M. G. Corsini

 If Odysseus corresponds to Romulus, Dark Age vanishes,  and we need a new chronology


August 9, 2013. All rights reserved


I  was studying to look better inside Atlantis (look in this same site, in Italian) and was concluding that finally Platon was right  telling about the vanishing of it (Italy, with Rome on Capital hill) in the middle of the Mediterranean sea, since, apart the Homeric poems, the Phaistos Disk imported to Crete, the Nuraghi of Sardinia and the cyclopic    walls of  some cities of the Roman Castles, we have lost all reaches, artistic statues and monuments, literature, at least of the more ancient Atlantis (and… all this is still waiting to be discovered somewhere). Here our history (my work of resuscitation apart) begins only from Romulus who did not found Rome, instead built his palace on Palatinus (753 B. C.; he died in 715 B. C.) and begun the monarchy, directing in 749 B. C. the secular games, that is the anniversary of the founding of Rome (Atlantic Rome, on Capitol hill, Italian Campidoglio). My source of news is the great historian Dionysius of Halykarnassos.   On the previous work I reconstructed that Rome with her so called “Philistine” warriors destroyed all Near East punishing Egypt who under Ramses II (1279-1213) made alliance (in 1259 B. C.)  with the enemy Hittite king Hattusilis III (1266-1236). After the Roman   incursion from Merenptah (1212-1202) to Ramses III (1186-1154) the land of Hatti came out  of history  and Egypt did no more occupy a big role in the Middle East. The whole war was recorded emblematically  by all as the “war for the freedom of Troy”.  It is not true that Troy was destroyed, and it is non true it was destroyed by the Greeks. The “Greeks” were we the Italians (Tyrrhenians, Tirreni of Latium, Sardi  of Sardinia and Siculi  of Sicily). It was nearly a civil war, since many Romans were prisoners inside Troy or allied to the Hittites.  It is true on the contrary that Romans/the Achaeans (Odysseus and his horse filled of Roman soldiers) freed  their  (see the story of the Palladium of Athena) city under control of the Hittites    of Muwatallis II (1290-1272).  And the Romans after the war erected a statue to their goddess Athena  on the acropolis of Troy. At this time Romans spoke Greek and was king of Troy Alexander/Paris. Romans were the first people to speak Greek,  a kentum, Western,  like Latin,  not satem, Eastern,  [indo-]european dialect; they imported it in Crete etc., see the Phaistos Disk 1350 B. C. I have deciphered, and Linear B tablets. It is reasonable that the war of Troy  took place in 1200 B. C., between Merenptah (end of the land of Hatti) and Ramses III (decline of Egypt). Hattusa, the capital of the land of Hatti was destroyed and sacked under  Suppiluliumas II (1214-1190), its last king.


Homer, I discovered many years ago (see works about Homer in appendix to my website  in Italian), was the last Roman poet in Greek language, obviously, since we spoke only “Greek”  in the past. Homer wrote the heart of Iliad, the Achilles’ Anger,  for the third king of Rome Tullus Hostilius (673-642) and precisely for the xyz anniversary of the founding of Rome falling in 649 B. C. Before Homer had written  the heart of Odyssey, the Travel of Odysseus, under the kingdom of Numa Pompilius (715-673) the second king of Rome.



I can prove it by the crater of Aristonothos found in the whereabouts of Cere (Cerveteri), a city under control of Rome. It is painted with two scenes, the eye burning  of Polyfemus (see the picture in one of my works on Homer on corsinistoria)  and a sea battle. It is possible that this king committed the poem, and it is also probable that it was committed by a member of the Hostilia gens (enlarged family).  This is the poem of Rome, light of civilization in the world, against outlaws like Polyphemus  or the sea pirates. In fact Odysseus in Greek and Hostus Hostilius (this I found was the real name of Romulus; the both married Ersilia) in Latin have the same etymology (to hate, hostile). Romans begun to speak Latin because of the descent of Sabin peoples from the Appennine mountains to the plane of Tiber, at the time in which the Eastern empire was reducing drastically  because of Roman destruction. Homer in Odyssey  speaks of a mad king and mad people of Iperea/Iperborei/Italy who destroyed themselves (but after having destroyed the enemy). But this do not explain the absence of ancient records of Atlantis, since Rome brought war in the East but it was not the contrary and Nausikaa, the daughter of the Roman  king Alkinoos  stresses that her Land is very apart from  the others in the Near East. Moreover it is well known the strength of the navy and the army of Atlantis and Philistines who in the Bible  have  legions of 3000 men and 300 charts made in iron,   men with a wolf-helmet who carry the standards  of each century; like the Romans made marriages under the form of kidnapping the girls of  Silos as well as of the Sabins. So Platon speaks of a destroying war between Atlantis and the Eastern countries. Tullus Hostilius, while building the Curia, where senators made laws, recovered the remnants of Romulus, hit by a thunder (and ascended to haven as god Quirinus) near the Volcanal (a sacred place of Ephestus/Vulcanus; Atlantic people was primarily known for metallurgy),  and buried there as a “sacred” thing, and,  Tullus, left an inscription in record of this in Latin, the so called Cippo (a parallelepiped block of stone; in my opinion the inscription is nearly complete) of the Forus,  under the Lapis Niger (a black marble, to indicate that the place was not touchable, ominous). In my translation of the Stele of Limnos, with a figure  of Romulus as ancestor with spear and shield, it is written that this Silvius (another name under which Romulus was known) was dead in the town of the Tiber river at 55 years of age. Romulus here is related to Focea    and Limnos, in an area around Troy and under the ancient control of Troy. From this I deduce that Romulus was recorded (in the VI century; in a country of metallurgists; sometime I find in Anatoly to be spoken of Tybareni while I am sure they ought to speak of Tiberini, the people from the Tiber river; the Romans; Greeks are clever and for example our tradition of Italia is transformed in their tradition of Aetolia) for a war he took part in,  the Troy war, obviously!        


We can understand that Tullus Hostilius, third Roman king, was proud of his ancestor Odysseus of the Odysseia family/Hostus Hostilius, that is Romulus, who freed  Troy from the hands of Hittites and Roman traitors or prisoners incapable to resist to the enemy.  The Hostilia gens (enlarged family) was a big one, capable to undertake a war by herself and better with other big families of the aristocracy (Roman senate; the   Fabia gens for example  was exterminated in 3 hundred  people in 477 to defend Rome from the Etruscans of Veii).    But if Romulus (750 circa) is the same of Odysseus (1200 circa) we must conclude that the Troy war was won by the Romans (Tyrrhenians) in 750 B. C. circa. And in 750 B. C. iron is surely in use (I Samuel 13, 19ss!).  The third Roman tribe (Lukeres) was composed by foreigners who entered the sanctuary in a forest  (lucus; pron. lookoos) on Capitol hill and so obtained citizenship,  I think, after a period of military service in the foreign legion who from Pyrgi, Cere, Ostia,  took the sea (Argonauts) to the Levant.


How to explain the so called Hellenic Middle Age, the Dark Age of 4/5 centuries who hit the same Italian history (and the history of Atlantis?).


In the “first world war” against the Hyksos (1070 circa, my new chronology) we conquered all  the Mediterranean sea and the Land around, from Troy to Crete to Egypt, to Syria-Palestine, all. Most of these countries continued to speak their ancient and important languages. In the others the Romans  reached to impose their language. At the end of the “second world war” (750 circa, n. ch.), the Greeks where like the Italians in the Renaissance, who, not capable to create a State,  because of the Pope of Rome,  liked literature and music and culture, while Romans, like France,  England, Spain in the same period had only one thing in mind, to restore the ancient empire of Atlantis, so that literature was thrown apart and Rome preferred ignorant but warrior men. In this time the Greek propaganda  and Latin propaganda had the same goal. The Greek colonisation of the Near East and of  the South of Italy was practically a fake. They were Romans and Roman colonies  who spoke Greek, the ancient Roman language (since the Phaistos Disk and the Linear B tablets in which you can read procuratores, procurators, a word nearer to Latin than Greek).   In the time in which we were secured by our Eastern empire, our Greek speaking colonies could live in complete autonomy and they engaged war against Italy the mother land creating colonies and sacking our holy sanctuary of Pyrgi (Santa Marinella), the port of ours Argonauts. So they took us as a stupid people (and we are!) and while we were starting a new Empire as a pastoral and agricultural people from the  handkerchief of earth of Romulus, they   told us our history in their manner and looking their goals, which at the time were the same of our leaders. So they were the heirs of the Homeric poems and told all the world that Homer was a Greek poet. They could not tell the truth, so Homer was thrown back in the past and today nobody will tell you that he lived in Rome and around writing in the middle of the VII century.    They invented many stories dividing Romulus in two and putting between the two (Odysseus and Romulus/Silvius) a 4/5 centuries of lies. Obviously they directed the attention on Romulus (and a myriad of names putting out of road), while Ulixes was preferred to Odysseus. In the middle of these 4/5 centuries they inserted a fake, that is the escape of Enea from Troy in fire with his son Ascanius. and the founding of Alba Longa (where they put a bad copy of the Roman kings list) from which a day, two big sheep boys not too intelligent and loving boxing (think to Bud Spencer and Terence Hill), were kicked  out of the feet by their “good” grandfather Numitor  and founded Rome. All this chronology goes from 1200 B. C. to 750 B. C., and is a thorough fake as I argued from my great historian Dionysius of Halykarnassos (History of Archaic Rome).   So, Atlantis was not destroyed by earthquakes or merged in the Ocean, it was not destroyed by enemy forces. It was destroyed by the tales of Greeks!  Obviously Platon was dying by the will to tell (apocryphally)  the history stolen to Rome by Greece. Platon knew  well Homer and his poems. He needed not to hear tales of Solon received from the priests of Sais (in about the same time and by the same priests of Sais Herodotus, see Histories, heard fantastic tales without ground because at the time no one,  the  priests included,   was  capable to read the Egyptian hieroglyphs or even the demotic writing; Egypt had been swept by Libyans, Ethiopians, Cary     and Greek mercenaries, and Persians).    The first Roman empire was cancelled from history (damnatio memoriae).


this beautifull bronze of Shardana, Sardus,  archer is dated about the VIII century B. C. of Romulus, but it is so efficient (even in the army  of Richard Lion Heart, I suppose) that could be in the army of Merenptah “loved by Ptah” (some call him, wrongly, Mineptah) or Ramses III… about the same time!


If I am right  Romulus was not an  aboriginal sheep boy who lived in promiscuity with his sheep like the Bastian of Nino Manfredi (great Italian comedy actor), but Odysseus the sailor man, who knows all things because he was everywhere in the Mediterranean sea, who can speak face to face to kings and queens being he himself  a king, and in Greek language since Romans rule everywhere in the Mare Nostrum (like today English language).  But if it is the case he can speak face to face with the common people because he is also an artisan capable to build a ship (Roman kings and queens like working like the common people), and to chase animals to eat, and to come out of the cavern of Polyfemus without being eaten.  He is very very clever and the king of simulators.  Only when he can confide upon the man or woman before him he let them know his identity. So before the pretenders he is a poor man who asks for a bit to eat and risks to be hit by a seat and a leg of pork thrown by  some pretenders of Penelope. But the moment come, with the help of Apollo the god,  he kills with his arch all the pretenders who fall in their blood.   


Chronology is simply the record of subsequent events, 123456789,10,11,12,13,14… This must be respected. In this case we speak of absolute chronology, chronology abstractly from  accordance with archaeological evidence. As soon as we find a point of contact between historical tradition and archaeological (and epigraphic) finds we have a relative chronology, a chronology enforced   by its matching with reality. I think obvious that  from Romulus to present time the chronology is well sure, so we need to pull the precedent chronology  coinciding  1200 to 750 and changing all dates  in consequence.  

The war of Troy was about 750 B. C. and corresponds to the level VII a.  


papyrus of  Wenamun’s travel


Little after there was the mission of the priest Wenamun (under Ramses XI, end of XIX dyn.) to Byblos (to take the wood for the sacred ship of the god Amun), in which the Romans control the Mediterranean sea. Little after, the battle of Afèq against “Hebrews”, in which the Romans take control of the Syria-Palestine. Little after  Saul and David, Roman generals who create their little kingdoms, starting Israel and Jude. Jude is perhaps a Roman founding  from the time of Jude/Mino (the so called king of Knossos) the vizier of Tuthmosis IV and Amenophis III (950-900 ca.).

During the VIII century the Tyrrhenians  as Greek speaking people were submerged by Sabin peoples   giving birth to Latin, and by Limnos peoples (Thracians) from around  Troy giving birth to the Etruscan language.  The Greeks are not able to (do not want to) distinguish one from the other and call all of them Tyrrhenians.


The death of Amenophis III/Rhadamanthys  on the Phaistos Disk is 900 B. C., the conquest of the Hyksos empire by the Roman pharaoh Ahmose is around 1070 B. C., the XII Egyptian dynasty begins in 1570 ca., the Giza pyramids date about 2000 B. C., the unification of Egypt under Menes/Narmer/Aha about 2650.


Our Egyptian chronology depends on Manetho, a Greek priest from Heliopolis who wrote at least  80 books (circa 280-250 B. C.) on the history of Egypt (Aegyptiaca) committed by the king Ptolemy II Philadelphus. You can imagine how historically useful can be these news full of fantasies which reached  us only in fragments, and, why not?, influenced by the Greek fake (from 1200 to 750 B. C.). In every case we integrate this chronology with archaeological and epigraphic evidence, and thus it results very useful.

I am not of those who like to loose their time on stupid theories to write and speak on internet without scope. Do not please confound me with others who speak in internet about New Chronology. They usually want to change Egyptian chronology so that it matches with Hebrews “history”. Bible is not a book of history. Bible is in brief  religious texts and history research made in Babylon by the Aaronite priests so that they could  lead the (temple-)bank of Jerusalem from 400 B. C. on. Bible is Hebrews business men propaganda. We must act carefully to use Bible as a historic source. Preferably is the Musite-Israelite tradition from prophet Jeremy who goes back to Ah-mose, the Roman pharaoh who chased the Hyksos/proto Hebrews from Egypt at the end of XV century. I research since I was a boy  and in the sixties I started the study of the Phaistos Disk. I do hard work, not fantasies. So I am perfectly aware of what a problem is to cancel from  Egyptian, Assyrian, Babylonian history 4/5 century of king lists. I know all these civilizations and more, but nevertheless it is a huge problem. I have told that Roman history forged by  the clever Greeks is a fake between  Romulus and the Troy war. But since many years I do not trust  a single word about Greek kings and archons  from the VIII century to the Troy war, too. The Hittite, we have seen, are out of game since the Troy war (so, if I am right, since VIII century).  Assyrians and Babylonians seems in a position similar to Greece, that is we have the Ptolemy’s Canon of the kings of Babylon who do not interests us since posterior to Romulus (750). This was written by a Greek  astronomer under the Roman Empire! It Remains  a list of eponymous kings  which  has the same reliability as the Greek ones, and the same we can tell about an Assyrian king list going to 1700 B. C.  We must concentrate on the fall of Babylonian dynasty III (Kassite) under the sea people invasion (1200). Please! do not tell me to put now in discussion Hebrews chronology (I wrote a work on Bible interpretation in Italian in this site) since Bible “history” will be clear only if we first clarify “normal” history. We start from what is “perfectly” known to what is absolutely not perfectly known! But we start with a little hope. Since  from Anatoly/Turkey  to Rome, history starts from the VIII century of the Troy war, something is possibly or probably, necessarily  wrong, in the Oriental chronology.

It is interesting to note that the “Greek” tradition speaks of Greek and Troy war lords who after the war seek refuge all, I repeat practically all, in Italy (and really they come back to Italy since they are Italians!), and this is about 1200 B. C. I think that they must do like Odysseus, that is  going around for 4/5 centuries in the Mediterranean sea first to take a rest in a place. On the other hand we have the same current of traffic from Orient to Italy with lords of war which we find particularly in the Etruscan tombs in the VIII century.  If I am correct it is the same historic event, which is not possible to consider the style of life of men for so long as 4/5 centuries! There is a problem of artistic/archaeological style (I reproached to Velikovsky’s gallery of pictures, when a saw it many years ago). But now, after my identification, this must(!) be a no  problem. We can think to a rapid decline in men (and consequently power and culture) like the fall of the Roman Empire after the pestilence in 168 A. D. under Marcus Aurelius (here died professionals!!! in strategic fields!!!, but also common people in agriculture is decisive), or, less pertinent,  the rapid decline in art  consequent to the empire of Constantine, the capital switched to Constantinople/Istanbul (330 A. D.), the awful coins made in the Oriental side of the Empire. So we ought to imagine that, in a brief course of time, old (and precious) and new (and vile) encountered themselves.       




Some are astonished by the frequency of “Mycenaean” objects such as the helmet (made with   wild pork teeth, from Mycenae) to the left or the Nestor gold cup (to the right, from Mycenae) mentioned in the Iliad side by side  with objects considered of about the VIII century, and deduce from this the many hands (along centuries!) which composed the Iliad. If we collect all these indices which speak us of two distinct times, about 1200 B. C. and about 750 B. C.,  in the work of substantially the same author (I think the author is Homer, except for some integrations made by Greek Homeridae, for example the many battles in the Iliad; Odyssey is all of Homer), we sooner or later will realize that these objects were contemporary of the time of Odysseus/Romulus and the Troy war.  


We start from Egypt,  where perhaps the problem is hardest. If my theory is correct, we must attach the XX dynasty of Ramses III (1186-1154) to the XIV dynasty (capital Sais) of kings Tefnakht (727-720) and Bokchoris (written also Bokenrinef, 720-725) who superpose themselves to the last twenty years of Romulus (753-715). The cartouche of Bokchoris we find in an archaic Etruscan tomb of Tarquiny. It could be interesting to know that the XXI and XXII dynasties (the XXIII is out of game since contemporary to the XXII) are of Libyan  origin (the sea peoples from Libya, similar to Hebrews in religion, after the “Troy war”, managed to conquer and remain in Egypt, in the Eastern delta; like Germans in the Roman Empire)  and have the capital in Tanis that is in the Goshen. So we could perhaps strictly verify their position and possibly find that they where a parallel sequence (even XXII parallel to XXI) of  proto-Hebrew  semi or totally independent lords of war in some way related to the history of the Bible (but after the 750  war of Troy! So there is practically no room for Hebrews kings, since in 722 B. C. there is the fall of Samaria in Israel).   

XXII and XXIII dynasties matches perfectly with Israel and Jude separate  States  from the invasion of Sheshonq (945-924 ordinary chronology) to the end of Samaria (722), so, if I am right, there is no room for the history of Israel,  except  as a reflex of these Libyan dynasties.

We have seen that Saul and David are Roman/”Philistine”  generals and lived at the time of XX dynasty and after the Troy war. They do not pertain to the XXI dynasty  we must consider  preferably  a parallel of XXII Libyan dynasty. The last kings of XX dynasty possibly must be shortened.     


I have spoken of Jude/Minos the vizier of  Amenophis III/Rhadamantys the Roman procurator sent by the Roman senate of Atlantis to rule on Egypt. About this time Egypt is no more that of Ahmose or Tuthmose III, imperialistic.  Amenophis III son of  Mutemuia/Europe an Italian queen who gives the kingdom to his husband Tuthmose IV  (matriarchal system of Atlantis/Italy/Amazons), marry  Teye, daughter of Abraam/Jude/Minos and Tuya/Agar, a black woman from Kush (previously in the harem of Thutmoses IV). In Egypt begins the cult of Aton, the Sun of Mitanni. I think Rome sent Nefertiti as royal wife of  Amenophis IV/Ekhnaton son of Amenophis III and Teye, but they at last divorced. Egypt is lost. Tutankhamon marries Ankhesenaten daughter of Nefertiti, but he is too young and the vile Ey/Joseph (vizier, son of Jude/Minos) kills him. He try to seduce the “beautiful” (Nefertiti) wife of the “priest of On”, the “eunucus”, the “Great of Egypt” (Ekhnaton), kills in Egypt the prince Zannanza, come from Hatti to marry Asenat, and at last marries the  daughter of Nefertiti,  Asenat, A(nkh)esenaten.   He ruins Egypt with his corrupt administration.   About 2 centuries later  the first Ethiopic king of the XXV dynasty, contemporary of Romulus, is written Pi(ankh)y (747-716) with the same rebus like use of the ankh (“life”; used only to mean the letter/sound  A).  Odysseus tells, under cover, about his expedition against Egypt from Crete at the time, obviously, of Merenptah/Ramses III, and punishes his serfs with the same cruel punishments of the time (for example of Horemhab).


Connecting Romulus with Odysseus and  the Troy war I did not found  treasures,  works of art, or inscriptions of the oldest Atlantis (which  begins from the end of the last glacial period, about 12000 years ago) but I cancelled, I hope (I hope many will continue this research in the many fields of archaeology),  the 4/5 dark centuries of Italian (and not only) history making  Romulus/Odysseus, the hero of Troy, a figure more real than ever, in the still living Atlantis.