|Family FRINGILLIDAE: Olive Warbler,
Chaffinches, Goldfinches, Hawaiian Honeycreepers, Buntings, Longspurs,
Towhees, New World Sparrows, Wood Warblers, Tanagers, Seedeaters, Flower-piercers,
Cardinals, Grosbeaks, Saltators, Troupials, Oropendolas, Meadowlarks, New
World Blackbirds, Grackles and Cowbirds.
Olive Warbler. The relationships of the Olive Warbler have been uncertain
because its hyoid apparatus is atypical of wood-warblers (Parulini), and
some have thought that it is a sylviid. The position of the Olive
Warbler in the S/A/M classification is based on DNA hybridization comparisons.
Some unpublished mtDNA sequence data suggest a closer relationship with
the Emberizinae, but not close to the Parulini (J. Groth, pers. comm.).
Peucedramus taeniatus OLIVE WARBLER. Coniferous forest.
Mts. of sw U.S. and Middle America from c,se Arizona, sw New Mexico, n
Coahuila, s Nuevo León and w Tamaulipas s to nc Nicaragua.
Finches, Goldfinches, etc.
Tribe FRINGILLINI: Chaffinches.
It has been unclear whether Fringilla is more closely related to the emberizines
or to the carduelines. Biochemical data indicate a closer relationship
to the carduelines.
Fringilla coelebs CHAFFINCH. Woodland, forest, farmlands.
Iceland, British Isles and n Scandinavia e across nw,c Russia to sw Siberia
and s to Azores, Madeira and Canary Is., from Morocco e to Tunisia and
n Libya, n Mediterranean region, incl. most is., Cyprus, Turkey, n Iraq,
w,n Iran and s Russia e to Caucasus, Armenia and the Caspian Sea area.
Intro. S. Africa, New Zealand.
Marshall and Baker (1994. J. für Orn. 135:368) sequenced 603 bp
of the mtDNA control region in birds from Spain, Italy, northern Europe,
Azores, Madeira, Canary Is. and Morocco. The island populations are
well-differentiated from continental forms and birds in the three archipelagos
differ from one another, but the European populations are weakly divergent
from one another and there is a gradient from the Mediterranean northward.
Iberian birds are slightly different. Sicilian birds have unique
alleles and variation is considerable within Italy. The authors discuss
the history and datings of divergences.
Fringilla teydea BLUE CHAFFINCH. Pine forest. Mts.
of Canary Is. on Tenerife and Gran Canaria.
Fringilla montifringilla BRAMBLING. Open birch-conifer
woodland, riparian willows. Scotland and n Scandinavia e across n
Russia and n Siberia to Anadyrland and Kamchatka and s to s Scandinavia,
Denmark, Estonia, sw,sc Siberia and n Mongolia; locally in s Europe in
Alps, n Tibet.
Tribe CARDUELINI: Goldfinches,
Serins, Siskins, Canaries, Hawaiian Honeycreepers, etc.
Groth (1994. J. für Orn. 135:31) sequenced the entire 1215
bases of the mtDNA cytochrome b gene for 38 species of cardueline finches.
Among his conclusions: 1. The branch to the Hawaiian honeycreepers
is in the middle of the cardueline tree. 2. Species of Carpodacus
were on three different branches; a Eurasian branch included Pinicola subhimachala
and Uragus sibiricus. 3. Pinicola enucleator forms a monophyletic
group with the bullfinches (Pyrrhula). 4. Rhodopechys obsoleta arose
from within a group containing Serinus, Carduelis and Loxia and is (or
was) unrelated to Rhodopechys githaginea, which originated from a more
basal branch. These data have not yet been published in detail but
promise to revise portions of the classification of the carduelines.
The relationships among the species and subspecies of Serinus are especially
complex and present numerous taxonomic problems and produce many disagreements.
Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993, p. 378) comment on the complexities,
suggest that the genus Serinus may be polyphyletic, and that "at the species
level there remain a good many problems." The following arrangement
and comments underscore these observations.
Serinus pusillus FIRE-FRONTED SERIN. Juniper. birch, willow
woodland, alpine scrub, shrubs, rocky slopes. Mts. 600-4300 m from
Turkey, Iran, extreme s Russia, s Turkmenia, Turkestan e through Afghanistan
to n Pakistan, nw India and Kashmir, sw Tibet and w China. Nomadic.
Serinus serinus EUROPEAN SERIN. Open woodland, edge, farmlands.
Cont. Europe, s Sweden, Estonia and extreme cw Russia s to nw Africa from
Morocco and e to n Libya and cn Egypt, n Mediterranean region, incl. most
is., w,c Turkey and Cyprus.
Serinus syriacus SYRIAN SERIN. Cedar woodland. Mts.
of Near East in Lebanon and Syria. Sometimes considered conspecific
with S. serinus.
Serinus canaria ISLAND CANARY. Open woodland, scrub, sparse
montane forest. farmlands. Madeira, Azores and w Canary Is. e to
Gran Canaria. Intro. Hawaiian Is., Midway I. and Bermuda.
Domestic canaries were derived from this species.
Serinus citrinella CITRIL FINCH. Open rocky areas with conifers,
mainly spruce, forest edge, dry scrub. Mts. of Spain, c,e France,
Switzerland, s Germany, w Austria, n Italy, Balearic Is., Corsica and Sardinia.
Serinus thibetanus TIBETAN SERIN. Coniferous and birch
forests. Mts., 1350-3400 m of ne India, e Tibet and w China in n
Serinus canicollis CAPE CANARY. Scrub, farmlands, grasslands,
pine woodland. Locally in mts. of wc,sw Angola, ce Zaire, extreme
se Sudan, Burundi, sw Uganda, w,c,sc Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Rwanda,
Burundi, Uganda, nc,c,sc Tanzania, ne Zambia and n Malawi; e Zimbabwe,
cw Mozambique and S. Africa. Mascarene Islands.
Serinus nigriceps ABYSSINIAN SISKIN. Alpine moorland, heath,
grassland. Mts., above 2400 m of w,c Ethiopia and Eritrea.
Serinus frontalis WESTERN CITRIL. Forest edge, grassland,
bracken-briar. Mts. of ne,ce,se Zaire, Uganda, se Kenya, Rwanda,
Burundi and extreme n Zambia, around s L. Tanganyika; highlands of w,c
Kenya. Often treated as a race of S. citrinelloides.
Serinus citrinelloides AFRICAN CITRIL. Forest, edge, grassland,
bracken-briar. Mts. of s Sudan and w,c Ethiopia.
Includes frontalis and hypostictus according to D. A. Turner (pers.
comm.). Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993) agree, but these montane
populations seem to be allopatric. If there is no intergradation,
the species vs subspecies decision depends on the species concept applied.
They are treated here as species to call attention to this question.
Serinus hypostictus EAST AFRICAN CITRIL. Forest, edge, grassland,
bracken-briar. Mts. in extreme se Kenya, ne,c,s Tanzania, Malawi,
e Zambia and n Mozambique. Often treated as a race of S. citrinelloides.
Serinus capistratus BLACK-FACED CANARY. Forest clearings,
edge, riparian thickets. Lowlands from Gabon, Congo, sw,sc,ce Zaire
s to cw,nc,ne Angola, se Zaire, n Zambia and Burundi.
Serinus koliensis PAPYRUS CANARY. Papyrus swamps, visits
adjacent forest edge, open grassland. E Zaire, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi
and w Kenya. Described as a race of S. capistratus, but habitat differs.
Poorly known and endangered due to habitat destruction.
Serinus scotops FOREST CANARY. Forest clearings, edge.
Serinus leucopygius WHITE-RUMPED SEEDEATER. Savanna.
Senegambia, s Mauritania, s Mali, Burkina Faso, s Niger, Ghana, n Nigeria,
s Chad, n Cameroon, n C. African Rep. and c,s Sudan to nw Ethiopia, Eritrea,
n Zaire and nw Uganda.
Serinus rothschildi OLIVE-RUMPED SERIN. Bushes, orchards.
Mts. above 1000 m of w Saudi Arabia and s to Yemen. Sometimes treated
as a race of S. atrogularis.
Serinus flavigula YELLOW-THROATED SEEDEATER. Dry open areas,
scattered trees. Highlands, 1400-1500 m of c Ethiopia. Described
from three specimens taken in the late 1800's and not observed again until
1989. S. flavigula was thought to be a hybrid or variant of
S. xanthopygius, but recent data support treatment as a distinct species
sympatric with S. xanthopygius.
Serinus xantholaemus SALVADORI'S SEEDEATER. Ethiopia.
This taxon was described by Erard (1974. L'Oiseau et R.F.O 44:308-323)
and has been included in S. flavigula by some authors, but Dowsett and
Dowsett-Lemaire (1993 p. 379) and Dowsett and Forbes-Watson (1993, p. 278)
treat it as a separate species.
Serinus xanthopygius ABYSSINIAN YELLOW-RUMPED SEEDEATER.
Dry open areas, scattered trees, savanna. N,w,c Ethiopia and Eritrea.
Serinus atrogularis SOUTHERN YELLOW-RUMPED SEEDEATER. Dry
open areas, scattered trees, savanna.
S. a. atrogularis. Congo, ce,ne Zaire, s Uganda, w Kenya in Kakamega
Forest, Rwanda and Burundi and from c,ne Angola, sc,se Zaire and s Tanzania
s to Zambia, w,c Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia and S. Africa.
S. a. reichenowi. KENYA YELLOW-RUMPED SEEDEATER.
Dry open areas, scattered trees, savanna. Se Sudan, ne Uganda, se
Ethiopia, Djibouti, s Somalia, n Kenya and nc,c Tanzania. Treated
as a subspecies of S. atrogularis by Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993).
Serinus citrinipectus LEMON-BREASTED SEEDEATER. Savanna,
farmlands. S Malawi, e Zimbabwe, c,s Mozambique and extreme ne S.
Africa. S. citrinipectus has thought to be the result of hybridization
between S. atrogularis and S. mozambicus because it exhibits substantial
plumage variation and they may hybridize to some extent.
Serinus mozambicus YELLOW-FRONTED CANARY. Savanna, woodland,
farmlands, in moister areas than V. atrogularis. Senegambia, s Mauritania,
s Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana,
Togo, Benin, s Niger, n Nigeria, Cameroon, São Tomé I., Gabon,
Congo, C. Afr. Rep., s Chad, c,s Sudan, w Ethiopia, Eritrea, Zaire, Rwanda,
Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, s to Zambia, Malawi, s Angola, extreme
ne Namibia, n,e Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and ne,e S. Africa.
Recorded in all subSaharan countries except Djibouti, Somalia and Equatorial
Guinea. Introduced in the Mascarene Is., Hawaiian Is. on Oahu and
Hawaii, and ne Puerto Rico.
Serinus donaldsoni ABYSSINIAN GROSBEAK-CANARY. Arid thorn
savanna. S,e Ethiopia, Somalia, c,cn,ne Kenya and Tanzania.
Serinus buchanani KENYA GROSBEAK-CANARY. Arid thorn savanna.
S,se Kenya and ne,c Tanzania. Treated as conspecific with S. donaldsoni
by Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993). Short et al. (1990) include
buchanani in donaldsoni, noting that it has been called a "megasubspecies"
and also treated as a full species. There are disjunct montane populations
that can be assigned to either status, depending on the species concept
Serinus dorsostriatus WHITE-BELLIED CANARY. Dry savanna.
Se Sudan, s,e Ethiopia and n Somalia s through e Uganda and Kenya to nw,c,ne
Tanzania. Includes S. xantholaema.
Serinus flaviventris YELLOW CANARY. Arid scrub, coastal
bush. Sw Angola, Namibia, sw Botwsana and S. Africa.
Serinus sulphuratus BRIMSTONE CANARY or BULLY CANARY. Moist
savanna, coastal bush, farmlands. N Angola, Zambia, Malawi, se,ce,ne
Zaire, c,s Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, w,c,s Kenya, Tanzania s to s Angola,
Zimbabwe, Mozambique and S. Africa.
Serinus albogularis WHITE-THROATED CANARY. Arid scrub.
Sw Angola, Namibia, sw Botswana and S. Africa.
Serinus canicapillus WEST AFRICAN SEEDEATER. Woodland.
Sw Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo,
Benin, s Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, C. Afr. Rep., s Sudan, n Uganda, ne
Zaire and nw Kenya. Often considered conspecific with S. gularis
but they seem to be allopatric. Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993)
include canicapillus in gularis.
Serinus reichardi REICHARD'S SEEDEATER. Woodland.
Mts. of s Sudan, s Ethiopia, Burundi, w,c Kenya,cw,s Tanzania, se Zaire,
Zambia, Malawi and n Mozambique. Often considered conspecific with
S. canicapillus, but they are marginally sympatric in s Sudan and e Uganda.
The northern forms of gularis and reichardi differ from those in the
southern tropics; vocalizations and status under review (D. A. Turner,
Serinus gularis STREAKY-HEADED SEEDEATER. Open savanna woodland.
Angola, e Botswana, Zimbabwe, se Mozambique and ne,e,s S. Africa.
Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993) treat canicapillus as a subspecies
Serinus mennelli BLACK-EARED SEEDEATER. Brachystegia woodland.
Cw,ce Angola, extreme ne Namibia, se Zaire, Zambia, sw Tanzania, Malawi,
Zimbabwe, Botswana and c,s Mozambique.
Serinus tristriatus BROWN-RUMPED SEEDEATER. Woodland, juniper.
Mts. above 1500 m of Ethiopia, Eritrea and nw Somalia.
Serinus menachensis YEMEN SERIN. Bushes. Mts., 1800-2300
m of Ethiopia, sw Saudi Arabia and Yemen. See S. ankoberensis.
Serinus ankoberensis ANKOBER SERIN. Bushes along broken
cliff tops. Mts., 2900-3100 m of c Ethiopia. Treated as a race
of S. menachensis by Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993), although these
montane populations are allopatric. This brings into question the
conspecificity of the Ethiopian and Arabian populations of menachensis.
Serinus striolatus STREAKY SEEDEATER. Thickets, edge, farmlands.
The two forms were treated as species by Sibley and Monroe (1990), but
whytii is considered to be a race of striolatus by Short, et al. (1990),
the E. African List Committee (D.A. Turner, pers. comm.), and by Dowsett
and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993), although these montane populations are allopatric.
S. s. striolatus. Mts. above 1500 m of ce,ne Zaire, se
Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, w,e Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya and ne Tanzania.
S. s. whytii YELLOW-BROWED SEEDEATER. Thickets,edge,
farmlands. Mts. above 1500 m of cs Tanzania, ne Zambia and
Serinus burtoni THICK-BILLED SEEDEATER. Forest, edge, clearings.
Locally in mts. above 1500 m of se Nigeria, Cameroon, wc Angola, se,ce,ne
Zaire, w Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya and cn,ne Tanzania. See comments
under S. melanochrous.
Serinus rufobrunneus PRINCIPE SEEDEATER. Forest edge, farmlands.
Príncipe and São Tomé Is. Closely related to
Serinus melanochrous KIPENGERE SEEDEATER. Forest, edge,
clearings. Sw Tanzania in the Kipengere Mts. Usually regarded
as conspecific with S. burtoni. Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993)
treat melanochrous as a race of S. burtoni, but note that "... it is quite
possible this is best treated as a species" and that a detailed study of
"...melanochrous and other populations of S. burtoni s.l." is desireable,
"in view of the complicated Serinus systematics in the Afrotropics."
Serinus leucopterus WHITE-WINGED SEEDEATER. Thickets, Protea
heath. Mts. of S. Africa.
Serinus totta CAPE SISKIN. Scrub, thickets. Mts.
of S. Africa in s Cape Province.
The South African List Committee (1990) recommended that S. totta and
S. symonsi be placed in the genus Pseudochloroptila. S. symonsi is
often considered to be a race of S. totta.
Serinus symonsi DRAKENSBERG SISKIN. Grassland, montane scrub.
Mts. of S. Africa in se Orange Free State, Lesotho, w Natal and adjacent
extreme ne Cape Province.
Serinus alario BLACK-HEADED CANARY Arid scrub, rocky areas.
The S. African List Committee treats leucolaema as a subspecies of S.
S. a. alario. BLACK-HEADED CANARY S. Africa in nw,s,c,e
S. a. leucolaema DAMARA CANARY. C,s Namibia, extreme
s Botswana and nc,c S. Africa in n,nc Cape Prov., w Transvaal, Orange Free
State and Lesotho.
Serinus estherae MOUNTAIN SERIN. Forest. Mts., 1500-3500
m. of Greater Sunda Is. in n Sumatra, w,e Java and nc,s, Sulawesi;
s Philippine Is. on Mindanao on Mt. Katanglad and Mt. Apo. The races in
the Philippines were originally described as separate species and they
are sometimes so treated, but the population on Sulawesi is morphologically
intermediate. Generic affinities are uncertain.
Neospiza concolor SAO TOME CANARY. Dense primary forest.
Known only from three specimens (two lost) collected before 1888 on São
Tomé I., and a few sightings in 1991 and 1992 (Sargeant, et al.
1992. Bird Conserv. Intl. 2:157-159). Deforestation of remaining
habitat at least temporarily halted.
Linurgus olivaceus ORIOLE FINCH. Forest edge. Locally
in mts. above 1500 m. in Cameroon, Bioko Island, se Nigeria, ce,ne Zaire,
extreme s Sudan, w,e Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, c,cs Kenya, ne,ec, sw Tanzania
and n Malawi.
Rhynchostruthus socotranus GOLDEN-WINGED GROSBEAK. Arid
acacia and euphorb woodland. Highlands, 1200-2000 m of n Somalia,
incl. Socotra I., and sw Saudi Arabia. Generic affinities uncertain.
Carduelis chloris EUROPEAN GREENFINCH. Open woodland, farmlands.
S Scandinavia e across c Russia to Ural Mts. and s to nw Africa, from Morocco
c to Tunisia, n Mediterranean, incl. most is., Turkey, ne Egypt, Near East,
s to Israel, n Iran, s Russia, Transcaspia, c,e Turkestan. Intro.
Azores Is., se Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, Uruguay, ne Argentina.
Carduelis sinica GREY-CAPPED GREENFINCH. Open woodland,
farmlands, conifers. E Siberia and Kuril Is. s to c Mongolia, c,e
China, Japan, Ryukyu, Bonin and Volcano islands.
Carduelis spinoides YELLOW-BREASTED GREENFINCH. Open areas,
second growth, farmlands, forest edge. Himalayas above 1650 m of
Pakistan, n India, Kashmir, sc Tibet and wc Burma. Winters to lower
elevations and n Thailand and sc Vietnam.
Carduelis ambigua BLACK-HEADED GREENFINCH. Open forest,
fields, scrub. Himalayas, 1200-3500 m of se Tibet, sw China, w,ne,e
Burma, nw Thailand, n Laos and n Vietnam. Winters to lower elevations.
Carduelis monguilloti VIETNAMESE GREENFINCH. Second growth,
forest edge. Mts. of c Vietnam. Sometimes considered conspecific
with C. spinoides.
Carduelis spinus EURASIAN SISKIN. Coniferous woodland, birch
and alder thickets. From British Isles and c Scandinavia e across
nw,c Russia to Urals and upper Ob R. and s to mts. of s Europe in Pyrenees,
Alps, c Italy, Balkans, n Turkey, sw Russia, Caucasus and n Iran; se Siberia,
Kuril Is., Manchuria and Japan.
Carduelis pinus PINE SISKIN. Coniferous forest, woodland.
C,sc Alaska, c Yukon, sc Mackenzie, nw,ec Saskatchewan and wc,s Manitoba
e across c Canada to s Labrador and Newfoundland and s to n Baja Calif.,
s Calif., s Nevada, n,se Arizona, in Mexican highlands to Michoacán,
México, wc Vera Cruz and int. Chiapas and to s New Mexico, w Texas,
w Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri, c Illinois, c Indiana, s Ohio and Virginia
and sporadically s in e U.S. Winters s to se U.S. to s Texas, Gulf
Coast and s Florida.
Carduelis atriceps BLACK-CAPPED SISKIN. Coniferous forest.
Mts. of nc Middle America in Chiapas and w Guatemala. Hybridizes
with C. pinus in w Guatemala and often considered conspecific with it.
Carduelis spinescens ANDEAN SISKIN. Open country, bushes.
Mts., 1500-4100 m of Colombia, nw Venezuela and n Ecuador.
Carduelis yarrellii YELLOW-FACED SISKIN. Open country,
bushes. Locally in lowlands to 500 m of nc Venezuela and e Brazil
from Ceará and Paraíba s to Bahia.
Carduelis cucullata RED SISKIN. Dry scrub, open areas.
Lowlands to 1200 m of ne Colombia, n Venezuela; recent S. American records
only from Colombia. Intro. se Puerto Rico.
Carduelis crassirostris THICK-BILLED SISKIN. Scrub., Polylepis
woodland. Locally in mts., 3000-4000 m of s Peru and c,sw Bolivia
s to c Chile and cw Argentina. Winters to lower elevations.
Carduelis magellanica HOODED SISKIN. Savanna, towns, montane
scrub, farmlands. Locally in lowlands and mts. to 4000 m of Pantepui
of s Venezuela, Guyana and adj. n Brazil; Andes from sw,e Colombia s through
Ecuador and Peru to n Chile; Andean slopes and lowlands of Bolivia, c,e
Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and n,c Argentina, s to Río Negro.
Carduelis siemiradzkii SAFFRON SISKIN. Arid scrub, deciduous
woodland. Pacific lowlands to 100 m of Ecuador, near Guayaquil and
incl. I. Puna. Sometimes considered conspecific with C. magellanica
but differs sharply from adjacent populations of that species with no known
Carduelis olivacea OLIVACEOUS SISKIN. Humid forest edge,
open woodland, scrub. Foothills, 1200-3000 m of e slope of
Andes Mts. from se Ecuador s through Peru to c Bolivia. Sometimes
considered conspecific with C. magellanica, but differs in habitat.
Carduelis notata BLACK-HEADED SISKIN. Pine-oak, humid forest,
weedy areas, pine savanna. Mts. from se Sonora, w Chihuahua, Sinaloa,
Durango, Zacatecas, e San Luis Potosí and sw Tamaulipas s through
highlands to nc Nicaragua; lowland pine savanna of e Honduras and ne Nicaragua.
Carduelis barbata BLACK-CHINNED SISKIN. Woodland, bushes.
Lowlands to 1500 m of c,s Chile and sw Argentina to Tierra del Fuego and
the Falkland Is.
Carduelis xanthogastra YELLOW-BELLIED SISKIN. Bushy slopes,
humid forest edge, pastures. Locally in mts., 800-3000 m, of Costa
Rica, w Panama, Colombia, w,n Venezuela, sw Ecuador, se Peru and c Bolivia.
Carduelis atrata BLACK SISKIN. Rocky, bushy slopes, puna,
woodland, pastures. Mts., 2700-4500 m of c,s Peru, c,s Bolivia, n,c
Chile and w Argentina.
Carduelis uropygialis YELLOW-RUMPED SISKIN. Bushy slopes,
ravines. Locally in mts., 2000-4000 m of c,s Peru, w Bolivia, n,c
Chile and w Argentina.
Carduelis tristis AMERICAN GOLDFINCH. Riparian woodland,
fields, open woodland, forest edge, farmlands. S British Columbia,
nc Alberta, c Saskatchewan and wc,s Manitoba e across s Canada to Nova
Scotia and sw Newfoundland. and s to s Calif., n Baja Calif., e Oregon,
c Nevada, c Utah, s Colorado, probably n New Mexico, c Oklahoma extreme
ne Texas, n Louisiana, c portions of Gulf States, c Georgia and S. Carolina.
Winters from s Canada s to n Mexico, Gulf Coast and s Florida.
Carduelis psaltria LESSER GOLDFINCH. Woodland edge, chaparral,
riparian woodland, open country, farmlands. Lowlands and mts., to
3100 m from sw Washington, w Oregon, n Calif., s Idaho, n Colorado, probably
s Wyoming, nw Oklahoma and c,s Texas s locally to s Baja Calif., through
Mexico, incl. Tres Marías Is., Yucatán Pen. and I. Mujeres,
and C. America to Panama and from Colombia and Venezuela s, w of Andes
Mts., through w Ecuador to nw Peru. Intro. Cuba, but apparantly extirpated.
Carduelis lawrencei LAWRENCE'S GOLDFINCH. Oak woodland,
chaparral, riparian woodland, pinyon-juniper, dry open areas, bushes.
Sw U.S. in c,s Calif., w of Sierra Nevada, nw Baja Calif., and, rarely,
w Arizona. Winters e to w Texas and s to n Sonora.
Carduelis dominicensis ANTILLEAN SISKIN. Pine forest, scrub.
Mts. of Hispaniola.
Carduelis carduelis EUROPEAN GOLDFINCH. Open country, woodland,
farmlands, weedy areas.
The two groups apparently intergrade in northern Iran and probably in
C. c. carduelis. From Europe, s Sweden and s Finland e
across w, nw,c Russia to sw Siberia and s to Azores, Madeira and
Canary Is., n Africa, from Morocco e to Egypt, Middle East, Iran and sc
Russia e to w Caspian Sea and Transcaucasus.
C. c. caniceps. GREY-CROWNED GOLDFINCH. From Transcaspia
e to e Turkestan and e Kazakhstan, sw Siberia from Tuva e to Lake Baikal
and w,c Mongolia, s to s,e Iran, Afghanistan, n Pakistan, n India e to
c Nepal, w Tibet and w China in w Sinkiang. Introduced se Australia,
Tasmania, New Zealand, Bermuda, N. America, but now extirpated, and Uruguay.
The species from C. hornemanni to C. johannis are often placed
Carduelis hornemanni HOARY REDPOLL. Dwarf willows, birches,
tundra, often on rocky ground. Arctic on Ellesmere, Bylot and n Baffin
is., and n Greenland; n Scandinavia e across n Russia to n, e Siberia;
w,n Alaska, n Yukon, n,ec Mackenzie, s Victoria I., Keewatin, ne Manitoba,
Southampton I. and n Quebec. Winters s to ne U.S. and British Isles,
c Europe, c Asia, s Canada and nc,ne U.S.
The taxonomy of redpolls remains controversial. Some recent studies
suggested that southern populations (exilipes) represent the pale extreme
within individual populations of C. flammea, or that hybridization is frequent,
while other studies concluded that C. hornemanni and C. flammea are good
species, widely sympatric and with little or no confirmed hybridization.
Seutin et al. (1993. Auk 110:832-843) found that a sample of 277 breeding
adults from Churchill, Manitoba, clustered as two plumage forms, corresponding
to C. f. flammea and C. h. exilipes. They concluded that "Redpoll
types may be specifically distinct, ... but they also may be examples of
intraspecific genetic or ecophenotypic polymorphism." They suggested
"... that recognition of flammea and exilipes redpolls as distinct species
be maintained." Minor differences in allozymes have been reported
in small samples, but no comprehensive study has been reported.
Carduelis flammea COMMON REDPOLL. Open birch woodland, scrub,
willows, tundra. From s Greenland, Iceland and n Scandinavia e across
nw,n,c Russia and n Siberia to Kamchatka and s to s Siberia and Kuril Is;
from w,n Alaska, n Yukon, n Mackenzia, s Victoria I., n Keewatin, n Quebec,
Baffin I., and n Labrador s to s,se Alaska, nw British Columbia, c Alberta,
s Saskatchewan, n Manitoba, n Ontario, c,se Quebec and Newfounbdland; locally
in British Isles and Europe s to Alps, Czechoslovakia and cw Russia.
Winters s to c U.S., n Mediterranean region and c Asia. Intro. New
Zealand and Lord Howe I. The large-billed race rostrata of the Canadian
Arctic Archipelago is sometimes treated as a species.
Carduelis flavirostris TWITE. Open, arid, stony ground
with sparse bushes, grass. Locally on n,c British Isles and w,n Scandinavia;
mts. of c,e Turkey, extreme s Russia and nw Iran; mts to 4575 m from ne
of Caspian Sea e across Kazakhstan to L. Balkhash and Kirghiz steppes s
to Turkestan, sw Siberia, c,e Afghanistan, n India, c Nepal, Tibet, Mongolia
and w,sc China. Winters to lower elevations and n Cont. Europe.
Carduelis cannabina EURASIAN LINNET. Open country with sparse
vegetation, farmlands. British Isles and s Scandinavia e across nw,c
Russia to sw Siberia and s to Madeiera and Canary Is., nw Africa, from
Morocco e to Tunisia and n Libya, n Mediterranean region, incl. most is.,
Turkey and Near East, s to Israel and e across s Russia, Crimea and Caucasus,
Transcaspia e to Turkestan and Kazakhstan, Iran and n Afghanistan to extreme
Carduelis yemenensis YEMEN LINNET. Bushes, on ground.
Mts., 2100-2750 m, of w Saudi Arabia and Yemen.
Carduelis johannis WARSANGLI LINNET. Juniper forest.
Mts., 1800-2150 m of n Somalia.
Leucosticte nemoricola PLAIN MOUNTAIN-FINCH. Above timberline
in open areas with sparse vegetation. Himalayas, 3050-5200 m of Turkestan
ne to e Kazakhstan, sw Siberia, n Pakistan, n India, Kashmir e to Bhutan,
se Tibet and w,c China. Winters to lower elevations.
Leucosticte brandti BLACK-HEADED MOUNTAIN-FINCH. Alpine
meadows among rocks, mountain steppes, barren plateaus. Mts., 3900-5400
m of Turkestan, sw Siberia, n Pakistan, n India, Kashmir e to Nepal, Sikkim
and Bhutan, s Tibet, and w China; occurs at higher elevations than L. nemoricola.
Winters to lower elevations. Closely related to L. arctoa but sympatric
in the Altai area of sw Siberia.
Leucosticte sillemi Sillem's Mountain-Finch. Rocky alpine
meadows. Described from two specimens taken in w Tibet, 5125 m elevation,
in 1929 and (mis)identified as L. brandti (Roselaar 1992. Bull. Brit. Orn.
Club 112:225-230). May be based on aberrant individuals or hybrids
with an unspecified finch.
Leucosticte arctoa ASIAN ROSY-FINCH. Open, rocky and sparsely
vegetated, alpine areas and among glaciers. Mts. of s,e Siberia,
Kamchatka, Kuril Is. and nw Mongolia. Winters to lower elevations.
The following three species are often considered conspecific with L. arctoa,
but genetic, biochemical and morphological evidence suggest that they are
Leucosticte tephrocotis GREY-CROWNED ROSY-FINCH. Open,
rocky and sparsely vegetated alpine areas and among glaciers. From
w,nc Alaska, c Yukon, British Columbia and sw Alberta s to s Alaska, incl.
St. Matthew, Nunivak and Pribilof and Aleutian is., and s through Cascades,
Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mts. to ne Oregon, ec Calif., c Idaho and nw Montana;
Commander Is. Winters to lower elevations.
Leucosticte atrata BLACK ROSY-FINCH. Open, rocky and sparsely
vegetated alpine areas and among glaciers. Mts. from c Idaho, sw,sc
Montana and nw,nc Wyoming s to se Oregon, ne,ec Nevada and c Utah.
Winters to lower elevations.
Leucosticte australis BROWN-CAPPED ROSY-FINCH. Open, rocky
and sparsely vegetated alpine areas and among glaciers. Rocky Mts.
from se Wyoming s through Colorado to nc New Mexico. Winters to lower
Callacanthis burtoni SPECTACLED FINCH. Coniferous forest.
Himalayas, 2400-3050 m, of nw Pakistan and n India and from Kashmir e to
Nepal. Winters to lower elevations.
Rhodopechys sanguinea CRIMSON-WINGED FINCH. Open, rocky
areas with sparse vegetation. Locally in mts., 1700-3600 m in Atlas
Mts. of Morocco and ne Algeria; Lebanon, c,e Turkey, extreme s Russia in
Caucasus, Transcaspia, Turkestan, Iran and n Afghanistan, possibly n Pakistan
and nw India. Winters to lower elevations. Probably congeneric
and closely related to Callacanthis burtoni.
Rhodopechys githaginea TRUMPETER FINCH. Arid, bare stony
areas. Canary Is.; se Spain, s Morocco and Mauritania, Mali, Nigeria,
Chad e to Egypt and n Sudan; lowlands to 3500 m of Near East, n to Israel
and s to c Saudi Arabia and Bahrain e through Middle East and from Transcaspia
e to Tadzikistan and n to e Kazakhstan to sw Siberia and n Pakistan.
Sometimes placed in the genus Bucanetes.
Rhodopechys mongolica MONGOLIAN FINCH. Open, bare, rocky
slopes with sparse vegetation. Mts., 2500-3500 m from n,ne,e Iran,
extreme s Russia, Transcaspia e to Tadzikistan and n to Kirghiz steppes
and Mongolia s through China to c,ne Afghanistan and Tibet and presumably
n Pakistan and n India and Kashmir. Winters to lower elevations and
to nc,ne China.
Rhodopechys obsoleta DESERT FINCH. Open arid country with
bushes, trees, farmlands, orchards, towns. Locally in mts., 1000-3000
m of s Turkey, Near East and nw Arabia e through Iran and Transcaspia e
to Tadzhikistan and Kirghiz steppes and from Afghanistan to w,nc China
and n Pakistan.
Uragus sibiricus LONG-TAILED ROSEFINCH. Thickets, bushy
slopes, often riparian. Mts. to 3050 m from s Siberia and s Kuril
Is. s to w,c China, se Tibet, n Manchuria and n Japan. Winters to lower
elevations and to ne China and s Korea.
Carpodacus rubescens CRIMSON ROSEFINCH. Coniferous forest.
Himalayas, 2600-4600 m, of ne India, c Nepal, se Tibet and c,sw China.
Winters to lower elevations.
Carpodacus nipalensis DARK-BREASTED ROSEFINCH. Mixed forest,
rocky areas. Himalayas, 2400-4450 m, of n Pakistan, n India, Kashmir,
s Tibet, c,sw China and n Vietnam. Winters to lower elevations.
Carpodacus erythrinus COMMON ROSEFINCH. Damp thickets,
riparian woodland, farmlands. Lowlands in n to high mts. in s from
s Scandinavia, ne Germany, Poland and Switzerland e across n,c Russia and
Siberia w to Anadyrland and Kamchatka and s to n Mongolia, n,sc China,
n Manchuria and Sakhalin I.; from n Turkey e through n Iran, extreme s
Russia in Caucasus and Transcaucasus, from Transcaspia e to Tadzhikistan
and n to e Kazakhstan and Afghanistan to Himalayas, to 5000 m, of n Pakistan,
n India, Kashmir e to Bhutan and s,se Tibet.
Carpodacus purpureus PURPLE FINCH. Coniferous and mixed
forest, edge, woodland, second growth. From n,c British Columbia,
s Yukon, sw Mackenzie, n,c Alberta and c Saskatchewan e across s Canada
to s Quebec, Anticosti I. and Newfoundland and s through w Washington,
w Oregon and mts. of Calif. to nw Baja Calif., and e of Great Plains to
c Minnesota, c Wisconsin, c,se Michigan, n Ohio, w. Virginia, c Pennsylvania
and se New York.
Carpodacus cassinii CASSIN'S FINCH. Open coniferous forest.
Mts. from sc British Columbia, extreme sw Alberta, nc,se Montana and n
Wyoming s, e of Cascade and coast ranges, to int. s Calif., n Baja Calif.,
s Nevada, n Arizona and n New Mexico and e to nw Nebraska and se s Dakota.
Winters s to c Mexico.
Carpodacus mexicanus HOUSE FINCH. Open woodland, farmlands,
open country, arid scrub, pine-oak, savanna, towns. Lowlands to mts.
from sw,sc British Columbia, n Idaho, w Montana, nc,se Wyoming, w Nebraska
and wc Kansas s to s Baja Calif., incl. Channel Is. off s Calif and is.
off Baja Calif., c Sonora, Mexican highlands to Oaxaca and wc Vera Cruz
and e to San Luis Potosí, sw Tamaulipas, Nuevo León and w,sc
Texas; Guadalupe I., off s Baja Calif. Introduced in the Hawaiian
Is. and e U.S. and from there populations have spread n,w,s, now occurring
from se Canada s to Gulf States and n Florida and w to n Dakota and e Great
Carpodacus pulcherrimus BEAUTIFUL ROSEFINCH. Open country
with bushes, scrub, stony slopes, alpine forest. Himalayas, 3050-4600
m of Mongolia, nc,sw China, n Pakistan, n India, s Tibet e to Arunachal
Pradesh and Bhutan.
Carpodacus eos PINK-RUMPED ROSEFINCH. Open country with
bushes, scrub, stony slopes, alpine meadows. Himalayas, 3900-4900
m of c,cs China and se Tibet.
Carpodacus rodochrous PINK-BROWED ROSEFINCH. Undergrowth
of open fir, birch forest, bushes, edge. Himalayas, 2250-4600 m,
of n India, Kashmir and s Tibet. Winters to lower elevations.
Carpodacus vinaceus VINACEOUS ROSEFINCH. Conifers and mixed
woodland in thickets. Mts., 1900-3400 m, in Himalayas of c,w China,
Taiwan and n Burma.
Carpodacus edwardsii DARK-RUMPED ROSEFINCH. Thickets in
alpine meadows and coniferous forest, bamboo. Himalayas, 30050-4000
m, of ne India, Nepal, se Tibet and c China.
Carpodacus synoicus PALE ROSEFINCH. Arid, bare rocky areas
with sparse vegetation. Locally in lowlands and mts. to 3350 m of
Near East, from w Jordan and e Israel s to Sinai Pen., Dead Sea and extreme
nw Saudi Arabia, nc Afghanistan and w,c China.
Carpodacus roseus PALLAS'S ROSEFINCH. Thickets in open
coniferous forest, birch forest near timberline. Sw,c,e Siberia and
Sakhalin I., and n Mongolia. Winters s to nc,ne China, Korea and
Carpodacus trifasciatus THREE-BANDED ROSEFINCH. Thickets
in coniferous forest. Himalayas, 2100-3050 m, of w China. Winters
s to Tibet.
Carpodacus rodopeplus SPOT-WINGED ROSEFINCH. Thickets in
and near coniferous or birch forest. Himalayas, 3000-4600 m, of n
India; sc,sw China.
Carpodacus thura WHITE-BROWED ROSEFINCH. Undergrowth of
coniferous forest, scrub. Himalayas, 2400-4600 m of c China, n Pakistan,
n India, Kashmir e to Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh and se Tibet.
Winters to lower elevations.
Carpodacus rhodochlamys RED-MANTLED ROSEFINCH. Thickets
and brush in alpine zone on rocky slopes. Himalayas, 1800-4900 m,
of sw Siberia, e Kazakhstan s to Tadzhikistan, w,n Mongolia and w China;
n Afghanistan in Pamir Mts., n Pakistan, nw India and Kashmir. Winters
to lower elevations.
Carpodacus rubicilloides STREAKED ROSEFINCH. Thickets, bushes,
above timberline. Locally in Himalayas, 3600-5200 m, of nw India,
Bhutan, se Tibet and c China. Winters to lower elevations.
Carpodacus rubicilla GREAT ROSEFINCH. Open, alpine country,
bushes, rocky areas. Locally in mts., 2700-5200m, of extreme s Russia
in Caucasus Mts., Tadzhikistan, Kirghiz steppes, sw Siberia, e Afghanistan
in Pamir Mts., n Pakistan, n India, Kashmir, Nepal, Tibet and w,nc China.
Winters to lower elevations.
Carpodacus puniceus RED-FRONTED ROSEFINCH. Rocky alpine
areas with sparse, low vegetation. Himalayas, 3600-5200 m, of e Turkestan,
e Kazakhstan, ne Afghanistan in Pamir Mts., n Pakistan, n India, Kashmir,
se Tibet and w,c China. Winters to lower elevations.
Carpodacus roborowskii TIBETAN ROSEFINCH. Open alpine country.
Himalayas, 4500-5100 m, of wc China.
*Chaunoproctus ferreorostris BONIN GROSBEAK. Forest.
Extinct, probably ca. 1890; formerly in the Bonin Is. on Peel I.
Affinities uncertain, but the cranium is typically cardueline.
Pinicola enucleator PINE GROSBEAK. Open coniferous forest,
edge. N. Scandinavia e across n Russia and n Siberia to Kamchatka
and s to s Siberia and e to Sakhalin I., n Mongolia, n Japan in mts. of
Hokkaido and Kuril Is.; from w,c Alaska, n Yukon, nw,c Makenzie and n Manitoba
e across n Canada to n Labrador and Newfoundland and s to s Alaska, British
Columbia, c California to s Sierra Nevada, extreme wc Nevada, n,ec Arizona,
n New Mexico and, e of Rockies to n Alberta, n Saskatchewan, c Manitoba,
se Canada, ne New England and Nova Scotia.
Pinicola subhimachalus CRIMSON-BROWED FINCH. Forest, thickets,
scrub. Himalayas, 2900-4300 m, of n,e India, c Nepal e to se Tibet,
sw China and ne Burma. Winters to lower elevations.
Haematospiza sipahi SCARLET FINCH. Open forest, edge, farmlands.
Himalayas, 2050-3350 m, of n,e India, c Nepal, e to sw China, w,n Burma,
nw Thailand, n Laos and n Vietnam. Winters to lower elevations.
Loxia pytyopsittacus PARROT CROSSBILL. Coniferous forest,
especially pines. England, nc Norway, s,e Sweden and Finland e to
n Russia and s to Estonia and Denmark, Poland and e Germany. Winters sw
to British Isles and n cont. Europe. Nomadic.
Loxia scotica SCOTTISH CROSSBILL. Coniferous and mixed
forest, mostly pine. N Scotland. Often considered conspecific with
L. curvirostra but is a vocally distinctive pinecone specialist.
Loxia curvirostra RED CROSSBILL. Coniferous forests
C,s British Isles in England, Ireland and s Scotland, and n Scandinavia
e across n Russia and c Siberia to Sea of Okhotsk and s locally to n Algeria
and Tunisia, n Mediterranean region, incl. Balearic is., Corsica, Sardinia
and Cyprus, Balkans, Turkey, s Russia in Crimea and Caucasus Mts., e Kazakhstan
and L. Balkhash area, n Mongolia, w,c,ne China, in Himalayas, 2700-4500
m, n Pakistan, n India, Kashmir, se Tibet, Japan and Kuril Is.; s Vietnam;
n Philippines on nw Luzon; from sc,se Alaska, w to base of Alaska Pen.,
and Kodiak I., s Yukon, s Mackenzie, n Alberta, nw,c Saskatchewan and c
Manitoba e across s Canada to Nova Scotia and Newfoundland and s in mts.
to s Calif., n Baja Calif., s Nevada, c,se Arizona and New Mexico, through
mts. above 1500 m of Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras to nc Nicaragua,
in Great Plains region to w Texas, nw Nebraska, sc Iowa, c Minnesota, n
Wisconsin, c,se Michigan, Pennsylvania and in Appalachians to e Tennessee
and w N. Carolina; lowland pine savanna of Belize, e Honduras and ne Nicaragua.
Wanders widely in winter s to Near East, c Russia, c China and se U.S.
Groth (1993. Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool. Vol. 127) studied the "morphology,
vocalizations and allozymes among nomadic sibling species in the North
American Red Crossbill complex." He proposed a system with eight
"types" and proposes (pers. comm.) to add a ninth and to call each a "full
species". The application of names is not yet final, but Groth's
main conclusion is that "L. curvirostra is a group of sibling species,
and the potential for gene flow derived from high vagility has not homogenized
morphology in the complex because the different forms are reproductively
isolated." There are eight distinctive vocalizations corresponding
to morphologically distinctive forms. Crossbills with different bill
sizes are generally associated with different conifer species. There
are apparently two sibling species with different morphology and vocalizations
that are presently sympatric in s Appalachian Mts. "The overall pattern
in the complex showing smaller-bodied birds in the northern part of the
range is explained not as true clinal variation, but instead as a reflection
of different frequencies of sibling species over geography. Four
of the forms are known to range from the western Rocky Mountains east to
Appalachia and the Atlantic coastal region. At least six forms occur
in the Pacific Northwest, where conifer diversity is great and crossbills
are common members of the local avifauna."
Benkman (1993. Ecol. Monogr. 67:305-325) discussed the association of
bill and call types with specific conifers. Knox (1992. Biol. J.
Linn. Soc. 47:325-335) proposed the term "pseudospecies" for the call types.
The crossbills are one of the most complex assemblages of avian "species"
and these studies may be only a beginning, not the end of the story.
Loxia leucoptera WHITE-WINGED CROSSBILL. Coniferous forest,
esp. spruce, fir and larch, edge, mixed woodland. Locally from Scandinavia
and nw,c Russia e across c Siberia to Yakutia and s to s Siberia and, probably,
Manchuria; from w,c Alaska, n Yukon, n,ec Mackenzie and n Saskatchewan
e across n Canada to nc Labrador and Newfoundland and s to s Alaska, w
to base of Alaska Pen. and Kodiak I., Washington, ne Oregon, sporadically
s to c Utah and nc New Mexico, c,sw Alberta, c Saskatchewan, n Minnesota,
n Wisconsin, s Canada and n New England; mts. of Hispaniola. Wanders
widely in winter s to c Europe, Japan and c U.S. Nomadic.
Pyrrhula nipalensis BROWN BULLFINCH. Forest, edge.
Mts., 1350-3700 m, in Himalayas of n Pakistan, n,e India, Kashmir, se Tibet,
s China, w,n Burma, s Taiwan, n Vietnam and Malaya. Winters to lower
Pyrrhula leucogenis WHITE-CHEEKED BULLFINCH. Forest, edge.
Mts. above 1250 m of Philippines on nw Luzon and Mindanao.
Pyrrhula aurantiaca ORANGE BULLFINCH. Forest, edge.
Himalayas, 1500-3900 m, of n Pakistan and extreme nw India and Kashmir.
Winters to lower elevations.
Pyrrhula erythrocephala RED-HEADED BULLFINCH. Forest, clearings,
riparian woodland. Himalayas, 2400-4200 m of n Pakistan, n India,
Kashmir e to Bhutan and se Tibet. Winters to lower elevations.
Pyrrhula erythaca GREY-HEADED BULLFINCH. Forest, scrub..
Mts., 1800-4000 m, in Himalayas of ne India, Bhutan, se Tibet, n Burma,
c China and Taiwan. Winters to lower elevations.
Pyrrhula pyrrhula EURASIAN BULLFINCH. Coniferous and mixed
forest, woodland, farmlands.
P. p. pyrrhula, P.p. cineracea and P. p. griseiventris have been recognized
as separate species by Stepanyan (1990. Conspectus of the ornithological
fauna of the U.S.S.R.).
P. p. pyrrhula. From nw Norway e through n,c Russia and
Siberia to Kamchatka, the Sea of Okhotsk and n Kuril Is. and s to n Spain,
s France, Italy, Balkans, n Turkey, nw Iran, extreme s Russia in Caucasus
P. p. cineracea. S Siberia from Altai and Sayan Mts. e
to Lake Baikal and Transbaicalia, n Mongolia and probably Manchuria in
P. p. griseiventris. C,s Kuril Is, se Siberia, Sakhalin
I. and Japan on Hokkaido and c Honshu.
P. p. murina. Azores on São Miguel, where recently
found after being thought extinct.
Coccothraustes coccothraustes HAWFINCH. Deciduous and mixed
woodland, farmlands, scrub. From British Isles and s Scandinavia
e across c Russia and s Siberia to Amurland, Ussuriland, Sakhalin I. and
Kamchatka and s to nw Africa, from Morocco e to Tunisia, n Mediterranean
region, incl. Corsica and Sardinia, nw Turkey, n Iran, Caucasus, Transcaucasus
and n Caspian Sea area, n Mongolia, Manchuria, n Japan on Hokkaido and
n Honshu and Kuril Is.; Kirghiz steppes, e Kazakhstan, Tadzhikistan, n
Afghanistan in Pamir Mts., n Pakistan.
Eophona migratoria YELLOW-BILLED GROSBEAK. Forest, bamboo,
farmlands. Se Siberia, n Korea and c,e China.
Eophona personata JAPANESE GROSBEAK. Open forest, farmlands,
bamboo. Se Siberia, ne,ce China and n Japan, from Hokkaido s to c
Mycerobas icterioides BLACK-AND-YELLOW GROSBEAK. Forest,
farmlands, towns. Himalayas, 1800-3050 m, of ne Afghanistan, n Pakistan
and nw India, Kashmir and c Nepal. Winters to lower elevations.
Mycerobas affinis COLLARED GROSBEAK. Forest. Himalayas,
2700-4300 m of n Pakistan, n India, se Tibet, ne Burma and c China.
Winters to lower elevations.
Mycerobas melanozanthos SPOT-WINGED GROSBEAK. Forest.
Himalayas, 2400-3650 m, of n Pakistan, n India, Kashmir, se Tibet, n Burma,
sw China and nw Thailand. Winters to lower elevations.
Mycerobas carnipes WHITE-WINGED GROSBEAK. Forest.
Mts., 2400-4600 m of ne Iran, c,n,e Afghanistan, Transcaspia, Tadzhikistan,
e Turkestan, n Pakistan, n India, Kashmir, se Tibet, ne Burma and c China.
Winters to lower elevations.
Hesperiphona vespertina EVENING GROSBEAK Coniferous and
mixed woodland, second growth, towns. Sw, nc British Columbia, n
Alberta and c Saskatchewan e across s Canada to New Brunswick and Nova
Scotia and s to c Calif., wc,e Nevada, c,se Arizona, s New Mexico, in high
mts. of Mexico to Michoacán, México, Puebla and wc Veracruz
and e to nc,ne Minnesota, n Michigan, n New York and Massachusetts.
Winters irregularly s to s U.S.
Hesperiphona abeillei HOODED GROSBEAK. Humid forest, edge,
pine-oak. Locally in mts. of Mexico in Sinaloa, s Chihuahua, Durango,
e San Luis Potosí and sw Tamaulipas and from Michoacán, México,
Morelos, Puebla and w Veracruz s through Guerrero, Oaxaca and Chiapas to
Guatemala and El Salvador.
Pyrrhoplectes epauletta GOLD-NAPED FINCH. Forest undergrowth,
thickets, rhododendron, bamboo. Himalayas, 2700-4000 m, of n India,
se Tibet, ne Burma and sw China. Affinities uncertain, but the cranium
is typically cardueline.
Tribe DREPANIDINI: Hawaiian
Honeycreepers. This group has long been recognized taxonomically,
but its exact relationships have been uncertain. Several morphological
traits indicate their relationship to the cardueline finches and DNA hybridization
comparisons support this association. More than a dozen extinct species,
some with bill types not seen in the species that survived to the late
1800's and beyond, have been described from subfossils by James and Olson
(1992. A.O.U. Monogr. No. 46). These authors examined all known specimens
but failed to find any of these new species among them; their work indicates
that the known Hawaiian honeycreepers are only a remnant of the presettlement
avifauna of the Hawaiian archipelago.
Telespiza ultima NIHOA FINCH. Rock outcroppings, shrub covered
slopes. Nw Hawaiian Is. on Nihoa I. Intro. French Frigate Shoals.
Sometimes considered conspecific with T. cantans.
Telespiza cantans LAYSAN FINCH. Scaevola thickets, bunch
grass, low bushy areas. W Hawaiian Is. on Laysan I. Intro. Midway
I., but extirpated; Pearl and Hermes Reef.
Psittirostra psittacea OU. Humid forest. Mts. of
Hawaiian Is. on Kauai, Hawaii, formerly Oahu, Molokai, Lanai and Maui.
*Dysmorodrepanis munroi LANAI HOOKBILL. Forest. Extinct;
known only from a single specimen taken in 1913 on Lanai in the e Hawaiian
Loxioides bailleui PALILA. Dry mamane-naio forest.
Mts., Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa on the island of Hawaii.
*Rhodacanthis flaviceps LESSER KOA-FINCH. Humid forest,
primarily koa. Extinct; last collected in 1891; formerly in mts.
of e Hawaiian Is. in upper Kona region of Hawaii.
*Rhodacanthis palmeri GREATER KOA-FINCH. Humid forest,
primarily koa. Extinct; last collected in 1896; formerly in mts.
of e Hawaiian Is. in upper Kona region of Hawaii.
*Chloridops kona KONA GROSBEAK. Trees, especially naio,
on lava flows. Extinct; last seen 1894; formerly in mts. of e Hawaiian
Is. in upper Kona region, 1000-1800 m, of Hawaii.
Pseudonestor xanthophrys MAUI PARROTBILL. Native ohia rainforest.
Mts. of e Hawaiian Is. on slopes of Haleakala on Maui.
Viridonia stejnegeri KAUAI AMAKIHI. Mt. koa and ohia forest.
Mts. of e Hawaiian Is. on Kauai.
The Amakihis are sometimes placed in Loxops or Hemignathus. Under
Hemignathus, Johnson, et al. (1989. Condor 91:379-396) reported allozyme
differences between stejnegeri and virens. Also under Hemignathus,
Tarr and Fleischer (1993. Auk 110:825-831) studied mtDNA variation to determine
the evolutionary relationships in the Amakihi complex. They found
two distinct lineages: the virens-wilsoni lineage and the chloris-stejnegeri-parvus
group. They suggested species status for H. v. chloris and H. v.
stejnegeri. The latter, as Viridonia stejnegeri, is listed above
and V. chloris is included below in V. virens. If their results are
adopted the species of Viridonia should be placed in Hemignathus and H.
chloris added to the list of species. H. wilsoni becomes H. virens
wilsoni which occurs only on Maui. H. v. virens occurs on Hawaii;
H. chloris occurs on Oahu; H. stejnegeri and H. parvus on Kauai.
There are additional complications; if the Amakihis are placed in Hemignathus,
the Kauai form has to be called H. kauaiensis, because stejnegeri is the
long-neglected name for the Kauai Akialoa (Pratt 1989. Elepaio 49:12-13).
Olson and James (1988. Elepaio 48:13-14) also commented on these questions.
The Amakihis have also been placed in Loxops, which adds to the nomenclatural
problems. Note: These comments do not describe all of the problems
nor do they settle any of the them!
Viridonia virens COMMON AMAKIHI. Humid ohia forest, dry
mamane-naio forest, subalpine scrub.
The two subspecies groups may be separate species.
V. v. virens. Mts. of e Hawaiian Is. on Molokai, Maui,
Hawaii and formerly on Lanai.
V. v. chloris. Mts. of Oahu.
Viridonia parva ANIANIAU. Humid forest, primarily ohia.
Mts. of e Hawaiian Is. on Kauai.
*Viridonia sagittirostris GREATER AMAKIHI. Humid forest,
especially ohia. Extinct; not reported since 1900; formerly in mts.
of e Hawaiian Is. in Hamakua region of Hawaii.
*Hemignathus obscurus AKIALOA. Humid forest, especially ohia.
H. D. Pratt (pers. comm.) favors recognition as separate species.
H. o. obscurus. Hawaii, last reported in 1940.
H. o. ellisianus. Mts. on Kauai, Oahu and Lanai.
Last reported in 1967. The form from Kauai known formerly as H. proceras,
KIALOA, is part of this group.
Hemignathus lucidus NUKUPUU. Forest, especially ohia and
koa. Mts. of e Hawaiian Is. on Kauai, Maui, formerly on Oahu
and Hawaii; nearly extinct.
Hemignathus wilsoni AKIAPOLAAU. Forest, especially koa
(Acacia koa), alani (Melicope sp.) or mamane-naio, brushy areas.
Mts. of the Island of Hawaii in the e Hawaiian Is. This endangered
species is best known for its unusual beak in which the mandible is a straight,
stout structure used like an awl to peck and the maxilla is a long, slender
Under the name Hemignathus munroi, Pratt, et al. (1994. Wilson Bull.
106:421-430) reported on plumage characters for identifying the sex and
age of individuals. If the amakihis are placed in Hemignathus, this
species becomes Hemignathus munroi (H. D. Pratt, pers. comm.).
Oreomystis bairdi AKIKIKI or KAUAI CREEPER. Humid forest,
especially ohia. Mts. of e Hawaiian Is. on Kauai. Pratt (1992.
Condor 94:836-846) discussed the systematics of this and the members of
the following genus, all of which formerly were considered races of Paroreomyza
Oreomystis mana HAWAII CREEPER. Humid forest, especially
koa-ohia. Mts. of e Hawaiian Is. on Hawaii. Sometimes considered
conspecific with O. bairdi.
Paroreomyza montana MAUI ALAUAHIO or MAUI CREEPER. Humid
forest, brushy areas, subalpine scrub. Mts. of e Hawaiian Is. on
Maui; formerly on e Hawaiian I. of Lanai where it has not been reported
since 1937. This and the following two species are sometimes consideed
*Paroreomyza flammea KAKAWAHIE or MOLOKAI CREEPER. Humid
forest. Mts. of e Hawaiian Is. on Molokai; possibly extinct; last
Paroreomyza maculata OAHU ALAUAHIO or OAHU CREEPER. Humid
forest. Mts. of e Hawaiian Is. on Oahu; nearly extinct.
Loxops caeruleirostris AKEKEE. Forest, primarily ohia.
Mts. of e Hawaiian Is. on Kauai.
Loxops coccineus AKEPA. Forest, primarily ohia-koa.
Mts. of e Hawaiian Is. formerly on Oahu, nearly extinct on Maui and Hawaii.
*Ciridops anna ULA-AI-HAWANE. Forest, especially loulu
palm, ohia. Extinct; last collected in the early 1890's; formerly
resident in the Kona and Hilo districts and the Kohala mts. on Hawaii.
Vestiaria coccinea IIWI. Forest, especially ohia and mamane.
Formerly in lowlands and now mts. of e Hawaiian Is. on Kauai, Oahu, Molokai,
Maui, Hawaii and formerly on Lanai. Nearly extinct on Oahu and Molokai.
*Drepanis pacifica HAWAII MAMO. Forest, especially ohia.
Extinct; last recorded 1898; formerly resident in mts. of Hawaii.
*Drepanis funerea BLACK MAMO. Understory, especially lobelioids,
of humid forest. Extinct; last recorded 1907; formerly in mts. of
e Hawaiian Is. on Molokai.
Palmeria dolei AKOHEKOHE. Humid forest, especially ohia.
Mts. of e Hawaiian Is. on Maui and formerly on Molokai.
Himatione sanguinea APAPANE. Native forest, primarily ohia-koa,
and mixed native,exotic forest; brush, shrubs. Mts. of e Hawaiian
Is. from Kauai e to Hawaii. Formerly on Laysan Island in bunch-grass;
Melamprosops phaeosoma POO-ULI. Humid forest, primarily
ohia. Mts. of e Hawaiian Is. on Haleakala on Maui. Discovered
in 1973, now nearly extinct. Pratt (1992. Condor 94:172-180) suggests
that Melamprosops is not a drepanidine.
Subfamily EMBERIZINAE: Buntings,
Longspurs, New World sparrows, Juncos, Towhees, etc.
Urocynchramus pylzowi PINK-TAILED BUNTING. Thickets, scrub,
usually near water. Mts., 3050-5000 m, of w China. Relationships
uncertain; tentatively placed in the emberizines, but there is disagreement;
it is frequently considered a cardueline and has been thought to be a rosefinch
related to Uragus.
Melophus lathami CRESTED BUNTING. Open plains, rice paddies,
hilly and often rocky areas. Lowlands and mts. to 2400 m in Himalayas
of n Pakistan, n,c India, Kashmir, se Tibet, Bangladesh, Burma, s China,
nw Thailand, n Laos, n Vietnam. Winters to lower elevations.
Latoucheornis siemsseni SLATY BUNTING. Open areas.
Locally in mts. of c China. Winters to e,s China.
Emberiza citrinella YELLOWHAMMER. Grassland, bushes, farmland.
British Isles and Scandinavia e across nw,c Russia and w Siberia to about
long. 100° E. and s to s Europe in n Mediterranean region, sw Russia
in n Black Sea region and Caucasus, w,n Iran and extreme sw Siberia in
Sayan Mts. Hybridizes with E. leucocephalos in w Siberia; they
are sometimes considered conspecific.
Emberiza leucocephalos PINE BUNTING. Open woodland, forest
edge, bushes, often near water. Siberia, from nc Ural Mts., Altai
and Sayan Mts. e to Sea of Okhotsk and Sakhalin I. s to Mongolia and w,ne
Emberiza stewarti CHESTNUT-BREASTED BUNTING. Dry, barren
stony hillsides with sparse grass and bushes. Himalayan foothills,
2000-3600 m, of Turkestan, Kirghiz steppes, nc,ne,e Afghanistan, n Pakistan
s to n Baluchistan, nw India and Kashmir.
Emberiza cirlus CIRL BUNTING. Bushes in open country, woodland
edge. S British Isles, France, sw Germany and Austria s to nw Africa,
from Morocco e to Tunisia, n Mediterranean region, incl. most is., w,s
Balkans, Greece and w,n Turkey.
Emberiza koslowi TIBETAN BUNTING. Stony, arid slopes, above
timberline, with scattered bushes and dwarf junipers. Himalayas above
3600 m of wc China.
Emberiza cia ROCK BUNTING. Open ground with sparse vegetation,
scrub, especially in rocky areas. Locally in hills and mts. of n
Mediterranean region n to c France, Germany and Balkans, incl. Sardinia,
Sicily and Cyprus and nw Africa from Morocco e to Tunisia, e across Turkey,
Near East, Iran and from Transcaspia e to Turkestan and n to e Kazakhstan,
to sw Siberia, Afghanistan, n Pakistan, n India from Kashmir e to Nepal,
w China and sw Tibet.
Emberiza godlewskii GODLEWSKI'S BUNTING. Open ground with
sparse vegetation, scrub,especially in rocky areas. Hills and mts.
to 4200 m of s Siberia, Mongolia, c,n China, se Tibet and ne India in Arunachal
Pradesh. Often treated as conspecific with E. cia.
Emberiza cioides MEADOW BUNTING. Grassy, scrubby, rocky
or barren hillsides, thickets, towns. Hills, 1200-2000 m of Kirghiz
steppes, s Siberia, Sakhalin I. and s Kuril Is. s to China, Korea and Japan.
Emberiza jankowskii RUFOUS-BACKED BUNTING. Open areas with
sparse grass, weeds and bushes. Ne China, extreme se Siberia and
extreme ne Korea. Winters in ec China.
Emberiza buchanani GREY-NECKED BUNTING. Barren, stony ground,
arid slopes with sparse vegetation. E Turkey, Iran,extreme s Russia
in Transcaucasus, n Aral Sea area and from Transcaspia e to Turkestan and
n to e Kazakhstan, sw Siberia, ne Afghanistan, n Pakistan in n Baluchistan,
w China and nw Mongolia. Winters in w,c India.
Emberiza cineracea CINEREOUS BUNTING. Bushes on stony arid
slopes. Locally in w,se Turkey and cw Iran. Winters s to s
Arabia and extreme ne Africa.
Emberiza hortulana ORTOLAN BUNTING. Open country with scattered
bushes, scrub, towns, farmlands, woodland edge. From cont. Europe,
Scandinavia and w,s Russia s to n Mediterranean region, incl. Crete, Turkey,
n Iran, nw Afghanistan, Transcaspia, w Caspian Sea e to n Kirghiz steppes
and sw Siberia.
Emberiza caesia CRETZSCHMAR'S BUNTING. Barren and stony
slopes with sparse, scrubby vegetation. Se Europe w to c Yugoslavia,
Greece, Crete, w,s Turkey, Cyprus, Near East s to Israel.
Emberiza striolata HOUSE BUNTING. Desert, stony and scrubby
hillsides, around human habitation. S in Sahara region to s Mauritania,
s Mali, c,se Niger, Chad, wc Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia
and nw Kenya; e through Israel, Arabia, s Iran, s Afghanistan and c,s Pakistan
to n,c India.
Emberiza impetuani LARK-LIKE BUNTING. Dry scrub and semi-desert.
Namibia, Botswana and sw Zimbabwe to S. Africa. Wanders n to coastal
Angola and c Congo region.
Emberiza tahapisi CINNAMON-BREASTED BUNTING. Dry, rocky
areas, open country, scattered bushes. S Mauritania, Senegambia,
Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, s Mali,
Burkina Faso, s Niger, Cameroon, Cent. Afr. Republic, c Chad and c Sudan
to Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, nw Somalia, Socotra I.and s Arabia; s in
West Africa in Zaire, Gabon, Congo, and Angola; East Africa in Rwanda,
Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe and s in Mozambique,
Botswana, Namibia and South Africa.
Emberiza socotrana SOCOTRA BUNTING. Dry, open country.
Mts. above 1200 m of Socotra I.
Emberiza capensis CAPE BUNTING. Rocky slopes, dry sandy
scrub. Sw Angola, e Zambia, c Malawi, s Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Mozambique,
Botswana, Namibia and South Africa.
Emberiza tristrami TRISTRAM'S BUNTING. Dense undergrowth
in coniferous forest. Ne China and se Siberia.
Emberiza fucata CHESTNUT-EARED BUNTING. Bushes and grass
clumps on barren or stony hillsides, brushland, pastures. Mts. to
2750 m from s Siberia, Korea, s Kuril Is. and Japan s through ne Mongolia
and c,e,s China to Himalayas, 1650-2700 m of n Pakistan, n India, Kashmir
and w Nepal.
Emberiza pusilla LITTLE BUNTING. Birch and willow scrub,
undergrowth in taiga. From n Scandinavia e across n Russia and n,c
Emberiza chrysophrys YELLOW-BROWED BUNTING. Thickets in
taiga. C Siberia in L. Baikal region and c Yakutia.
Emberiza rustica RUSTIC BUNTING. Bushes and wet grassy areas in
taiga, undergrowth of mixed woodland, thickets along streams. From
n Sweden and n,c Finland e across n,c Russia and n,c Siberia to Anadyrland
and Kamchatka and s to s Siberia in Altai, Tuva, n,w L. Baikal region to
Sea of Okhotsk and n Sakhalin I.
Emberiza elegans YELLOW-THROATED BUNTING. Thickets and
bushes, grassy slopes, mixed forest edge. Se Siberia, ne,c,sw China
and n Korea.
Emberiza aureola YELLOW-BREASTED BUNTING. Willow thickets,
marshy scrub, bushy fields near streams. From c Finland e across
n,c Russia and n,c Siberia to Anadyrland, Kamchatka and Commander Is. and
s to Kirghiz steppes, n Mongolia, Manchuria, n Korea, n Japan and Kuril
Emberiza rutila CHESTNUT BUNTING. Swampy areas, stubble
fields, bushes, woodland edge. Se Siberia, n Mongolia and ne China.
Emberiza flaviventris AFRICAN GOLDEN-BREASTED BUNTING.
Open woodland, scrub, towns. S Mauritania, s Mali, Niger, Senegambia,
Benin, Burkina Faso, n Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Cent. Afr. Republic, e
to Sudan, Ethiopia and Eritrea; s in Congo, Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda,
Kenya, Tanzania, Angola, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, c Namibia, Botswana,
Zimbabwe and s S. Africa.
Emberiza poliopleura SOMALI GOLDEN-BREASTED BUNTING. Dry
thorn scrub. Se Sudan, Ethiopia and Somalia s to ne Uganda, n,e Kenya
and ne Tanzania.
Emberiza affinis BROWN-RUMPED BUNTING. Semi-arid scrub,
farmlands. Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Senegambia, Guinea,
Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, c Cameroon, Cent. Afr. Rep.,
Zaire, s Chad, s Sudan and sw Ethiopia; s to nw Congo and n Uganda; formerly
w Kenya. This species has been called "Emberiza forbesi" in some
publications, but affinis seems to have priority, fide Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire
(1993, p. 379).
Emberiza cabanisi CABANIS'S BUNTING. Bush country, open
woodland, savanna. Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo,
Nigeria, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, C. African Rep., Chad, n,ne Zaire, s Sudan,
Rwanda, w Uganda, Gabon, Congo, sw,cs Zaire and c,ne Angola; se Zaire,
Zambia, Tanzania and Malawi, s to n,e Zimbabwe and s,se Mozambique.
Emberiza melanocephala BLACK-HEADED BUNTING. Scrubby plains,
undergrowth of open woodland, orchards, towns. From se Europe w to
se Italy, Yugoslavia, Greece, s Bulgaria and s Romania, incl. Crete and
Cyprus, e through Turkey, Near East and n Iraq to w,s Iran and n to s Russia
in region between Black and Caspian Seas, incl. Caucasus and Transcaucasus.
Emberiza bruniceps RED-HEADED BUNTING. Open scrub, thickets,
reedbeds, bushes, weedy areas, steppes, desert regions, often near water.
Mts., 1500-2450 m of se Russia, Transcaspia to Kirghiz steppes, sw Siberia,
w China, ne Iran, Afghanistan and n Pakistan, in n Baluchistan and Punjab.
Emberiza sulphurata YELLOW BUNTING. Shrubby clearings, low
second growth.. Hills and mts.., 600-1200 m of c Japan in c Honshu.
Emberiza spodocephala BLACK-FACED BUNTING. Bushes and thickets
in open regions, fields, open woodland, forest edge, towns. From
c,s Siberia, e to Sakhalin I. and n to Yakutia s to ne,c China, n Korea,
n Japan, to c Honshu and s Kuril Is.
Emberiza variabilis GREY BUNTING. Thickets, bamboo, dense
woodland undergrowth. Se Siberia to s Kamchatka and Sakhalin I.,
Kuril Is. and, possibly, in n Japan.
Emberiza pallasi PALLAS'S BUNTING. Dwarf birches, riverine
bushes and thickets, reedbeds. Mts. to 3050 m of Siberia s to w,ne
China, n Tibet and Manchuria; c Mongolia.
Emberiza schoeniclus REED BUNTING. Reedbeds, rushes, riparian
thickets. From British Isles and n Scandinavia e across n Russia
and w Siberia to Lena R. and Transbaicalia and s to s Europe, s Russia,
se Siberia, Sakhalin I. and Kamchatka, ne Mongolia, Manchuria, Kuril Is.
and n Japan on Hokkaido; nw Africa in n Morocco, n Mediterranean region,
incl. Balearic Is., Corsica, Sardinia and Sicily, Balkans, Turkey, Syria,
w Iran and sw Russia in Black Sea region, w Caspian Sea area, Caucasus
and Transcaucasus; n Afghanistan., s Russia, w to Caspian Sea, sw Siberia,
w China and w Mongolia.
Emberiza yessoensis OCHRE-RUMPED BUNTING. Reedbeds, shrubby
areas in marshland. Ne China, se Siberia, s Kuril Is. and Japan on
Hokkaido and Honshu.
Emberiza calandra CORN BUNTING. Grasslands, bushes, open
scrub, farmlands. From British Isles, s Sweden, cont. Europe, Lithuania
and sw Russia s to Canary Is., nw Africa, from Morocco e to Libya, n Mediterranean
region, incl. Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily and Cyprus and e through Turkey,
Syria, n Iraq, Iran, n Afghanistan, s Russia in Black Sea area, Caucasus
and Transcaucasus, from Transcaspia and Aral Sea e to Tadzhikistan and
e Turkestan and extreme w China.
Voous (1977. Ibis 119:398) placed the Corn Bunting in Miliaria, which
was followed by Sibley and Monroe (1990).
Calcarius mccownii MCCOWN'S LONGSPUR. Sparse short-grass
plains, stubble fields, open bare ground. From se Alberta, s Saskatchewan,
nc N. Dakota and sw Minnesota s to se Wyoming, ne Colorado, nw Nebraska
and c N. Dakota.
Calcarius lapponicus LAPLAND LONGSPUR. Wet meadows, grassy
tussocks, scrub in tundra. From Greenland and n Scandinavia e across
n Russia, incl. Novaya Zemlya and n Siberia incl. New Siberian and Wrangel
is., to Chukotski Pen., and s through Anadyrland to Kamchatka and Commander
Is.; from w,n Alaska, n Yukon and Banks, Prince Patrick, Melville
and n Ellesmere is. s to is. in Bering Sea, Aleutians, sc Alaska, incl.
Middleton I., n Mackenzie, s Keewatin, ne Manitoba, n Ontariao, n Quebec,
Calcarius pictus SMITH'S LONGSPUR. Dry grassy tundra, in
winter fields and short grasslands. Ec Alaska and nw British Columbia;
from n Alaska, w to Brooks Range, e across n Yukon and n,ec Mackenzie to
s Keewatin, ne Manitoba and extreme n Ontario.
Calcarius ornatus CHESTNUT-COLLARED LONGSPUR. Short grass
plains and prairies. From s Alberta, s Saskatchewan and sw Manitoba
s, e of Rockies, to ne Colorado, w Kansas, nc Nebraska and w Minnesota.
Plectrophenax nivalis SNOW BUNTING. Arctic rocky shores,
cliffs, dry tundra, around human buildings in Arctic areas. From
Greenland, Spitsbergen, Franz Josef Land, Novaya Zemlya and n Siberia s
to Iceland, n British Isles, n Scandinavia, n Siberia, Kamchatka and Commander
Is.; St. Lawrence Island, n Alaska, n Yukon, nw Mackenzie and Banks, Prince
Patrick, Ellef Ringnes, Axel Heiberg and n Ellesmere is. s to s Alaska,
nw British Columbia, sw,c Yukon,ec Mackenzie, c,se Keewatin, is. in Hudson
Bay, n Quebec and n Labrador.
Plectrophenax hyperboreus MCKAY'S BUNTING. Open rocky ground,
beaches, shores of tundra pools. Alaska on Hall, St. Matthew, St.
Lawrence and St. Paul is. May be conspecific with P. nivalis, but
both are reported to nest on St. Lawrence Island.
Calamospiza melanocorys LARK BUNTING. Plains, prairies,
meadows, sagebrush. S Alberta, s Saskatchewan, sw Manitoba, se N.
Dakota and sw Minnesota s, e of Rockies to e New Mexico, n Texas, w Oklahoma,
e Kansas and nw Missouri and locally w to s Calif., Utah, sw Colorado,
nw New Mexico and w Texas.
Passerella iliaca FOX SPARROW. Forest undergrowth,edge,woodland
thickets, scrub, chaparral, riparian woodland.
R. Zink (1994. Evolution 48:96-111.), based on mitochondrial DNA sequence
comparisons and plumage characters, proposed dividing this species into
four phylogenetic species "depending on the degree of hybridization
tolerated." Vocal differences also may exist, but the mtDNA and plumage
characters also suggest there is, or has been, substantial hybridization
between these four groups, whether treated as species or as subspecies.
The author concludes that the four groups "should be treated as species
that have retained to varying degrees the primitive ability to hybridize."
P. i. iliaca. W,n Alaska, n Yukon, nw,sc Mackenzie,sw Keewatin
and n Manitoba e across n Canada to n Labrador and s to c Alaska, c British
Columbia, c Ontario, s Quebec, nw New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and s Newfoundland.
Winters primarily e of the Rocky Mountains.
P. i. unalaschensis. From Unalaska in the Aleutians s through
s,w Alaska to Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Winters on Pacific
P. i. schistacea. Mts. in c Alberta, c Saskatchewan, c
Manitoba s to e Calif., c Nevada, c Utah and c Colorado. Winters
mainly s and w of breeding range.
P. i. megarhyncha. Mts. of s Oregon, w Nevada and California.
Winters at lower elevations.
Melospiza melodia SONG SPARROW. Brushy, shrubby and deep
grassy areas near water and seacoasts, marshes, bogs, forest edge, thickets,
hedgerows, towns. From s Alaska, incl. Aleutian Is., sc Yukon, n
British Columbia, sc Mackenzie and n Saskatchewan e across c Canada to
sw Newfoundland and s to sc Baja Calif., n Sonora, in Mexican highlands
to Michoacán, México, Tlaxcala and Puebla and to n New Mexico,
ne Kansas, nc Arkansas,s Tennessee, n Alabama, n Georgia and nw and coastal
Geographically variable with numerous subspecies described. There
are four races around San Francisco Bay, 14 in California and 31 over the
entire range of the species. The morphologically most distinct races
are the large, dark birds in the Aleutians. Saltmarsh races around
San Francisco Bay and isolated Mexican populations differ sharply in color
from adjacent populations. Desert populations tend to be pale and
small; those of humid areas darker and larger. However, studies of
mtDNA reveal little geographic patterning and great intrapopulational variation.
Melospiza lincolnii LINCOLN'S SPARROW. Bogs, wet meadows,
riparian thickets. From w,c Alaska, c Yukon, nw,s Mackenzie and n,c
Saskatchewan e across c Canada to c Labrador and Newfoundland and s to
sc,se Alaska, in mts. to c Calif., wc Nevada, ec Arizona and n New Mexico
and e of Rockies to ne Minnesota, n Wisconsin, c Michigan, n New York,
c New England and Nova Scotia.
Melospiza georgiana SWAMP SPARROW. Emergent vegetation
around water, marshes, bogs, wet meadows. From ne,ec British Columbia,
wc,s Mackenzie, n,sc Alberta and s,c Saskatchewan e across c Canada to
s Labrador and Newfoundland and s, e of Rockies to Dakotas, e Nebraska,
n Missouri, n Illinois, n Indiana, c Ohio, se W. Virginia, Maryland and
Zonotrichia capensis RUFOUS-COLLARED SPARROW. Open situations
with scattered bushes, shrubby hillsides, thickets, farmlands, humid forest
edge, open woodland, towns. Mts. to 4000 m of Hispaniola; from Chiapas
s to Honduras; Costa Rica, w Panama; Netherlands Antilles on Aruba and
Curaçao; from Colombia, Venezuela and Guianas s to Tierra del Fuego.
Zonotrichia querula HARRIS'S SPARROW. Woody shrubbery, stunted
trees in conifer-tundra ecotone. From nw,ec Mackenzie and s Keewatin
s to ne Saskatchewan, n Manitoba and nw Ontario.
Zonotrichia albicollis WHITE-THROATED SPARROW. Mixed forest,
edge, bogs, brush, thickets, open woodland. From se Yukon, wc,s Mackenzie
and n,c,se Saskatchewan e across c Canada to s Labrador and Newfoundland
and s to nc N. Dakota, n, ec Minnesota, n Wisconsin, c,se Michigan, n Ohio,
n W. Virginia, n Pennsylvania and n New Jersey.
Jung, et al. (1994. Wilson Bull. 106:189-419) describe the behavior
and parentage of a hybrid White-throated Sparrow x Dark-eyed Junco.
The bird was captured in Maryland in 1991 and studied in captivity for
10 months. It sang a mixed song composed of a junco trill followed
the the White-throat's well-known "peabody" notes. Another song consisted
of 30 notes partly consisting of junco or white-throat notes. Mitochondrial
DNA evidence identified the hybrid's mother as a White-throated Sparrow.
Other hybrids between these two species are known.
Zonotrichia leucophrys WHITE-CROWNED SPARROW. Stunted trees,
shrubs, wet meadows, forest edge, thickets, chaparral, coastal brushland,
towns. From w,n Alaska, n Yukon, n Mackenzie and c Keewatin s to
s Alaska and w to Alaska Pen., s Calif., s Nevada, n,ec Arizona, n New
Mexico and e of Rockies from n Saskatchewan e to n Quebec and n Newfoundland.
Zonotrichia atricapilla GOLDEN-CROWNED SPARROW. Thickets,
shrubbery, dwarf conifers, brushy canyons. Mts. from w,nc Alaska
and sc Yukon s to s Alaska, w to Unimak I. in e Aleutians, s British Columbia,
n Washington and sw Alberta.