||A large part of worldwide animation enterprises began to send
works in Asian countries since the mid 1970s, although the name
of the facilities was not shown in the credits. In the early years, in any case, they were only retakes or finishing works
on a limited number of episodes. Usually, all the drawings were then shipped via sea in special containers
and stored into huge archives placed
all over California, ready-made for the post-production steps. In 1957, there had
already been a project for a Jay Ward's cel-animated series with a
Japanese businessman, but actually it never went according to plan.
Wang Film made most of the American TV shows seen up to 1985. It was founded
by James Wang under the name Cuckoo's Nest Studio in
1978, when Taiwan's cartoon production was still almost entirely
controlled by the Japanese, which were sub-contracting there parts of
their sci-fi anime "Kido Senshi Gundam" and
"Gatchaman". After a short time, Steve Chen and Jack Jiang became the
first draftsmen to be attracted by that new entrepreneur, this because
the anime works were discontinuous and there were frequent off-seasons
in which they often were not busy anything. Shang·Shang had big
troubles about it. Hsin Hong and Gideon ran identical problems.
Ying Ren was only in operation for a couple of years, working primarily for Tokyo
Movie under the strict overseeing of Daikichiro Kusube. Chunghwa
Cartoon, in conjunction with Toei of Japan, premiered a movie named
"Sangokushi", but with no good result. Urged by William Hanna,
Cuckoo's Nest switched so to do comical cartoons like "Scooby Doo"
and "The Flintstones", as a myriad of further TV-series tailor-made for the
Western children's audience; the offshore assignments turned at full
forces and there were no dead times. Yuan Dong, set up in 1968
and better known out of the Asia as Far Eastern,
could be considered as the oldest and still active animation firm in
Taipei. After years of experimentation and educational stuff, it
started its OEM-works processing in-betweens for Hanna-Barbera (through Wang Film)
and opened a parent company at Wuxi in order to receive works from Japan.
Conning and Al Gaivoto were amongst the first animation supervisors to
travel between Seoul and Taiwan. Prior to Asia, Hollywood film majors
tried to make their works in Australia, Spain and Poland. These facts
were the main cause of one of the most important strikes from the
personnel of the American cartoons studios.
animation industry had become firmly established in Seoul. Tayk Kim had
left Dong-seo in 1982 and moved at Take One, a new facilitiy run by
Jerry Smith, a long-time friend of William Hanna. Take One
did most, if not all the fulfillment for Hanna-Barbera, Ruby/Spears,
SEPP and numerous foreign clients. By 1980, Steven Hahn operated with
his new agency in Los Angeles; Mi-Hahn signed an important deal with
Marvel Group. Akom Production, the largest service supplier in Seoul,
was quickly organized in 1985 by Nelson Shin. Akom was built on
Marvel's request, since Hanho Heung-up had stipulated an exclusive
contract with Ruby/Spears. Hanho was launched by Steven Hahn in 1984;
most of the staff came from Dong-seo. After Take One bankruptcy (circa 1986),
Tae-Soo Kim and Larry Smith –a son of Jerry Smith– founded
Big Star to carry on the work for Hanna-Barbera. Take One
was bought out and, later on, merged into Hyun Young Enterprise.
Those people of that dissolved company in Korea, at least certain
Americans of it, have then engaged new labor force in Canton and Hong
Kong; their animators were trained by Italian artist Fabio Pacifico in
order to start producing "Sebastian Star Bear", completed in 1991 after
five years of
hard work. At that point in time, Asia had a bunch of prolific
studios spread throughout Tokyo and South Korea as well as in the
Philippines. However, there were really a mere handful of names to be
China. Shanghai itself had just a pair of renowned installations,
including Shanghai Animation Film Studio, which for decades produced chiefly governmental propaganda
short-films, and Morning Sun, a Taiwanese venture.
MOM Production (then renamed VideoTokyo) was set up by the late foremost
puppet animator Tadahito Mochinaga; he's also among the people who
built the still existing Shanghai Animation Film Studio. An other
Japanese stop-motion workshop was Yutaka Fujioka's Tokyo Ningyo Cinema;
it's important because it will morph in Tokyo Movie (today known as TMS
while North Korea has been under US-led sanctions that include a ban on
commercial trade, several segments of US animated films have been
relocated to the country. Seoul's studios allegedly sub-contracted to
North Korea portions of the TV-series that they had originally received
from the United States. At the present day, only a few Japanese
producers outsource work in South Korea because of the increasing cost
of the job. Americans moved in the emerging Philippines, where Toei
established a steady and durable joint-venture with Engineering
Equipment Inc. (EEI). Marvel did some of its TV-series at Burbank Film,
a Sydney based company with a division in Makati City (Metro Manila).
Fil-cartoons, managed by Jerry Smith, had a small separate unit to animate
TV-series for the Australian Disney's branch. Toei also did agreements
with Malaysian Lensa Film and Thai Kantana Animation.
Besides the regular support of Pyongyang's Studio SEK,
France's Pixibox owns facilities in Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam. In addition,
Taipei's principal competitors continue to open a lot of smaller service
studios in mainland China, with the intent only on securing cheap
labor. Accordingly, Bobby Hsieh, the president of Hong Ying Universe,
moved its production arm at Suzhou and opened a new satellite studio in
Nanjing, keeping in Taiwan the sole administration board along with a
small core of layoutmen (as Hung Long Studio).
For the same reason, the Koreans are appraising
to inaugurate a future collaboration in Brunei. Also India is trying to
enter the entourage of the most greater Asia-Pacific players,
especially in the development of CGI and Flash Animation.
Disney Animation (Japan) Inc. was founded in 1989 with the acquisition of Pacific Animation Corp.
and the recruitment of key veteran members from the disbanded animation
department of Sanrio Film. New and more modern facilities were created
in 1991 and closed in the year 2004. Motoyoshi Tokunaga, ex-TMS chief
producer and Disney's top manager, forms his own company named The Answer Studio.
Jung Yul Song
1965 and 1968, Nobuhide Morikawa was sent at Seoul to aid the
apprenticeship of young animators in order to produce TV-series for
Daiichi Doga. Most of the present Korean animation directors initiated
there their career. It wasn't too long after Morikawa moved in Korea
that another start-up team began his operations. International-Art (Guk
Je-Art), owned by J. H. Song and headed by Tayk Kim, commenced re-doing
frame-by-frame a series of single reel shows –on changing b/w
film into color– featuring US classic animation characters such as "Felix The Cat" and "Betty Boop".
After the abrupt closure of Color Systems in the United States, Mr. Kim
and his crew went on to do ink and paint work on behalf of Ralph
Bakshi. The job was brought there thanks to the insistence of Steven
Hahn, a Korean-born that lived and worked in America. In fact, he knew
very well the efforts of Tayk Kim, and that the procedures were more or
less the same ones of the previous recolorizing era. Andy Kim and Gil
Hwan Kim, respectively founders of Toon-Us In and Saerom,
grew professionally at the drawing desks of Miroh, a pool of novice artists
put together by Fusahiro Nagaki around 1973-74. Jung Yul Song
(president and CEO of Sae Hahn) says that he was employed at Se-Gyeong
in 1976. This company achieved OEM-works under subcontract of Toei.
Finally, Se-Gyeong released "Dalyeora Majeonga-X", a poor and unauthorized version of the
widely famous "Grendizer". During few years, certain Korean studios
turned out dozens of films with props and characters copied by the
anime counterparts. Daiwon and K-Production obtained
theirs first notable jobs for the Japanese market in 1978, and there,
for the first time, Tokyo's main studios handed the realization of a
substantial number of key sequences to the Korean manpower.