Struthio camelus OSTRICH. Grassland, savanna, steppe, bush. Formerly across n Africa and Arabia (S. c. syriacus, extinct ) and over more of S. Africa. Absent from most of central Africa in the belt of brachystegia woodland and from forested w,c, and se Africa from s Tanzania and Malawi to n Mozambique. Several races have been described (massaicus, molybdophanes, australis, spatzi, syriacus) based on size, bald or feathered crown, color of neck and egg-pore characteristics. The following subspecies are well-marked.
S. c. camelus AFRICAN OSTRICH.
Locally in sub-Saharan Africa from Spanish Sahara, Mauritania and interior
Senegambia e to n C. African Rep., Sudan and w,ne Ethiopia. Contacts
molybdophanes in e Ethiopia and massaicus in extreme n Kenya and extreme
S. c. massaicus MASSAI OSTRICH. E Africa in w Uganda and n,w,c Kenya to s,e Tanzania. Contacts camelus in extreme n Uganda and extreme n Kenya and molybdophanes in ne Kenya.
S. c. molybdophanes SOMALI OSTRICH. Occurs in ne Africa in Somalia, se,s Ethiopia, extreme se Sudan and extreme ne Kenya. Contacts camelus in e Ethiopia and formerly occurred alongside massaicus near Maralal in n Kenya. Currently approaches massaicus in parts of Tsavo East National Park. Differs from typical camelus in the crown patch and blue-gray neck skin and leg color. Molybdophanes browses more than camelus and they may be separate species, but the evidence is unclear. In captivity they produce fertile hybrids.
S. c. australis SOUTHERN OSTRICH. From sw Angola and Namibia e across Botswana and Zimbabwe to s Mozambique and e S. Africa in e Transvaal, w Natal and nw Cape Province. Not in contact with the northern races.
Rhea americana GREATER RHEA.
Grassy plains, open brush. Up to 2000 m of sc South America from
n,e Bolivia, Paraguay, c,e,se Brazil and Uruguay s to sc Argentina to Río
Rhea pennata LESSER RHEA. Puna, grasslands. Andes of se Peru, w Bolivia and n Chile s to Atacama and nw Argentina in Jujuy and Catamarca (= tarapacensis); grasslands in s Chile from s Aisén s to Straits of Magellan and s Argentina from Patagonia n to s Mendoza (= pennata). Introduced in n Tierra del Fuego. The Lesser Rhea is often placed in the genus Pterocnemia.
The Andean (PUNA RHEA) and Patagonian (DARWIN'S RHEA) races have been treated as species; they differ in tarsal coloration.
Casuarius casuarius SOUTHERN CASSOWARY.
Humid forest, edge, near streams. Lowlands and mts. to 3300 m in
w,s,e New Guinea (mainland exc. nw, Sepik-Ramu drainage and Huon Peninsula)
Aru Is.; ne Australia in Queensland on the e coast of Cape York Peninsula
from Pascoe River s locally to Burdekin R. and the Herberton Range, incl.
Hinchinbrook Island. Introduced Seram I. in the Moluccas.
Casuarius bennetti DWARF CASSOWARY. Humid forest. Lowlands and mts. to 3300 m of New Guinea incl. Yapen I. Introduced Seram I. and New Britain I.
Casuarius unappendiculatus NORTHERN CASSOWARY. Swampy forest. Up to 700 m in New Guinea from Vogelkop e to Astrolabe Bay, incl. Yapen I.; w Papuan islands of Batanta and Salawati.
Dromaius novaehollandiae EMU. Plains, scrub, open woods, coastal heath, alpine pastures, semi-desert. Australia except driest deserts and dense forest; formerly Tasmania. Introduced on Kangaroo I.
The extinct (since early 1800's) dwarfed populations of Kangaroo I.and King I. have been treated as separate species, and the recently extinct Tasmanian population also has been given specific status.
Apteryx australis BROWN KIWI .
Forest, scrub, overgrown farms. New Zealand on the North Island n
of ca. lat. 40°S and South Island in high rainfall areas of s Westland,
w Otago and Southland; Stewart Island. Introduced on Little
Barrier and Kapiti islands.
Apteryx owenii LITTLE SPOTTED KIWI . Forest. S South I. of New Zealand from Marlborough s to s Fiordland, mostly w of the main divide; formerly on North Island. Introduced Kapiti Island.
Apteryx haastii GREAT SPOTTED KIWI . Forest. W side of South Island from w Nelson to Westland, possibly to Fiordland, cross the main divide at Lewis and Arthur's passes. Introduced Little Barrier I.
Tinamus tao GREY TINAMOU. Humid
forest, dense second growth. Up to 2000 m from sw,n,e Colombia, w,n
Venezuela and nw Guyana, s east of the Andes through e Ecuador, e Peru
and Amazonian Brazil to n Bolivia.
Tinamus solitarius SOLITARY TINAMOU. Humid forest. Lowlands of se South America in e Brazil, e Paraguay to ne Argentina.
Tinamus osgoodi BLACK TINAMOU. Humid forest. W South America in s Colombia on the upper Magdalena R. in Huila, 1500-2100 m, and se Peru in the Marcapata Valley in Cuzco at
Tinamus major GREAT TINAMOU. Humid, sometimes disturbed forest. Up to 1700 m in the Neotropics on the Gulf-Caribbean slope from se Puebla, c Veracruz, n Oaxaca, Tabasco, Chiapas, s Campeche and s Quintana Roo s through Nicaragua, both slopes of Costa Rica and Panama, and from Colombia, Venezuela and Guianas s, w of the Andes to w Ecuador and e of the Andes through e Ecuador to e Peru, n Bolivia and Amazonian Brazil.
Tinamus guttatus WHITE-THROATED TINAMOU. Humid forest. Up to 500 m e of the Andes from e Colombia and sw Venezuela s through e Ecuador to e Peru, n Bolivia and Amazonian Brazil.
Nothocercus bonapartei HIGHLAND TINAMOU. Humid forest, esp. ravines, dense second growth. Highlands, 500-2500 m in Costa Rica and w Panama, locally from Colombia and w,n Venezuela, s through e Ecuador to n Peru.
Nothocercus julius TAWNY-BREASTED TINAMOU. Forest and open woods. Andes, 1700-3100 m in Colombia, w Venezuela, e Ecuador and c,s Peru.
Nothocercus nigrocapillus HOODED TINAMOU. Humid forest. Mts., 1700-3400 m in the Andes of Peru and wc Bolivia.
Crypturellus berlepschi BERLEPSCH'S TINAMOU. Humid forest, dense second growth. Lowlands to 900 m in w Colombia and nw Ecuador.
Crypturellus cinereus CINEREOUS TINAMOU. Humid forest, second growth, swampy woods. Up to 500 m e of the Andes from se Colombia, sw Venezuela and Guianas s to e Peru, n. Bolivia and Amazonian Brazil.
Crypturellus soui LITTLE TINAMOU. Humid forest edge, second growth, thickets, overgrown pastures. Up to 2000 m on Gulf-Caribbean slope from s Veracruz, n Oaxaca, Tabasco, n Chiapas, Campeche and s Quintana Roo s to Nicaragua, both slopes in Costa Rica and Panama, incl. I. del Rey in the Pearl Islands; and from Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad and Guianas s, w of the Andes to w Ecuador and e of the Andes through e Ecuador to e Peru, n Bolivia and Amazonian,e Brazil.
Crypturellus ptaritepui TEPUI TINAMOU. Humid forest. Highlands, 1350-1800 m of s Venezuela on Pantepui of se Bolívar in Cerro Ptari-tepui and Cerro Sororopán-tepui.
Crypturellus obsoletus BROWN TINAMOU. Humid forest. Mainly foothills, 300-2200 m e of the Andes from e Colombia and w,n Venezuela s through e Ecuador, e Peru, and Amazonian e,se Brazil to n Bolivia, e Paraguay and ne Argentina.
Crypturellus cinnamomeus THICKET TINAMOU. Brushy forest edge, second growth, dense scrub, thickets. Up to 1000 m from c Sinaloa, e San Luis Potosí and n Tamaulipas s to Yucatán Peninsula, n Guatemala, Belize; interior valleys of e Chiapas, c Guatemala and n Honduras; Pacific lowlands from Guatemala to nw Costa Rica. Some hybridization occurs between cinnamomeus and boucardi in Honduras. C. cinnamomeus has been considered conspecific with both undulatus and boucardi, and as closely related to erythropus.
Crypturellus undulatus UNDULATED TINAMOU. Humid forest edge, second growth, dense scrub, thickets. Up to 500 m e of the Andes from se Colombia, sw Venezuela and Guyana s through e Ecuador, e Peru and Amazonian,c,e Brazil to n,e Bolivia, w,c Paraguay and ne Argentina.
Crypturellus transfasciatus PALE-BROWED TINAMOU. Humid forest. Lowlands to 500 m in w Ecuador and nw Peru.
Crypturellus strigulosus BRAZILIAN TINAMOU. Humid forest. Lowlands e of the Andes in e Peru, n,e Bolivia and Amazonian,e Brazil.
Crypturellus boucardi SLATY-BREASTED TINAMOU. Humid forest, thickets. Gulf-Caribbean lowlands to 1000 m from s Veracruz, n Oaxaca, Pacific slope in Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Tabasco, Chiapas and s Quintana Roo, s to n,ne Costa Rica, incl. the Pacific slope of Cordillera de Guanacaste.
Crypturellus kerriae CHOCO TINAMOU. Humid forest. Foothills of e Panama and nw Colombia.
Crypturellus erythropus RED-LEGGED TINAMOU. Thickets, second growth, forest. Up to 1300 m of n Colombia, n,w Venezuela, Margarita I., Guyana and Surinam s to n Brazil. Incl. saltuarius and idoneus.
Crypturellus duidae GREY-LEGGED TINAMOU. Humid forest, open scrubby woods. Up to 500 m in se Colombia and s Venezuela.
Crypturellus noctivagus YELLOW-LEGGED TINAMOU. Humid forest. Lowlands of e Brazil from Piauí and Pernambuco s to Rio Grande do Sul.
Crypturellus atrocapillus BLACK-CAPPED TINAMOU. Deciduous forest. Lowlands e of the Andes in c,se Peru and n Bolivia. Includes garleppi.
Crypturellus variegatus VARIEGATED TINAMOU. Humid forest, thickets. Up to 1300 m e of the Andes from se Colombia, s Venezuela and Guianas s through e Ecuador and e Peru to n Bolivia and Amazonian,e Brazil, incl. coastal forests of s Bahia, se Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo.
Crypturellus brevirostris RUSTY TINAMOU. Humid forest. Locally in lowlands in French Guiana, Amazonian Brazil and e Peru.
Crypturellus bartletti BARTLETT'S TINAMOU. Humid forest. Lowlands e of the Andes in e Peru, n Bolivia and w Amazonian Brazil s ot the Amazon and e to Rio Madeira.
Crypturellus parvirostris SMALL-BILLED TINAMOU. Humid forest, bamboo thickets, scrub. Lowlands e of the Andes in se Peru, n,e Bolivia, Brazil s of the Amazon, Paraguay and ne Argentina.
Crypturellus casiquiare BARRED TINAMOU. Humid forest. Up to 300 m in e Colombia and s Venezuela in Amazonas.
Crypturellus tataupa TATAUPA TINAMOU. Forest, scrub, grassland. Nw,c Peru, n,e,se Bolivia, s,e Brazil, Paraguay and n Argentina.
Rhynchotus rufescens RED-WINGED TINAMOU. Open country, grassland. Lowlands and foothills to 2500 m e of the Andes from extreme se Peru, Bolivia and c,e Brazil s to Paraguay, Uruguay and nc Argentina.
Nothoprocta taczanowskii TACZANOWSKI'S TINAMOU. Grassland. Andes of c,se Peru in Junín, Apurimac, Cuzco and Puno.
Nothoprocta kalinowskii KALINOWSKI'S TINAMOU. Grassland. Locally in the Andes of nc,se Peru in La Libertad and Cuzco.
Nothoprocta ornata ORNATE TINAMOU. Grassland. Andes of c,se Peru, w Bolivia, n Chile and nw Argentina.
Nothoprocta pentlandii ANDEAN TINAMOU. Grassy slopes, scrub, meadows. Andes, 1500-3500 m from s Ecuador s through Peru and Bolivia to n Chile and w Argentina.
Nothoprocta cinerascens BRUSHLAND TINAMOU. Thorn forest, scrub, savanna, farms. Lowlands in e Bolivia, w Paraguay and n Argentina.
Nothoprocta perdicaria CHILEAN TINAMOU. Grassland, wheatfields. Andes of n,c Chile from s Atacama s to Valdivia. Introduced on Easter Island.
Nothoprocta curvirostris CURVE-BILLED TINAMOU. Grassland. Andes in Ecuador n to Mt. Pichincha and Peru s to Huánuco.
Nothura darwinii DARWIN'S NOTHURA. Grassland, savanna, open brushland. Mts. of se Peru, w,s Bolivia and w,c,sc Argentina from Salta and Tucumán s to Mendoza and e to Buenos Aires and s to Río Negro and Chubut.
Nothura chacoensis CHACO NOTHURA. Grassland. Chaco of Paraguay and ne Argentina in Formosa. Sometimes included in maculosa, but they are sympatric in c Paraguay and ne Argentina.
Nothura maculosa SPOTTED NOTHURA. Grassland, savanna, barren brushland, farms. Lowlands from e Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay s to c,s Argentina from Jujuy e to Misiones and s to Río Negro and ne Chubut.
Nothura minor LESSER NOTHURA. Grassland, scrub. Lowlands of se Brazil in Minas Gerais, São Paulo and s Mato Grosso.
Nothura boraquira WHITE-BELLIED NOTHURA. Grassland, scrub. Lowlands in ne Brazil, e Bolivia and w Paraguay.
Taoniscus nanus DWARF TINAMOU. Bushy grassland, savanna, secondary forest. Lowlands of se Brazil; possibly to ne Argentina in Misiones.
Eudromia elegans ELEGANT CRESTED-TINAMOU. Dry savanna, open woods, dry steppes. Lowlands and mts. to 3500 m in sc Chile in Aisén and nw,c Argentina from Salta, Santiago del Estero and Buenos Aires s to Santa Cruz.
Eudromia formosa QUEBRACHO CRESTED-TINAMOU. Dry woods, chaco. Lowlands in w Paraguay and ne Argentina from e Salta, w Chaco and w Formosa s to e Tucumán and w Santiago del Estero.
Tinamotus pentlandii PUNA TINAMOU. Grassland, puna barrens. Andes above 4000 m from c Peru and sw Bolivia, s to n Chile in Antofagasta and n Argentina in Jujuy, Salta and n Catamarca.
Tinamotus ingoufi PATAGONIAN TINAMOU. Grassland, savanna steppe. Andes in s Chile in Aisén and Magallanes n of the Straits of Magellan, and s Argentina from w Río Negro s through Chubut to s Santa Cruz.