Set phrases for opening paragraphs

Set phrases for closing paragraphs

Signature endings

Dear Tom

Dearest Jane

Hi/hello, Karen!

How are you (doing)?

I hope you are fine

What have you been up to?

I haven’t heard from you for ages

It was nice to hear from you

Thank you for your letter

Sorry I haven’t written for so long

It’s taken me ages to reply but…

I’ve been meaning to write back but

Just thought I’d drop you a line

Well, I think that’s about it

Well, that’s all for now

Well, I’d better finish off here

I must go now

Write soon

Waiting for your letter

I look forward to hearing from you

See you soon

Keep in touch

Give my love/regards to everyone



All my love

Best wishes

All the best

Lots of kisses

Take care

Bye for now





Before, before long, when, as soon as, just as, the moment that, while, as, during, in the meantime, immediately, after, afterwards, after that, later, some time later; soon, then, next, in the beginning, at first, in the end, finally, eventually, at last, until, by the time

Concession –


Although, Even though, in spite of, despite the fact that, However, no matter how/what, whatever, but, while, whereas, Nevertheless, Regardless of, Apparently

Result –


So… that, such.. that, therefore, so, otherwise, for this reason, under the circumstances, consequently, as a consequence, as a result

Cause –


Because (of), as, since, due to, owing to


In fact, As a matter of fact, Actually, To tell you the truth, Strangely enough



Listing points

Firstly, In the first place, To begin/start with, On the one hand, Secondly, Thirdly, Finally, Last but not least, One advantage of.. is, One disadvantage of…is

Adding more points

In addition to this, Furthermore, moreover, What is more, also, Apart from this, besides, Another point worth mentioning is, On the other hand, Besides, both… and, A further advantage of…is

Giving an example

For example, such as, particularly, especially, take for instance.


Presenting the other side of the argument

Contrary to what most people believe, As opposed to the above ideas, Some people argue/believe, claim that…, Many people consider,


In fact, As a matter of fact

Expressing result or consequence

Therefore, In this case, For this reason, Consequently, As a result

Summing up

In conclusion, To sum up, All in all, On the whole, All things considered, Taking everything into account

Giving your opinion

In my opinion/view, Personally, From my point of view, I am in favour of, My belief is that , I (strongly) believe, I think, It seems to me that, etc.