GRAVITY WAVES DEMONSTRATION

( gravitational field )

*Synthesis :
A study conducted in Italy, based on not unlike the times tide of sun and moon shows, directly, that the speed of gravity is equal to the speed of light.This means that the force of gravity is a wave electromagnetic that is travelling at 300.000 km for second.

Un estudio realizado en Italia, sobre la base de no a diferencia de los tiempos de marea de sol y la luna muestra, de manera directa, que la velocidad de gravedad es igual a la velocidad de luce.Questo significa que la fuerza de gravedad es una onda electromagnética que viaja a 300.000 km por segundo.

Eine in Italien ausgefuhrte studie, auf die glichformigkeit der sonne. Und Mond flutzeiten gesttzt, zeigt direkt, dass die geschwindigkeit der Schwerkraft ist gleic der geschwin disgkeit der licht. Das bedeutet, dass die Schwerkraft ein elektromagnetische wellw ist, die auf 300.000 Km pro sekunde reist.

* Strengths of the reserch:
GRAVITY WAVE, discovery of gravitational waves
Strengths of the reserch:
Through the non-lag times of the tide of the Sun and the Moon and applying the method for transfer of astronomical Olaus Roemer (and GD Cassini calculations), we show direct and allows the existence of gravitational waves speed. Newton in his "Principles" states that when the sun or the moon or both bodies are at the zenith, or pass the meridian of the place, you have the greatest attraction. In reality the exact moment of alignment real sizigiali is 8 minutes and a half before the conjunction visible to our eyes, ie the time that sunlight takes to get to our eye. We see the moon where it was and as it was little more than one second before and the Sun where she was eight and a half minutes prima. Before in astronomy we see this in the past of the stars. In short, if Newton was right, according to studies where the force of gravity is instantaneous, solar tides should arrive early than the moon. If the sun disappeared in fact, we will see him still 8 ½ minutes in the sky. But the tides sizigiali as shown by the formulas emeritus scholars on the subject (Bernoulli, Laurin, Euler, La Place, Proudman, and of course Newton), occur exactly at the time of matching visible (but not real) of the star. All this shows that the force of gravity as the light travels.
- Applying the Earth the way trasduttive resonant antennas will agree on the electromagnetic waves of Tesla-band of the Schumann work of the Earth gravitational waves - Sun-Moon (on that frequency band, from 1 Hz to 10 Hz, there is a project between different European universities funded in October 2008 by the European Economic Community). - Is explained in a definitive way the progress of the perihelion of the planets with the Doppler effect.
- The impact gravitational Doppler (whip gravity assist or space) leads to the conclusion that the gravitational field does not have the characteristic of equivalence presupposed even in macro experiments for terrestrial and simplifying data concordano.Il natural motion of bodies is not, in absence of impulsive forces, to move in uniform velocity (the empirical validity of which remains), but to follow the lines of force or the gravitational field of geodetic always present in the Universe.
- Applying the Newton's gravitational law that all bodies are attracted to their common center of massa.Doing fall together a little rock and a big fall on the Earth with the same speed and arrive at the same time simply because it does not move, if not so infinitesimal, the common center of mass, instead doing a rock fall and a greater planet Earth who would raise it to! The gravitational field therefore does not have the characteristic of imparting to all bodies the same acceleration as provided for Galileo Galilei and before him Filopono, whose empirical results are valid for static objects and incapable of change, if not imperceptible way, the center mass of Terra.Oltretutto know that the acceleration due to Earth's gravity varies with latitude, height, and with the masses below, if the acceleration is variable because it is also the force field that generates. Attraction gravitational "differential" which is created for the comets in the limit of Roche, with the posting of the masses, it is more than a body indizio.Un in free fall it is sometimes disintegrated nell'attraversare this limit, and some fragments precipitate first others, as was the case for comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 in 1994 and Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 in 2006. E 'is also the objective of launching into Earth orbit European GOCE satellite (for which 45 companies have contributed to this sophisticated device) occurred on 17 March 2009 - Is the relative Newton's gravitational formula by adding the speed of light ce ± Δ the change of the speed of the masses so that the formula becomes
F = Mm/d2▪(c ± Δv) / c
This means that everything remains unchanged for relatively immovable masses, while for the masses approach in strong or you have high removal gravitational variations compatible with the relativistic Doppler effect.
- It's impossible to completely cancel the gravitational force in the bodies (the drift forces in bodies in free fall) and are confined to the principles of strong and weak equivalence; - The ability to influence the masses (lens effect and Shapiro), with their gravitational field is the photon energy shows a connaturality and the electromagnetic characteristic of gravitational waves. The analogy between electric field and gravitational field is so tight that the mathematical formulation is almost identical in fact the law of Newton
F = G * M.m / d2
electric field is in a more attractive or repulsive force between similarly charged particles made
F = K * Q.q / d2
Also as a mass that is in a gravitational field has potential energy, like an office which is located in an electric field has potential energy and the difference between the potential energies or masses that these charges are in two different points of space , equals the work done by the force of the field (electric or gravitational) long moving joining the two points. So mathematically the electric and gravitational fields are very similar and often less, this shows that the energy characteristics are identified, the severity will be shown, even from this point of view, an electromagnetic wave.
- The force of gravity being weaker and "evanescent" even compared to neutrinos, will travel through the cosmos with an almost straight route, even in the presence of matter and equal comparison space travel, the principle of Fermat, the distance shorter and less expensive; this means that astronomical distances there could be more consistency and assonance between photons and gravitoni.Vedremo ie, first what we can physically feel the gravity lens effect and proves it.
- There is a center of universe.
- The Ministry of Education, Research and the 'National University of Rome, from observations acquired by experts working in the Ministry, believes that "this scientific work carried out represents a valuable testimony of the laboratory capacity and design of our school" . (Letter no. 3016 of 23/2/2009).
* Perspectives: from a possible modulation and a futuristic control of gravitational waves will revolutionize the entire field of the mass media. Could destroy much of the satellites and almost all bridges radio and telephones. The gravitational waves do not fear any type of barrier and are able to cross free whole celestial bodies. The revelation of the characteristics of polarization and spin of these waves we also give an impression of the first in its infancy.

The Relativity bases its foundation on three considerations axiomatic:
- The constancy of the speed of light in a vacuum;
- The inability to overcome this speed;
- The denial of any instantaneous interaction.
It follows that any event can not happen or occur instantaneously, but only with an increasing speed.
When Maxwell studied the electric charges and their scope, their influence resulted from a mathematician and attached to the phenomenon magnetism covering the fields of power generation, thus forming a summary of the laws of Gauss and Faraday; until the twentieth century all studies on electrical and magnetic phenomena referred to the laws of Coulomb, Ampere and Faraday-Neumann. J. C. Maxwell (1831-1879) managed to condense in a few equations (four) all electromagnetic phenomena (including optical). The interactions between the electric charges and magnetic poles, light, and radiation became so different manifestations of a single entity energetic. And the first major unification of forces. Maxwell noticed two asymmetries between electric and magnetic fields E→ and B →. The first, on the one hand, the presence of Q in the law office of Gauss for the electric field and the absence of a similar charge in the law of Gauss for the magnetic field, the other in the presence of electricity in the law of Ampère el 'Absence of a current "magnet" in the law of Faraday-Neumann. This asymmetry is explained by the fact that were not detected isolated magnetic poles. While we can release positive and negative charges and have them run independently, the same can not be done with magnetism.It can reduce to an infinitesimal level magnet and will always two poles. The same electron, the elementary particle of electricity, in its kinetic always produces a magnetic bipolar field. There is also another important asymmetry between the two camps. In the law of Ampère was missing a term similar to that which is the second member of the Law of Faraday-Neumann, a term that is proportional to the speed with which changes the flow of electric field:
Λф (→ E) / Λt
Then starting from considerations of symmetry, Maxwell adds that "missing time" that allowed to resolve some theoretical concerns. If the law of Ampère add a term proportional to the speed with which changes the electrical field, namely
Km/2Ke Λф * (A →) / Λt
this' ambiguity disappears. A variable magnetic field generates an electric field variable (Law Faraday-Neumann) and a variable electric field generates a magnetic field variable (term added by Maxwell). We face to electromagnetism and the magnetic induction phenomenon, almost a perfect example of symmetry corresponding.
Like the electric field, the magnetic field can be represented by its general thrust, from the Lorentz force can be traced back to the measurement of the carrier B. We consider the fourth Maxwell equation. In the case of a particle that oscillates in a vacuum (i = 0) it will become
F (→ B) = Km/2Ke Λф * (A →) / Λt
The equation can be written in a form equivalent
F (→ B) = ε0 μ0 Λф (→ E) / Λt
where μ0 is called "permeability magnetic devoid of a 4π10 value-7 m T / A and ε0 is called" dielectric constant absolute vacuum "equal to 8.85 * 10-12C2/Nm2. Calculating the size of the product ε0 μ0 you get to the end that equals V2
The ratio 1 / √ ε0 μ0 equivalent to √ 2Ke / Km then the size of a speed numerically equal to 2.997925 * 108 m / s. Since this coincides with the speed of light in a vacuum, Maxwell made the assumption that the light was made up of electromagnetic waves. The facts will then right. Faraday had shown that the photon suffers the influence of the electromagnetism(Diamagnetism), is what today is called "Faraday effect": the floor of a beam of linearly polarized light that spreads through half the material can be diverted through 'application of an external magnetic field aligned to the direction of propagation, thus demonstrating that light and the electromagnetic field are of the same nature. At many had determined the exact speed of light in a vacuum and Michelson and Morley with their famous experiment showed that the speed of the photon is not affected either by the movement of the source and even that of receiver. Per explain what the proposed Lorentz contraction of space and matter at high speed and mathematical speculation as he introduced the concept of local weather, so the time was not always fixed and the same. From these conditions left Einstein. The maximum speed in the universe is the light fixed in a vacuum in 300.000 Km / sec.
The Relativity is the sum of a series of considerations about some facts from which we infer other concepts consequential, it was an attempt (unfortunately not made) to standardize species with General Relativity, also called theory of gravitation, all physics. In Einstein's General Relativity departed from the fundamental experiences of Faraday, Maxwell, Lorentz and Poincaré, the mathematician who in 1900 wrote in his article that the mass is equal to the ratio between energy and the square of the velocity of light. Also Olindo De Pretto had reached the same conclusion and stated in his written of 1903, the famous formula E = MC2 then had its way. Einstein tried to unify so the Physics through the Gravity. Newton, the precursor brilliant, set in law the product of the masses and the ratio of the square of the distance 's attraction of bodies. This formula is not the time. Newton will pose the problem (in the third letter to Bentley) and for him it was difficult to conceive an instantaneous action at a distance, but his comments are not the tram in formulas. Einstein on the assumption that poincarian matter is energy and vice versa, says that the severity, being a force, must necessarily possess energy. And this force, creating a field, must obey the laws of Maxwell. In practice the other gravity can not be that electromagnetic wave traveling at 300.000 km / sec.
On all bodies interfere with them and create an attraction that limits cases - says Einstein - coincides exactly with the formula dictated by Newton. Einstein predicts so (even if not explicitly) the Graviton, undulatory element in space that moves from one field to another at the speed of light. According to the Classical mechanics so if the sun if disappear instantly, the land will suffer catastrophic consequences immediately. According to the Relativity instead the land will "realize" the disappearance just after 8 minutes, time that the gravitational waves from the sun come to our planet. The dispute, sometimes philosophical, but has a scientific basis: on the one hand the classical physics and the other modern. Since Einstein predicted, in 1916 the waves of gravity physicists and astrophysicists in particular, have tried in all ways that they can intercept but without concrete results. The first difficulty - they say - is mainly due to the low energy of these waves. This also enables the body to maintain its mass for billions of years without consumed in gravitational energy. Weber was the first to actually groped detect these waves through a large cylinder of aluminum that was to vibrate every time a particular cosmic event - the explosion of a supernova, for example - produce waves of matter. The results were not very bright. Since then the "tracers" of Graviton have multiplied but the results are slow to arrive. Weber noted in particular that two of its resonant places the cylinder to a distance of 1,000 km on the other, on average once a day came into vibration simultaneously for at least a minute. But that was not enough.
Physicists rightly bind the gravitational tidal wave, after all these other natural phenomena that are not proof of the strength of gravity of the moon and sun. Each time that the sun or the moon, or all, and two celestial bodies, pass on the meridian of a place produces a tide. Lo same phenomenon occurs in the opposite point of the Earth where the attraction decreases for increasing the distance and the prevailing strength centrifuge. This deceive the same Galilei convinced that all the tides were caused by the force of "shaking of the Earth" that is the thrust of centrifugal rotation .E here can open a brief parenthesis that relates to this force, because we perceive to Likewise is the force of gravity than that in Centrifuge both orbital stations for 1 "g" is rotated in space, at a certain speed station same. Is another strange force mass. E' the Relativistic principle of equivalence, Einstein noted that it was not in any way possible to differentiate between acceleration and the force of gravity. The force of gravity can be simulated which is cleared to compete in a reference accelerated, although it should be clear that you can not erase the gravitational interactions between objects that is present and forces tide. Moreover the year is only theoretical because when practical universal gravity is not totally erase. The gravity well lose its autonomous nature and would cease to be a force becoming a real geometric properties of space-time. The acceleration of gravity is therefore a pure geometric effect and the trajectories along which the bodies are falling geodetic dictated by the curvature of space four dimension (General Relativity and G. Controls, Thesis). In a satellite orbiting around the earth centrifugal acceleration cancels the gravity locally, it is in free fall, we return to the classic lift Einstein in downhill and isolated, was losing the sense of seriousness to occupants. In the reality are used in air free fall over short stretches to get the absence of gravity and make the coach astronautics. Also if the principle is not entirely correct, for the reasons stated above, in practice and in the macro experiments it works, rather like the principle of ' acceleration due to gravity (g) Galilei by intuition that all bodies are attracted by earth with the same acceleration. In reality, and applying the classic formula of Newton,
F = G.(m.M)/r2
all bodies "fall" to their common center of mass, in relation to the individual amounts of matter divided of the square distains. In conclusion if I leave a falling stone and a boulder toward the Earth these come with the same speed and at the same time to Earth (Simply because they do not actually moving the center of mass of the Earth). Instead I had to drop a stone and a planet would be the ground, which attracted more towards the mass, it would raise. It was Henry Cavendish, who first measured the force of gravity between different masses in the laboratory and the first to give a precise value on the constant of gravitation Universal G, suggested earlier experiment by John Michell and then more accurately by starting Eötvös Loránd since 1895 (this value, as A. Rivetti, is also under test on groped to remove some uncertainties emerging). The experiment was designed to measure the weak gravitational attraction between two small metal balls and two large raised directly in front through a a torsion balance. The gravitational attraction between protons in the nucleus is about 10 raised to 36 times less power weakest of repulsion coulombiana but while the strong nuclear interaction has a short range, the gravitational force acting on cosmic. We know distance that you can measure the density of a mountain from a weak approach to plumb the vertical because terrestrial gravitational waves exist in the presence of masses irrespective of the dynamism of such reality shows us, moreover atomic vibrations from the shifts, the masses have always kinetic energy . "The type of swings needed for gravitational waves is to generate variations of what is defined mathematically four poles time to serve or not technically swings that change the shape of the object. The four poles four poles (which measure the shape of an object) is usually much smaller than the dipole (which for a charged particle implies his swing). This, together with weak gravitational interaction compared to that electromagnetic says the difficulty of observing with the media laboratory gravitational waves "(S. Freed .).
The tide phenomenon, although designed for a very long time - from Posidonio, Dondi up to Kepler and Newton - is quite complex. Not just for the heterogeneity of the earth, the water is affected more the tide unlike the mainland, but also for the difference in depths. Also in the phenomenon of the tides come as key components, the distance of the moon and the sun is not constant for elliptical orbits, the tilt and rotation of the earth, the plans of rotation (ecliptic). Just remember that the moon has something - exemplified by the boards of E. Brown - as of 1475 disturbances. Nevertheless, the tide phenomenon is quite known. So much so that one can predict the tide per minute in a given place. The tide may be regarded as so extended period is 12h and 25m and wavelength of around one half circle land. The change of tide level over time can be considered as a swinging phenomenon resulting from the interaction of a large number of periodicals simple terms (Tides Partial), each with periods, amplitudes and phases constant. The harmonic representation of the evolution of tidal level is the sum of many sine waves of simple type
h = a cos (A. t + B)
in which "A", the tidal pulse depends on the conditions considered astronomical and therefore is constant over time for each location, while "a" and "B", respectively amplitude and phase, representing the harmonic constant, unpredictable astronomical , Which vary from place to place and deductible only from the long series of observations. Note the constant harmonics is possible to predict (forecast harmonic tidal) development tide over time for every place. The most obvious tides occur when the Sun and the Moon are aligned to the earth, in which case the gravitational waves of the two stars are added and the water rises significantly (Sizigie). The sun will participate in the minus tides of the moon while having a significantly greater mass, but in this case is determining the distance to the Moon more than twice as effective.
The question now is whether it is true that during the exact conjunction visual Earth - Moon - Moon or the Sun - Earth - the Sun - or simply when only the Sun and Moon are only passing on the meridian of the place - it has the effect of greater attraction. From all the studies and the official calculations Capitaneria office of naval what is considered an axiom, because the passage visual dell'astro meridian is calculated on time delivery to meet the wave of the incoming tide; Newton in his " Principles "says that when the Sun is at Zenit is the greatest attraction. So it follows that since the alignment optical effect only occasionally when we see the Sun and Moon aligned indeed our star has already come more than a diameter of space (Moon and Sun apparently have the same sizes in the sky) then we are facing a undulatory. In fact, the exact alignment is done real time 8 minutes and a half before joining visible to our eyes. If the sun sparisse fact, we shall see even 8 minutes and a half in the sky. But the tides sizigiali as the formulas emeriti scholars in the field (Bernoulli, Laurin, Euler, La Place, Proudman and obviously Newton), occur exactly at the time of (there is in fact a delay due to inaction rotation, all'attrito water with the bottom and coastal morphology, the high tide does not always occur at the exact moment when the Moon or the Sun transiting the meridian of the place, but at present it can be a lag ; This delay, which is constant for each locality and varies from place to place, you can extrapolate and take the name of hours of port). This shows that the strength of gravity of the Sun is not instantaneous, but as light travels at 300.000 km / sec. And then by careful study of tides that we can now decide if that Newton or Einstein, or even if Gravity is a particular type of energy. If carefully controlling the timing of high and low tide perhaps through telemetric satellite systems (a gravity to interference fringes should be sufficient) will notice that sizigie happen before we join the fastest waves of light (except by Relativity) and if As is clear from studies (theory Static and Dynamic) tides and lives in particular, occur at the time of passage or the meridian of the place, this means that there Graviton and travels as electromagnetic wave. Moreover all proceedings arising from analysis of the well-known principle of minimum square. Newton had demonstrated that the gravitational pull of the two bodies is directed along the straight line joining them. But the reality we confirm that there is no lag between the lunar tides and solar during the quadrature or steps intermediates. These occur when the star passes over the meridian of the place or its opposite, in fact, the Moon is so close to the ground that its light takes just over a second, so it can be considered "in contact". The solar tides should instead lag time (we see him with more than 8 minutes late on its real position), but this does not occur - the highest tide is formed visual of the astral the exact passage on the meridian - and then Gravity is a force crews to 300.000 Km / sec. as light.
The force of gravity acting in the infinite distance and, as it is for the electromagnetic field, the intensity gravitational interaction decreases with increasing distance between the bodies interacting with a law of inverse square of the same distance. Also Newton it was noticed - The eighth from his studies - that the field of a light source decreased with the inverse square of distance. The a torsion balance of Cavendisch, for measuring the gravitational force, has the equivalent of torsion balance Coulomb for the electrostatic field. Are strong indications of correlation between photon and therefore Graviton: relativistic same speed, same infinite field of action, that no mass at rest and the same life almost infinity. But while the photon is born especially dall'interscambio leptons - except the process of annihilation and Nuclear transition - the Graviton is apparent from the exchange of baryons atomic nucleus where it concentrates more than 99.9 percent of the mass and proportion to the mass, are mediated more gravitoni.Einstein in his Relativity, he made an explicit distinction between matter and gravitational field Including in the field but also the electromagnetic field: He wanted Gravity more than a force field, a particular ability to modify the mass space and time around (and lens effects Lense-Thirring), a kind of intrinsic feature the reality of space and time. Even if not explicitly, he predicts a mediator of forces then called Graviton and that would be a vector boson gouge.Tale mediator being able to influence the photon (gravitational lens effect) shows the possible connaturality two field forze.Il electromagnetic and gravitational field are therefore linked by an interchange relational energy of those who lead us close to both sought unification of fundamental forces of natura.La Gravity, or rather its area of strength, not bending space as even influnzerebbe time ( spaziotempo), but simply interferes indirectly with the two parameters and influence, under the connaturality of Graviton to be a wave of electromagnetic nature, is capable of changing the direction of fotone.Così as Faraday said that the polarized light undergoing l ' influence of magnetism was of the same nature and Maxwell for the correlation rates in various fields of radiation that they were of the same state, we can say the same for gravitational waves that agree in speed, scope and existence with the light . Mach and Tesla have always been very skeptical about relativistic interpretations of Relativity; rest of the Einstein initially favorable, never accept the Quantum Mechanics. From a scientific summary literary gravifotone can define the mediator of the force of gravity. (this theory demonstration - in short - was presented to RAI UNO Morning in October 1991 and the first in 1989, the daily newspaper "La Tribuna di Treviso", a Radio Conegliano discussed and written about a publication in 1990 entitled " Issues of science and delivered to the Nobel Prize Carlo Rubbia, in October 2008 in Science and Space "Il Corriere della Sera" web.
The binary systems, namely the double stars that orbit a sull'a1tra (white dwarf), are a kind of gravitational source that many laboratories of physics keep under control, but their enormous distance ago, the law of the inverse square , And the intensity is weak for a type of energy that is weak for its natura.Nel 1922 A. Eddington, an interest in gravitational waves hypothesized by Einstein, calculated the radiant power of a rotating shaft at full speed compatible with the yield strength of the resulting material and energy was equal to that calculated for un'atomo hydrogen. This led to the conclusion to exclude the possibility of observing the emission of gravitational waves from any detector. Calculated the gravitational energy produced by a double star and found that the energy was still under any limit Observability. We might wait an exceptional occurrence, type supernova, to hope to be able to intercept some signal.But this an experiment observing a rare fact become difficult replicated in the laboratory that would not, in a sense, the beginning repetitive demonstration of the brain and In any case, here the probability of intercept a supernova are very tiny. Not just for the huge distance, but also because in an explosion at a stellar mass that is approaching it is one that moves away (an explosion is usually a matter of overall dimensions) and the center of gravity remains almost stationary . There is always the risk that any signals are removed from the gravitational power on Earth, from micro movies telluric and external vibrations from atomic and molecular interiors of antenna itself.
The gravitational waves in fact lead changes in density (and therefore vibration) on everything. For this reason it is extremely difficult to capture and groped produce gravitational waves on Earth because the principle of equivalence, according to Bergmann, would be able to use any tool that itself becomes an active part in your less than careful extrapolations and sophisticated precautions as in the draft Virgo using reflected laser beams to detect interference and technology the over high vacuum. The project currently operating within the Virgo Ego laboratory (European Gravitational Observatory), specially constituted dall'Infn and the CNRS. 'The difficulty of capturing the waves hypothesized by Einstein demonstrates that we still need to understand much about the strength of gravity, although it has attracted the attention of man from time immemorial, since among all the forces is one that shows the effects more evident in daily life, he says - rightly - F. Menzinger, head of Ego. LISA then that there is a space experiment - designed by ESA (European Space Agency) and NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States), in search of gravitational waves - and provides for the launch, probably in 2010, three satellites designed to rotate around the Sun. Thanks to the accurate calculation of orbits, the three satellites remain for years training with a equilateral triangle of 5 million square kilometers that form an interferometer. The range of frequencies for the detection of the detector extends from 0.0001 to 0.1 Hz. The high sensitivity is this - the designers say - that reveal a great deal of gravitational signals from several different sources (binary star systems, Pulsars, blacks holes, ...). LISA should be operational within ten years and certainly - say scholars - will pave the way for a new way of studying the universe through the "sound" of gravitational waves. In Italy there is also a project Legnaro AURIGA of Padua where and 'installed a gravitational wave detector based on an ultracriogenica (ie' kept at low temperature near absolute zero - 273 C). When gravitational wave passes through the detector, would cause some sort of distortion with increased distance between the test masses in one direction and a decrease in the other. The changes are extremely small - about 10-21 meters -- An indirect confirmation of the emission of gravitational waves came from viewing of a binary star system (through the observation of a pair of neutron stars spinning around one another and intended to increase their angular velocity to merge)), studies conducted by Russell Hulse and Joseph Taylor - and for this discovery received the Nobel Prize in 1993 -. Starting from our thoughts we can see the sun - Earth and Moon - Earth a binary system; their gravitational weakness is fully compensated in this case by the proximity. The tides are so concrete and tangible signs of Gravity. If we assume - rightly - that the gravitational energy is part of relativistic physics and quantum mechanics, we must consider a set of gluons that from the sun and the moon come to Earth and vice versa. About all that is the discourse on the stages of tide. In practice we are applying for transfer, method astronomy Olaus Roemer (and before GD Cassini) and through the observations of discrepancies sull'apparizione and concealment of Jupiter in removal rapprochement and respect for the Earth, showed that light propagates at a finite speed, and determined by observing the eclipses of Jupiter, in particular on ephemeris of Io. All this explains in a definitive way forward missing the perihelion of planets in orbits with a Doppler effect of gravitational waves when approaching the planet (increased frequency, and therefore speed and is what is called assist or Severity birch space probe has enabled the Woyager I (and other) to overcome the barrier of the solar system using precisely the acceleration of planets that closely) and vice versa during the expulsion (may also be called gravitational redshift and can be quantitatively determined through the theory of General Relativity, it can be shown that, like order of magnitude, the variation of fractional wavelengt dλ / λ is equal to
G × M / (R × c2)
Em = c2= mV2 R / G. C2R / d
E = mc2
averages out to the field is usually introduce the concept of arbitrary photon has mass cinetica.In practice brings Planck's law to replace the term E.
m = hv/c2
another limit of the formula E = mc2 is that this is built for mass property, a bit like Newton did for his formula of Gravity, to make it dynamic need to divide the root of
1 - v2/c2.
Planck's Law
E = h.ν
clarifies property dualism, removing dall'imbarazzo, and identifies all the energy undulatory with the frequency for the universal constant 6.6 * 10-27 erg s.Dalla classic formula of 'kinetic energy
E = 1/2 mv2
the relativistic formula
E = mc2
until that quantum Planck it presents a synthesis throughout the evolution of physics. The classical view that the power belongs to the mass and its kinetic dynamism, the coexistence of energy that can be mass field with the formula relativistic E = mc2, to the formulation of quantum Planck where the field is now the main subject and energy depends only on the frequenza.Come say that the mass fall in a matter of highest density of the force field photo-electro-gravitational. For Einstein, who never accepted the idea indeterministica of Quantum Mechanics, this rescue seems almost provocatorio.Del rest scientists as Mach and always took Tesla distances by General Relativity why not accept the idea that gravity could bend space and time , Entities that alone does not hold if not linked to matter and its velocità.Oggi physicists tend to simplify the constant speed of light with the value 1.Del rest in astrophysics is measured space with a time of light (year light). The Planck constant or rather, the Planck time, brings together the frequency (inverse of time if we accept the speed c as a constant) and its wavelength with the energy of the length of fotone.La Planck length is the minimum universal, that is about 10-33 cm, which is 10-20 times the diameter of the proton. The time is the Planck length of time taken by light to travel in a vacuum Planck length. Since this measure is 10-33 cm, the Planck time goes 10-43 s. It should be the shortest time that can scan the clock of the universe. Through the narrow Relativity and Quantum Mechanics can define all the natural characteristics through the various ongoing planckiane. Today it is obvious the claim that the Universe was created by the Big Bang and that this explosion will come out of time and space. We know that the formula dictated Newton is always good especially when referring to non-relativistic masses. In our solar system, the formula
F =K (Mm)/d2
is the exact empirical practice, given the relative low velocity of bodies in the solar system and also because it thought at a time when the electromagnetic fields were not yet part of experimental science. Now, as was relativistic (or rather quantum) the formula E = mc2 for electromagnetic fields, replacing the mass of the photon nothing the formula of E = f Plank in which the energy of a wave is identified with any frequency can similarly intervene on Newton's formula for adding the relative speed of light ce ± Δ the change of speed of the masses so that the formula becomes
F = Mm/d2▪(c ± Δv)/c
This means that everything remains relatively unchanged for the masses property, while masses in strong approach in high expulsion or apply the Doppler effect (this is because the masses moving generate changes in gravitational waves) so if either of the masses tends to speed hypothetically removal of light in the wavelength gravity produced by it expands toward the infinite and frequency tend to zero agreeing with the concept that you can not reach the seriousness with a wave of the same speed. In contrast, a relativistic mass approaching gravitational increases in frequency, keeping the speed of propagation, equal to that of light, and in fact tends to double in energy and strength. To remember that quantum mechanics is applied to the electromagnetic waves and physical discipline that considers this energy consists of discrete entity, while Maxwell considers the fields of energy photons undulatory continues, Planck will mean discrete packets of energy discontinuous. This diversification into the wave of mass explains the difficulty in their interception. The electromagnetic waves at high frequency (γ-rays, x) is the predominant aspect quantum and almost no one undulatory, vice versa in a low-frequency waves such as gravity, the quantum appearance is almost absent for a reason that ondulatorio.Dando Liebiniz Mach and therefore no need to contract or expand the space time but everything falls in speed and in accelerating. Mellier and return to his calculations, the deformation of these distances are usually tiny and, since the galaxies are almost never perfectly round, it was necessary to observe a lot to see in which direction these small deformations had tendency to focus: a statistical analysis huge, conducted on many galaxies from telescopes Canada-France-Hawaii and VLT (Very Large Telescope). At the end of this weighing giant has delivered its verdict: the matter in reaching 30% of the critical density, the one beyond which the expansion of the universe would reverse in a gigantic big crunch. Announced in March 2000, this result has done much noise as confirmation that large amounts of matter are yet to be discovered, the entire mass actually observed in fact no more than 5% of this density critica.In this huge and unknown dark matter could finally find the place even throughout the antimatter missing so far under the law of simmetria.Non is also the first time that science is forced to reformulate or scenarios to produce a weather front that seemed to violate or evade the universal laws of physics ( fusion energy at low or cold, demonstrated in the laboratory - even if no shortage dilemmas and contradictions - and awaiting a clear explanatory theory, the superconduzione discovery in 1911 dall'olandese HK Onnes chilling the mercury to 260 degrees below zero and suddenly noticing that disappeared every electrical resistance and more recently the superfluidità, where the cryogenic liquid helium flows without friction, gravity and the challenges flowing from cold to hot). While the Relativity remains determined to stop as a result of the effect to the cause , All linked by the report space-time in quantum physics scenarios multiply: from wave-particle duality develop overlapping states (Schrödinger), the look granularity of energy and the principle of Heisenberg. In classical physics, given the characteristics of a particle and the forces involved, there is a specific trajectory that leads the same from one location to another. In quantum mechanics all configurations are possible for the passage of the plot from point to point. The impression is that it ends where the determinism arise all the theories that the human mind is capable of producing and that math can sostenere.E 'also true that the tunnel effect remains a mystery except in the mechanical quantistica.Ma end of every speech the result of laboratory galileana has the power to remove the hypothetical interpretations. "Science, by definition, is some knowledge," and is "an achievement of positive", which allows you to make "life more human," said Msgr. Rino Fisichella. But the passage of relativistic physics to quantum we metabolize the notion that a particle in a given space and a certain point can be represented by a wave that did not clear a space or a conspicuous definito.Sappiamo that exists for At least, a proportionality between the two systems. Already the Doppler effect creates a difference in function to osservatori.Un observer traveling with a sound (the same goes for a photon) Feel the same frequency sound when it is constant, approaching an observer, a sound more acute and another in a removal rate more grave.Eppure all three may prove to hear different things while having the same problem the only source. The same wave is perceived in different ways because different is the situation analisi.Anche relativism is not absolute but is linked to the reality of the observer, is what we call the relativity of simultaneity .. The same applies to the confirmation of such relativistic light ray seen by a passenger inside a train carriage and an inertial observer on the platform of stazione.Einstein propose to do so, in Relativity, the theoretical exercise of the light path on the rail wagon seen from two different osservatori.Egli such force as to the concept locale.Anche time here we have the relativity of simultaneity between the inertial system K and in train speed k '. As the speed of light c we act on time under the Lorentz transformations in a four dimensions, including local time (Minkowski space).
x = x - v * t
v 1 - v2/c2
y '= y
z '= z
t '= t - v . x/c2
v 1 - v2/c2
For Lorentz velocity is:
V = V + v / 1 + V . v / c 2
that's why in Relativity
V = Space relativ / Time relativ
The entire history of our knowledge, you can compare to a complex chain that stretches as discoveries are advancing, but the whole chain needs of the individual rings even if the errors so often humiliate and research scientists and the chain seems break or shorten. Democritus and other philosophers had the intuition of the atom but did not have the means and knowledge to prove, spent more than two thousand years to have the modern concept of atom. the ether, in centuries past, has filled whole tomes but then decided to delete it, even if the Higgs bosons in a sense you try to do this fall from a window quantistica. Del rest are strongly suggests that the universe is born from the break of symmetry of anything as a result of the simultaneous creation and destruction of particles. The time is absolute, but believed the theory of Relativity has lost its impassibility. Galileo Galilei first sets out the basic principles of physics as the principle of inertia and the principle of relativity (that three centuries later will be generalized by Einstein); his studies on the fall of serious were then taken and formulated by the great I. Newton. As Galilei almost all ancient and modern scientists believe, for elementary logic, that the universe is governed by mathematical laws and certainly not from the chaos or causality. The teacher Antonino Zichichi (discoverer along with his team of the antideutone) speaks of mathematics and science as forms of rigorous logic. Claiming that the chaos or if they are at the root of the universe and of life is banal as to say that math is a discipline casual. Famous the words of Einstein: "God does not play dice with" and again: "" I want to know how God has created this world. I'm not interested in this or that phenomenon, in the spectrum of this or that 'element. I want to know his thoughts, the rest are details. " In more explicitly tell the genius Nikola Tesla, with a symbolic phrase that describes the nature of scientist: "The Gift of the force of reason comes to us from God, from Divine, and focus our minds on this truth, establish harmony with this great strength. My mother had taught me to seek any truth in the Bible. " Harald Frtzsch noted that science and technology can not convey ethical values and that it is naive to the days where it was believed that with the increase of knowledge and dominion over nature could lead to a more right. Il meaning of life not there is progress in the knowledge. Science and religion - as the Catholic Church - not mutually exclusive but rather are complementary aspects of truth. If we fail to understand a universe that is based on mathematics and other disciplines means, as Benedict XVI, that we too are created by the same hand and therefore able to understand the language of which we are all imbued, the universe and man. Personally I do not know the bonus so that there is a God, the supreme creator of everything if we are far apart, if we are isolated, left to our human destiny and abandoned, without love. Ci if we wanted a God who did as little man and give a definitive answer to questions ataxic of human suffering and death to life. This God is only Christ. All else, including science, as even Einstein says, is simple detail. ... He speaks and everything is done, and it stood commands (Psalm 33).

Copyrigt 1989 Orazio Laudani teacher Tecnology oraziolaudani@virgilio.it ***copyrait © 1990 in collaboration with Dr. electrical engineer Rino Federico Laudani ( Padua University) Reproduction of this research is only partially and always explicitly citing the source. Original site : Go

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