 1969 1980 1985 1990 1995 1999 2001 2003 2004 2005 2006 index This is a simplified diagram of unix history

  • If you want to print this timeline, you can download one of the following files: Printer using A4 paper Printer using Letter paper Plotter If you have some problem with the EPS file, look

    Computing at Columbia Timeline
    Summary of Columbia University's dense, more than 50-year-long history of academic
    use of IBM systems. Includes links to descriptions of most of the systems ...


    Photo by

    The History of the Internet
    Dave Kristula's chronology of the development of the Internet from the early days
    of ArpaNet.

    Detailed information including early pioneers and companies, archives, languages,
    and networking from the Department of Computer Science at Virginia Tech.

  • INDEX (including a special section on Cryptography) On-line INTRODUCTION This WWW page is the initiation of a collection of materials relatedto the history of computing as collected and written by, until 1995 Editor-in-Chief of the , past chair of the IEEE ComputerSociety History of Computing Committee and current chair of the IFIP WorkingGroup 9.7 (History of Computing)

    Hobbes' Internet Timeline - the definitive ARPAnet & Internet history
    Robert H. Zakon highlights key events and technologies that helped shape the Internet.

  • [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] Hobbes' Internet Timeline v8.1 by Hobbes' Internet Timeline Copyright (c)1993-2005 by Robert H Zakon

  • A copy of the material the Timeline appears in is requested

  • As the Timeline is frequently updated, copies to other locations on the Internet are not permitted

  • If you enjoy the Timeline or make use of it in some way, please consider

  • Clark, MIT: '' (August) Galactic Network concept encompassing distributed social interactions 1964 Paul Baran, RAND: '' Packet-switching networks; no single outage point 1965 ARPA sponsors study on 'cooperative network of time-sharing computers' TX-2 at MIT Lincoln Lab and AN/FSQ-32 at System Development Corporation (Santa Monica, CA) are directly linked (without packet switches) via a dedicated 1200bps phone line; Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) computer at ARPA later added to form 'The Experimental Network' 1966 Lawrence G

  • The NPL network, an experiment in packet-switching, used 768kbps lines 1968 PS-network presented to the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) for ARPANET (29 Jul) sent out in August; responses received in September University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) awarded Network Measurement Center contract in October Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc

    A History of Computers
    Offers an array of information arranged by date including microprocessors,
    keyboards, the first computer bug and the 8008 microprocessor.

  • Benefits

    Photo by

    Hobbes' Internet Timeline - La vera storia di ARPAnet & Internet
    Cronologia della Rete, ricca di riferimenti bibliografici in linea, link e
    statistiche sul suo sviluppo dalle origini ai nostri giorni.

  • [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] back to my Hobbes' Internet Timeline v5.4 di Internet Evangelist Cronologia Internet di Hobbes v5.4 Traduzione italiana di autorizzata da Robert H Zakon Hobbes' Internet Timeline Copyright (c)1993-2001 by Robert H Zakon

  • Si richiede inoltre copia del materiale in cui apparirà Timeline

  • Se vi è piaciuto Timeline o vi è stato utile in qualche modo, potete qui

  • 1965 L'ARPA finanzia uno studio su "rete collaborativa di computer time-sharing" Il TX-2 del MIT Lincoln Lab e il AN/FSQ-32 della System Development Corporation (Santa Monica, CA) vengono collegati direttamente (senza commutazione a pacchetto) attraverso una linea telefonica dedicata a 1200bps; più tardi viene aggiunto un computer Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) dell'ARPA che va a formare l'"Experimental Network'

  • La rete NPL, un esperimento di commutazione a pacchetto, usa linee a 768kbps

  • Si creano i primi nodi mentre la BBN costruisce i suoi IMP [Honeywell DDP-516 mini computer con 12K di memoria]; la AT&T fornisce linee a 50kbps

  • Nodo 1: UCLA (30 agosto, collegato il 2 settembre) Funzione: Network Measurement Center Sistema, OS: SDS SIGMA 7, SEX Nodo 2: Stanford Research Institute (SRI) (1 ottobre) Network Information Center (NIC) SDS940/Genie Progetto di Doug Engelbart su 'Augmentation of Human Intellect' Nodo 3: University of California Santa Barbara (UCSB) (1 novembre) Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics IBM 360/75, OS/MVT Nodo 4: University of Utah (dicembre) Graphics DEC PDP-10, Tenex Primo Request for Comment (RFC): '' di Steve Crocker (7 aprile) RFC 4: I primi pacchetti spediti da Charley Kline alla UCLA nel tentativo di collegarsi allo SRI

    Aronsson's Telecom History Timeline
    A timeline of important events in the history of telecom, computing, and communication.
    Split into annual sections.

    A Brief History of Robotics
    A timeline of robotics beginning with a mechanical bird built in 350 BC and
    continuing to the current day.

  • It is designed to complete repetitive or dangerous tasks on a General Motors assembly line

  • It is designed to be a line follower but can also be controlled from a computer via radio link

  • LEGO names the product line after Seymour Papert's seminal work of 1980

  • If you have a great moment in robotics history that you would like to see added to this list please send it to: Check out these other timelines of robotic history: Contents of this site copyright © James Isom, 2002-2005

    Internet Society (ISOC) All About The Internet: History of the ...
    An authoritative history, written by some of those who were most closely associated
    with its creation and development.


    The Virtual Museum of Computing
    A virtual museum that includes an eclectic collection of WWW hyperlinks connected
    with the history of computing and on-line computer-based exhibits available ...

  • This virtual museum includes an eclectic of (WWW) hyperlinks connected with the history of computing and on-line computer-based exhibits available both locally and around the world

  • Please contact if you know of relevant on-line information not included here

  • If you would like to volunteer to be a virtual curator on some aspect of the history of computing, please , preferably with a for the 'gallery' or on-line exhibit which you would like included

  • The museum has no on-line shop as yet, but feel free to try some

  • More on-line history from other computer companies not mentioned above would be especially welcome for inclusion

  • , an index of on-line resources by , Editor-in-Chief of the

  • , including an excellent timeline using , part of by , USA

  • , a comprehensive online reference source about the Internet

  • , a series, including a timeline

  • project from : Exploring and Collecting History Online

  • Alternatively, see the recommended page from the on-line exhibit

  • On-line exhibits and information The following are virtual museums or exhibitions:

  • Don't throw away your old computer until you have taken a photograph of it for this on-line museum

    The UNIX System -- History and Timeline -- UNIX History
    Historical summary and timeline.

    the history of computing project
    A detailed timeline on the history of computing including hardware, software,
    pioneers and references.

    Computer History Online
    Überblick über die Geschichte des Computers, mit zahlreichen Fotos und Abbilungen.

  • Alle Fotos © Copyright Clemens Weller © Copyright Computer History Online, Clemens Weller, Schwäbisch Gmünd, Germany

    Free Mahjong Games at
    Collected information on approximately 2350 computer programming languages,
    including timeline.

    IBM Archives: Valuable resources on IBM's history
    IBM's own history site, with pages on many of their significant systems (see
    especially the "Exhibits" and "Documents" sections).

    A brief history of wearable computing
    Detailed time-line of the development of the wearable computing technology.
    Author: Bradlet Rhodes.

  • A brief history of wearable computing Questions, comments, and corrections write: Bradley Rhodes <>, MIT Wearable Computing Project This page is at Many thanks to Thad Starner, Chip Maguire, Doug Platt, Sandy Pentland, Dick Urban, Jun Rekimoto, Edgar Matias, Al Becker and others for their contributions and suggestions

  • 1960 (F) Manfred Clynes coins the word 'Cyborg' Manfred Clynes and co-author Nathan Kline first coined the phrase 'Cyborg' in a story called 'Cyborgs and Space' published in Astronautics (September 1960)

  • 1968 (F) Douglas Engelbart demonstrates one-handed chording keyboard in NLS (oN Line System) [SRI] At the Fall Joint Computer Conference, Dec 8, 1968, Engelbart demonstrated the NLS system, one of the first personal computer that paved the way for both the interactive personal computer and groupware

  • The system included one-handed keyboard, word processing, outline processing, split windows, hypermedia, mouse, shared documents, e-mail filtering, desktop conferencing, annotation of shared documents, interactive sharing, quarter sized video sharing, turn taking, and network information

    Copyright Timeline
    A history of copyright in the United States.

  • Copyright Timeline TIMELINE: A History of Copyright in the United States | The history of American copyright law originated with the introduction of the printing press to England in the late fifteenth century

  • 1976: Classroom Guidelines In addition to legislative reforms, private negotiations between owners and users of copyrighted materials resulted in guidelines for classroom and educational use as well as reserve room use

  • These guidelines were not part of the statute but were included in the accompanying the 1976 act

  • The 1976 "Agreement on Guidelines for Classroom Copying in Not-for-Profit Educational Institutions with Respect to Books and Periodicals" was adopted by thirty-eight educational organizations and the publishing industry

  • According to the text of the guidelines, the purpose was "to state the minimum and not the maximum standards of educational fair use under section 107 of the [Copyright Act of 1976]

  • The parties agree that the conditions determining the extent of permissible copying for educational purposes may change in the future; that certain types of copying permitted under these guidelines may not be permissible in the future; and conversely that in the future other types of copying may be permissible under revised guidelines." 1976: CONTU Process The National Commission on New Technological Uses of Copyrighted Works (CONTU) was appointed by Congress in 1976 to establish guidelines for the "minimum standards of educational fair use" under the 1976 act


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