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Piedmontese literature, a short history. Third part

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Notice to be read (in case you didn't)


Disappointment, crisis and renewal
The Piedmonteses had to notice that the Unity of Italy, wanted with so many sacrifices and so much heroism, did not arouse so much enthusiasm among Italians, who did not like the piedmontese style. It even seemed that in Italy anti-piemontese feelings rose. Besides the quick moving the Capital from Turin to Florence and then Rome (where the Piedmonteses were called "Buzzurri", which is not a compliment) subtracted a large part of economical resources of Turin. A period happened of deep crisis, and not only economical.
A deep sense bore of bitter disappointment, that influenced some piedmontese poets, like Stephen Rocca, Claude Calandra, Caesar Scotta, etc. For example Claude Calandra, who was a deputy, wrote ironical verse on the italian ilness (e.g. "Stria d'un stival") and on the decay' status of the Piedmont (e.g. "Lament ëd Giandoja"). Also the already mentioned Michael Fornelli, in the work "A Giandoja pr l s ltim sequestr" told: "... a l' un gran che s'at lasso le brche ant j stivaj ..." (It will be already a lot if they will leave you the studs in your boots). The feeling of disappointment is accompained by a quick decay and a certain isolation of the Piedmonteses.
Science and technology found anyway a good ground in Piedmont, and at the end of the XIXth century bore in Turin the large industry. In this way the Piedmont took again an important role and became also training place for development of social ideas. In the factories, in offices, in laboratories, at University they continued to speak Piedmontese.


Piedmontese writings of the '900
Studies on Piedmontese were carried out in deep along the XXth century. Some grammars appeared, and studies on syntax were carried out, other Vocabularies appeared, and so on. The new organization Compana dij Brand appeared, with the associate literary magazine "Ij brand", and the piedmontese graphy was unified (years 1930 - 1931), by choosing the most used graphy starting from 1600, that was also the one of the first grammar in 1783. This was made mainly for the work of Pacotto and Vigolongo. The C d'studi piemontis (House of piedmontese studies) was founded. The Piedmontese was analyzed as a language by experts and researcher all around the world. Around the end of the century the Piedmontese was recognized by the European Council as a minority language to be protected, and entered some schools in Piedmont as an optional subject. Other piedmontese magazines appeared (and among things of a lower interest, also this web site appeared).
The list of authors of the '900 is very long, as the one of relevant works. Since we have to face with the poor capacity of literary critics of the writer of these notes, the only alternative is to give a list necessarily shortened, and so not complete at all, of authors and works. The reader don't have to think that the choice is based on impotrance (the writer would not be able to do such a choice).
* Giovanni Gianotti collections of verse, e.g. Frvaje dlnima.
* Oreste Gallina collections of verse, e.g. "Le freidolin-e", "Canta Pero", "Pare e fieul", and then some proses and the drama Tempesta.
* Arrigo Frusta (nickname for Augusto Ferraris) collections of verse and proses, e.g. "Ij sent ani dl crcol djartista", "Fassin-e d sabia", "Faravsche".
* Nino (Giovanni) Costa collections of verse, e.g. "Mamin-a", "Sal e Piver", "Brassabsch", "Fruta Madura", "Rba Nstra", "Tempesta".
* Giuseppe Casalegno collections of verse, e.g. "Balossade dl vent", "Ecelensa ch'am prdon-a", the little poem "l progress", and other works for newspapers and magazines.
* Pinin Pact (Giuseppe Pacotto founded the association "Compana dij Brand" and the magazine "Ij brand". In this enviromnent the piedmontese graphy was normalized. He wrote the books "Arsivli", "Crosiere", "Speransa", "Giovent", "Pvra amia", "Sira".
* Giovanni Bono twilight poet, wrote vese included into the collection Rime care, rime dosse.
* Armando Mottura composed verse in the books "Reuse rosse", "Paisagi d Val Susa", "La patria cita", "E adess pvrm". Among his comedies, the main are "E la roa a l ancantasse", "A peul sempe desse".
* Nino Autelli wrote in prose two books. "Pan d coa", "Masn".
* Mario Albano poet of deep religiousness, published "Canto dc mi".
* Carlottina Rocco collections of verse. "An sla broa dl sent", "Seugn sensa pian".
* Domenicp Badalini - "Listeurji dij varj", "Doe minute pr ti".
* Alfredino Nicola Founded the magazine "Musicalbrand". Among their works the two books "Spers", "Arcordanse"
* Luigi Olivero Composed various poetry. His main works are in the publications "Poema dllica", "Roma andalusa", "Ij Faunt", "Epicedium dij m ddes gat mrt", "Rond dle masche".
* Umberto Luigi Ronco collections of verse, (year 1962). Novmber violagiun.
* Mariolina Passigli poetess of deep religiousness, collection of verse "Arlongh la stra".
* Barba Tni Bodri (nickname for Antonio Bodrero) wrote in Piedmontese and in Provençal. In Piedmontese, collection of verse "Val dInghildon", "Sust".
* Tavo Burat (nickname for Gustavo Buratti) he worked, with success, for recognition of the piedmontese language in the European Council. He wrote the two works "Prusse Mulinere", "Finagi ".
* Carlo Cocito wrote "Tra busson e rovej".
* Carlo Comino published "Cantoma", "Vij 'd poesia dl 15 stmber a Salusse" and other poetry on magazines and newspapers.
* Censin Pich (nickname for Vincenzo Pich) wrote many proses and published, with Dario Pasero "Sapj - Prse piemontise". He takes care of the magazine "La Slira - arvista piemontisa".
* Bianca Donato works on prose and theater.
* Camillo Brero poet and researcher on Piedmontese published two Grammars and a Vocabulary. He writes books of poetry "Spluve", "Ma l sol doman a ven", " A l torna lalba", " An brass al sol", "Breviari 'd l'nima" and in prose "Le fule p bele", "La bela stagion", and still other (e.g. he edits a magazine).
* And still many, many others.


Piedmontese theater of the '900
In this century, for many reasons, there was a some decay of the piedmontese theater, or better, instead of decay we can speak of crisis. In fact the question depended from economical problems and not from lack of ideas. The potential public was reduced, since the knowledge of the Piedmontese was reduced, due to many people coming from outside the region, while instead the costs grew. The Piedmontese was a unknown language outside the region (and even more, it was ununderstandable), and become a problem to face with competitors, in the total lack of specific subsidies (that, instead, competitors obtained abundantly - this is one of the problems of the lack of official recognition). Anyway that did not preclude that remarkable works were written.
At the beginning of the century we remember two authors: Eugenio Nicola, and Giovanni Drovetti, who did important works. The first wrote, for example "Mons Taboj" and the second "L scpo", "La prima mssa", "La ldola", "Sui nstri brich", "l cur 'd Rca Brus" and so on. Other authors continued to write comedies in Piedmontese (also nowadays), and among them we remember Armando Mottura with the comedies, already seen above, "E la roa a l ancantasse" in the year 1948, and "A peul sempe desse" in the year 1955.
In this century, the fascist period had a very bad influence on the piedmontese theater, since the superior order was "italianize". The greatest permission for local cultures was the use of the vocal inflexion characteristic of the region. As it happens in all the dictatorships, manifest or hidden, the culture must be the "official" one, and nothing else. In that period not only in Piedmont, the local culture and in general the Culture (the true one does not distinguish between the two) didn't have an easy life in Italy. The renewal, for the piedmontese theater started from the year 1950. In 1968 rose the Association of the Piedmontese Theater. Among the actors of the XXth century one of the most important is certainly Erminio Macario. Another celebrated name in the piedmontese theater is Carlo Artuffo.


Scientific prose in Piedmontese
A tongue is such if it allows to express everything. It happened to the writer of earing someone asserting that with the Piedmontese only poetry and novels can be written (if possible connected with old country stories), but it would be impossible to write a book of Physics.
The writer is a Physicist and he did the Researcher for all his working life (40 years and 13 weeks of contribution). Just in order to demonstrate that what asserted is not completely true, he wrote in Piedmontese a book of Physics, whose level is about the first two years of University, and it was quite happy with this work (not only from a linguistical point of view, but also from a physical point of view). This is the notes of "Fsica sperimental - Mecnica clssica" annexed to this web site.
As it is in all languages, a problem exist of neologisms, that in the technical field are derived from the language of workers in the specific field, while in scientific field the problem is common to all the languages: the neologism is often assigned by the first researcher who needs it. In Italian usually these are avoided, since an english word is used (sometimes an english name is directly assigned to italian discoveries). Also for neologisms, in Piedmontese, derivation rules (not absolute) exist which are the same that formed all the piedmontese words. Then there is the habit of people using them.
As a little example we report in the following the Foreward to the said Book.

Fsica Sperimental - Mecnica Clssica

ACHIT

An ste nte i parloma d Fsica Sperimental, con na cita introdussion matemtica pr avj coj utiss che a servo a na dscrission rigorosa dle cse che i voroma d. La speransa a l' che la p part d chi a l'avr veuja d lese ste pgine a peussa capijne quaics e peussa tov quaics d'anteressant. Se sn a cpita nen, passiensa. l but a l' nen col d f lession a quaidun. I stoma nen a defin cos a l' an general la Fisica e cos a studia, e parej is la gavoma sensa trpi pastiss. Disoma anvece che la Fisica Sperimental a l'ha l but d'osserv ij fenmeni e trov le legi che a-i guerno, scrite coma relassion matemtiche tra le grandsse che a interven-o (e vddroma peui ln che a l' na grandssa fisica). Na sudivision che i-j soma abitu a assgna a la Fisica ij fenomeni andova a-i nen trasformassion macroscpica dla materia, mentre che a ciama Chimica l'studi d ste trasformassion. Gi mach s a-i saria da dscute un bel pss. Ant la Fisica Sperimental l metod, an sostansa, a l' sempe col imagin e dovr da Galileo, che peui a vnir, ani dp, but an manera rigorosa da Newton. As oserva un fenmeno, as considero ( ipotiso) le grandsse che a interven-o, as supon na lege che a j gropa fra d lor, che a peussa esse scriva coma na relassion matematica. Sn a veul d f un model matemtich dl fenmeno osserv. As organisa n'esperiment pr arf l fenmeno second l model supst, as misuro j'arzult e as contrla se la lege pens a corispond a ln che as peul misur. Na lege a venta che a sia formul an termo quantitativ e nen mach qualitativ. Dle vire le iptesi che as fan pr giustifich fenmeni complic a son nen giuste e magara as s gi che a l'han nen vire possibilit d'esse giuste, ma as deuvro pr organis l travaj e as ciamo giusta "iptesi d travaj". J'esperiment che a n derivo a peulo d informassion che a servo a s-ciair le idje. L'ansema dle iptesi fite pr giustifich un fenmeno na categoria d fenmeni as s-ciama na "teora". Na lege na teora a peulo esse verific sperimentalment con misure che a deuvo esse l p possibil precise. An Fisica Sperimental a-i nen un limit a la precision che as serca d'oten-e. Neuv esperiment che a ven-o fit esperiment p precis a peulo dmostr che na lege teora a l' nen giusta a l' nen completa. Sn a veul d che l model che i l'oma fit a l' da cambi complet. A l' nen dit che sto modl a sia sens'utr da camp via, prch a peul esse dovr fin-a andova a l' verific e cand, an prtica, l'aprossimassion che a serv a l' nen p fin-a dl'imprecision dl model. Pr'esempi i podoma consider l model d'atom che a l'ra stit ipotis da Thomson ant l 1901. A coj temp l problema a l'era che as sava, da vaire cse, che ant j'atom a-i son sempe d'eletron cari negativ, ma che l'atom a l' nutr da na mira eletrica. As tratava donca d cap andova a-i ero le carie positive che a neutralisavo j'eletron. L'iptesi d Thomson a l'era che l'atom a fussa coma na bija con diameter 10-8 cm a-peu-pr, con caria positiva e massa dstribua e j'eletron andrinta coma le grumele dla fruta. Con sto model as peul vdde che l'echilibri tra atrassion dla nivola positiva e repulsion dle carie negative tra d lor a fan an manera che j'eletron as prto su surfasse concntriche. l model a giustificava ln che as conossa. Antant a l'ra stita fita l'iptesi dl'atom con nos sentral e j'eletron che a viravo antorna (ant l 1904 Nagaoka, e peui Rutherford ant l 1911). Pr sto atom, per, a ventava trov na giustificassion al fit che a iragiava nen energia coma a l'avro dov f, second la teoria classica, d'eletron che a viravo e che donca a sperimentavo n'acelerassion sentrpeta. An dspt d sn vaire cse a sugero sto modl dla strutura d l'atom coma l p bon a dscrivlo. N'esperiment d Geiger e Marsden (1908), fit darera al consj d Rutherford, e che a misurava con precision ln che a capitava cand na particola alfa a traversava un sutil feuj d material, a l'ha prmtt d'esclde l modl d Thomson, che a l'era nen compatibil con ln che a l'ra stit misur. Se l'tom a fussa stit fit second l'iptesi d Thomson, le partcole alfa, cari positive, a l'avro dov esse difse ant un cno nen vaire largh e con na dita intensit pr gni angol. Anvece as misuravo ngoj d deviassion motobin p ut e fin-a particole che a tornavo andarera, cole che a rivavo motobin davsin a la nos sentral. J'arsult dla misura fita a cobiavo bin, anvece, con l'iptesi d Rutherford. Antlora a l' tratasse d cap, se l modl a andasa bin per un vers, com a l'ra la question dl'energia che a vnisa nen iradi da j'eletron. dc ant sto cas a son stite fite vaire iptesi d modj matematich che a giustifichiso la situassion e d'esperiment pr trov col giust. An eft a l' trovasse che a v bin un modl che a supon livj d'energia stbij pr j'eletron antorna a la nos e l'iragiament a corispond al passagi d'eletron da un livl a n'utr. As peul dmostr che l'iptesi dj stat stabij a l' dc compatibila con la teora classica a livl macroscpich. Man man che le misure a dventavo p precise, a cpitava d vdde che l model dovr an col moment a l'era nen complt, coma cand a l' dscuvrsse che la riga d lus giuna d'emission dl sdio a l'ra nen na riga sola ma doe righe davzin, e sn mers a l'utilisassion d n'strument p precis. Sn a l'ha port a la teoria dl "spin" dj'eletron. Ancora adess a le n'asard d che l'atom a l' sens'utr fit parej coma i lo conossoma. Da un pont d vista rigoros i podoma giusta d che l'atom as comporta an tut ln che i l'oma pod vdde e misur, coma se a fussa fit parej. A venta nen confonde l model con la realt, che da rir a son l'istessa csa. Le legi dla Fisica a peulo esse legi precise, rigorose, e antlora a cpita che p la misura fita pr verifichla a l' precisa, p la lege a l' bin verific; opura a peulo esse legi aprossim, prch ant l model matemtich a son stite fite d'aprossimassion. Ant sto cas l'uta precision d na misura a peul but an ciair le diferense tra l modl dovr e la realt che a ven misur. N'esempi d'ste legi a l' la lege d Boyle, che a buta an relassion pression e volum d na dita quantit d gas, che a l' scrita ant l'iptesi che le molcole dl gas a peusso esse consider coma d pont sensa un volum. Sn a va bin pr un dit camp d'aplicassion e se la precision che as veul a l' nen trp uta. Fra d sn la lege a d risult che a son nen vaire giust. Antlora a venta sostitula con la lege d Van der Walls che a dscriv l'istessa csa ma che a consdera dc l volum dle molcole. Ant la p part dle aplicassion prtiche, tutun la lege d Boyle a peul esse dovr sensa avj d'eror sensibij.


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