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Piedmontese for English Speaking People

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Lesson 3

Piedmontese Grammar


Nouns and Adjectives (Pronouns) common part

In Piedmontese both substantive and adjective are calle "nm" (noun, name), respectivey "nm sostantiv" and "nm agetiv". The pronoun is called "prnm". These three parts of the speech have in common, with few exceptions, the rules of transposition from masculine to feminine and from singular to plural. For the pronoun there is some more variability, and then we will speak again of these aspects for propnuns, in the related parts.
Here we will see these common rules, while later we will discuss the other aspects.

Also for the Piedmontese, the derivation process fro Latin has brought the neuter gender to disappear, and then in Piedmontese there are only the masculine and feminine genders, as it is for Italian, French, etc. As in all the neolatin languages there are substantives of fixed gender, and substantives that can be masculine or feminine (variable gender). Among the "fixed gender" substantives, not always the original latin gender is maintained, and the neuter latin substantives have been assigned either to the masculine or the feminine genders, in a different way for different languages. Besides, as we've seen, many words in piedmontese lexicon, have not a latin origin. The result is that, as we will better see in the specific part, many piedmontese substantives have a different gender with respect the correspondent italian substantives, related to the same entity.
Substantives that can have two genders follow the rules here reported, for passing from (singular) masculine to (singular) feminine. We then assume the basic form as the one of singular masculine and from this we derive the other forms.
The first set of rules shows the passage from masculine to feminine. For adjectives the gender is determined by the concordance with the substantive they are referred to. This as a general rule, since there are specific cases where the adjective is used in a substantive sense, and then with its own gender.

As far as the number is concerned, also in Piedmontese there are substantive only singular, only plural, substantives with singular form and plural meaning, and viceversa. The great majority of substantive, anyway, con be singular or plural according to the number of referred entities.
Also the number, for adjectives, is determined by the concordance with the substantive they are referred to. Some particularity in the usage of the number of substantives and adjectives will be given in the specific part and in chapiters devoted to Syntax. Once we have the two singular genders, the second set of rules will allow to obtain the two plural genders.

As a general assumption we consider that also pronouns follow these general rules of derivation. Pronouns assume the gender and number of the noun they are substituting. As we already said, anyway, we will come back on these aspects in the sections devoted to pronouns.

Finally we note that in Piedmontese, usually the adjective follows the noun in the sentence. In Syntax we will see that some times the meaning changes if the adjective is before or after the noun.

From masculine to feminine

We will see in the specific part that it is nearly impossible to decide the gender of a substantive just looking at its form. In this paragraph we suppose always (unless different indication) to start from the masculine singular (m. s.) for obftaining the feminine singular (f. s.). Rules and exceptions are listed in the following:

Nouns and adjectives ending by consonant at m. s.

Basic rule is to add a "...a" to the m. s. for having the f. s. The rule has many exceptions. So we have:
  • l sgnor (the lord) ---> la sgnora (the lady)
  • l pastor (the shepherd) ---> la pastora (the shepherdess)
  • l novod (the nephew) ---> la novoda (the niece)
  • l servent (the (he-)servant) ---> la serventa (the (she-)servant)
  • l gat (the (he-)cat) ---> la gata (the (she-)cat)
  • generos (generous - referred to male) ---> generosa (generous - referred to female)
  • fl (stupid - referred to male) ---> fla (stupid - referred to female)
  • creus (deep - referred to male) ---> creusa (deep - referred to female)
  • bl (fine - referred to male) ---> bela (fine - referred to female)
  • etc.

The first exception that we see is for nouns ending in "...or" and indicating a work or occupation. These nouns do the feminine by changing "...or" into "...ira". So we have:
  • l'artajor (the (he)-pork-butcher) ---> l'artajira (the (she)-pork-butcher)
  • l sartor (the tailor) ---> la sartira (the tailoress)
  • l tenzior (the (he-)dyer) ---> la tenziira (the (she-)dyer)
  • etc.

This is valid also for professions or works traditionally masculine, for which the feminine is anyway allowed. Then:
  • l torgnor (the (he-)turner) ---> la torgnira (the (she-)turner)
  • l murador (the (he-)bricklayer) ---> la muradira (the (she-)bricklayer)
  • etc.

We can note that in the first list the nouns sgnor and pastor even if endingby "...or" have a regular feminine. The first is not a profession or work, and the second is not considered as such, being a status or condition. This could be a reason, but anyway its feminine is regular.

If the profession is more "noble" and the noun is ending by "...tor", then the ending of the feminine will be "...triss", similarly to what happens in other languages. (also sartor = tailor that we saw above ends by "...tor", but it is not a "noble" profession, so is not part of this group). We have:
  • l pitor (the painter) ---> la pitriss (the (woman) painter)
  • l scritor (the writer) ---> la scritriss (the (woman) writer)
  • l scultor (the sculptor) ---> la scultriss (the sculptress)
  • l'ator (the actor) ---> l'atriss (the actress)
  • etc.

In the above list "dotor" = doctor is not included since it belongs to the group of academic and nobiliary titles, that add "...ëssa" to the m. s. for having the f. s. (Also this mechanism is similar in other languages). Then:
  • l dotor (the doctor) ---> la dotorssa (the (lady) doctor)
  • l professor (the professor) ---> la professorssa (the (woman) professor)
  • l prensi (the prince) ---> la prensipssa (the princess) (irregular)
  • l duca (the duke) ---> la duchssa (the duchess)
  • l cont (the count) ---> la contssa (the countess)
  • l baron (the baron) ---> la baronssa (the baroness)
  • etc.

We note, anyway, that the noun baron has also a regular feminine in baron-a (we'll see later the change of the last consonant), and the noun marchis = marquis has always a regular feminine in marchisa.

With a ending in "...or" there are also adjectives at the comparative degree. These ones, when used with the proper meaning of adjective, are invariant at feminine. If, instead, have the meaning of substantive, then they do the feminine by adding a "...a" in a regular way. So we have:
The word "superior" is an adjective meaning "higher, greater, upstairs, upper, superior" and as a noun means "superior". Then:
  • l pian superior (the upper floor) ---> masculine adjective
  • la trav superior (the higher girder) ---> feminine adjective
  • l superior dl convent (the monastery' superior) ---> masculine substantive
  • la superiora dl convent (the nunnery superior) ---> feminine substantive
  • etc.

Another exception to the ruleis given by substantives and adjectives ending by "...eur" at the m. s. These ones, usually, do the feminine by changing the ending into "...eusa" and sometimes, but seldom, into "...eura" (in some cases both terminations are possible. We have:
  • l farseur (the (he-)braggart, the (he-)boaster) ---> la farseusa (the (she-)braggart, the (she-)boaster)
  • l coefeur (the barber, the (he-)hairdresser) ---> la coefeusa (the (she-)hairdresser)
  • l monteur (the (he-)milliner) ---> la monteusa (the (she-)milliner)
  • ... but ...
  • l blagheur (the (he-)blusterer) ---> la balgheura (the (she-)blusterer)
  • etc.

Many substantives indicating specializations of work belong to this group. In the past literature these works were mainly masculine, but anyway there exists the feminine. In this case it is usually, more correct the feminine ending in "...eura", with some exceptions. For example:
  • travajeur (worker - male -) ---> travajeusa (worker - female)
  • freseur (milling-machine operator) ---> freseura or freseusa (woman milling-machine operator)
  • giusteur (fitter) ---> giusteura (she-fitter)
  • saldeur (welder) ---> saldeura (she-welder)
  • fondeur (foundryman) ---> fondeura (foundrywoman)
  • etc.

We remember here that substantives endin in "...eur, ...eura, ...eusa", are always referred to persons, workers. The machine or the tool end by "...dor, ...tor, ...triss", and so the "saldeur" is the operator who welds, while the soldering-iron is the "saldador" and a soldering-machine is the "saldatriss".

A further exception to the rule comes from adjectives (not substantives) ending by "...al" at m. s. These ones remain unchanged at feminine, while the substantives ending by "...al" for doing the feminine add an "...a" regularly. Example:
We consider the adjective "postal" = "post, postal" and the substantive "caval" = "horse". We have:
  • l'ufissi postal (the post office) ---> masculine adjective
  • la cartolin-a postal (the postcard) ---> feminine adjective
  • l caval (the horse) ---> la cavala (the (she-)horse)
  • etc.

A similar, but not equal rule is followed by adjectives ending by "...il". In this case(with some exceptions) the position of the tonic stress of the word establishes the behaviour. If the accent is on the last vowel (the "i" of "...il"), then the feminine is regular and an "...a" is added. If the accent is on a preceding vowel then the feminine remains unchanged with respect the masculine. As an example:
Let's consider the adjectives "fcil" = "easy" and "sutil" = "thin"
  • un tch fcil (an easy piece) ---> masculine
  • na csa fcil (an easy thing) ---> feminine
  • ... but ...
  • un fil sutil (a thin wire) ---> masculine
  • na muraja sutila (a thin wall) ---> feminine (muraja = wall is feminine in piedmontese)
  • etc.

There are some adjectives ending by "...ar". Many of them, but not all, aer invariant at feminine. So:
  • ël sistema solar (the solar system)
  • l'ativit solar(the solar activity).
  • un fieul esemplar (an exemplary boy)
  • na fija esemplar (an exemplary girl)
  • etc.
but, for example, we have:
  • un tipo bizar (an odd type)
  • na përson-a bizara (an odd person).
  • sto s a l' car (this (ms.) is expensive)
  • costa a l' manch cara (this (fm.) is less expensive)
  • etc.
we can notice that adjectives ending by "...ar" that are invariant derive from adjectives of the third Latin declension, while the ones that follow the rule derive from adjectives of the first-second Latin declension.

We continue with exceptions to the rule of the feminine of words ending by consonant. The next is related with substantives and adjectives ending by a not stressed "...er". The most of these words makes the feminine by changing the ending from "...er" into "...ra". But be careful, since some of these words do the regular feminine by adding a "...a". Therefore:
  • pgher (lazy - male -) ---> pigra (lazy - female -)
  • pver (poor - male -) ---> pvra (poor - female -)
  • lder (thief - male -) ---> ldra (thief - female -)
  • ... but ...
  • lber (free - male -) ---> lbera (free - female -)
  • mser (miserable - male -) ---> msera (miserable - female -)
  • etc.

Another exception is given by substantives and adjectives ending with a close syllable (syllable ending by consonant) whose last vowel is an "... e ..." holding the tonic accent of the word. in this case there are words that simply add an "... a" (and this is the regular behaviour) but there are other words that modify also their ending by changing the "...e..." into an "... ë ..." and if it is followed by a simple consonant, the latter usually becomes double. Some examples can better explain this mechanism.:
  • verd (green - masc.-) ---> vrda (green - femin.-)
  • goregn (leathery - masc.-) ---> gorgna (leathery - femin.-)
  • spess (thick - masc.-) ---> spssa (thick - femin.-)
  • bijet (ticket) ---> bitta (card of notice) (feminine of ticket in piedmontese)
  • ... but ...
  • spers (bewildered - masc.-) ---> spersa (bewildered - femin.-)
  • antr (integer - masc.-) ---> antera (integer - femin.-)
  • etc.

Finally we note some particularities required for maintaining pronunciation coherence between masculine and feminine.
For substantives and adjectives ending by "...ch" or "...gh", respectively indicating the guttural sound of "c" and "g", while passing to the feminine, the addition of the ending "...a" generates the elimination of the "...h". Then:
  • rich (rich - masc.-) ---> rica (rich - femin.-)
  • antregh (integer, complete - masc.-) ---> antrega (integer, complete - femin.-)
  • etc.

For substantives and adjectives ending by "...cc" or "...gg", respectively indicating the palatal sound of "c" and "g", while passing to the feminine, the double consonant disappears and an "...ia" is added. So:
  • scavicc (mischievous - masc.-) ---> scavicia (mischievous - femin.-)
  • baricc (squint-eyed - masc.) ---> baricia (squint-eyed - femin.-)
  • ...gg ---> ...gia
  • etc.

For substantives and adjectives ending by a simple "...n" (so with faucal pronounciation), in order to maintain the same sound at feminine, adding an "...a", the "...n" becomes an "...n-" and the feminine ending is "...n-a". And then:
  • sclin (shrill - masc.-) ---> sclin-a (shrill - femm.-)
  • padron (master - masc- -) ---> padron-a (master - femin.-)
  • baron (baron) ---> baron-a (baroness) (as already seen)
  • etc.

Nouns and adjectives ending by vowel at m. s.

Substantives and adjectives ending by "...a" at m. s., usually are invariant at f. s. This doesn't mean that they do not change gender (the article, in fact changes and the same is for possible associated adjectives) but doesn't change the form. This is valid also in case of ending with a stressed "...".
  • n'atleta lest (a fast athlete - male -) ---> n'atleta lesta (a fast athlete - female -)
  • un badla (a stupid - male -) ---> na badla (a stupid - female - )
  • l molita (the knife-grinder - male -) ---> la molita (the knife-grinder - female -)
  • l corista (the singer in a chorus - male -) ---> la corista (lthe singer in a chorus - female -)
  • l pianista (the pianist - male -) ---> la pianista (the pianist - female -)
  • n'artista furb (a clever artist - male -) ---> n'artista fruba (a clever artist - female -)
  • etc.
All the past participles of verbs belonging to the first conjugation end by "..." and are invariant at feminine.
  • un paloch bin piant (a well rooted pole - masc.-) ---> na ca bin piant (a well rooted house - femin.-)
  • un tch rusi (a gnawed piece - masc.-) ---> na nos rusi (a gnawed nut - femin.-)
  • un fieul gen (an embarrassed boy) ---> na fija gen (an embarrassed girl)
  • etc.

Substantives and adjectives ending by a not stressed "...e" at m. s., do the feminine by changing this one into "...a". Then:
  • maire (lean - masc.-) ---> maira (lean - femin.-)
  • botegire (shopkeeper - male -) ---> botegira (shopkeeper - female -)
  • etc.
Substantives and adjectives ending by acute accented "..." at m. s., for passing at feminine change the "..." into "...era". So:
  • masl (butcher - male -) ---> maslera (butcher - female -)
  • brg (shepherd) ---> brgera (shepherdess)
  • panat (baker - male -) ---> panatera (baker - female -)
  • etc.
There are not variable nouns (with the two genders) or adjectives ending bi "..." with grave accent.

Substantives and adjectives ending by a not stressed "...i" or "..." ("...i" stressed or not) at m. s. at feminine add a "...a". In this group there are also the past participles of the verbs belonging to the third conjugation. Then:
  • seuli (smooth - masc.-) ---> seulia (smooth - femin.-)
  • scruss (ceacked - masc.-) ---> scrussa (cracked - femin.-)
  • dgord (shrewd - masc.-) ---> dgorda (shrewd - femin.-)
  • meusi (down-cast - masc.-) ---> meusia (down-cast - femin.-)
  • etc.

Substantives and adjectives ending "...o" for the feminine change this one into "...a". There are not variable nouns (with the two genders) or adjectives ending bi "..." with grave accent or by "...ó" with acute accent. Then:
  • drlo (strange, odd - masc.-) ---> drla (strange, odd - femin.-)
  • brgno (blind - masc.-) ---> brgna (blind - femin.-)
  • gnro (little boy) ---> gnra (little girl)
  • etc.
The noun (substantive and adjective) "vido" (widow - male) is an exception and adds a "...a" becoming "vidoa" (widow - female). In this case is the masculine that derives from feminine.

Finally the nouns and adjectives ending by "..." (usually stressed) as a rule add an "...a" but, for euphonical reasons they can often also add a "...va". The past participles of the verbs belonging to the second conjugations are part of this group. Then we have:
  • dru (fruitful - masc.-) ---> drua (fruitful - femin.-)
  • grotol (rough - masc.-) ---> grorola or grotolva (rough - femin.-)
  • un lber les (a read book - masc.-) ---> n'arvista lesa (a read magazine - femin.-)
  • etc.

Particularities

There are, also in Piedmontese (as it is in all languages) nouns that have different root in the two genders
.Masculine piedmontese. Masculine italian.......... Masculine english........ .Feminine piedmontese. Feminine italian............. Feminine english...........
Pare Padre Father Mare Madre Mother
Fieul Figlio Son Fija Figlia Daughter
Barba Zio Uncle Magna Zia Aunt
Gënner Genero Son-in-law Nra Nuora Daughter-in-law
Frl, Fradel Fratello Brother Seur, sorela Sorella Sister
Mons Signore Mister Madama, madamin Signora Madam
C, pare grand, grand, nno Nonno Grandfather Mare granda, granda, nna Nonna Grandmother
Mëss Suocero Father-in-law Madna, mare bela
belmer
Suocera Mother-in-law

Then there are substantives and adjectives that are invariant in gender in spite of their ending. Typical example:
  • l giovo, la giovo = the young (male), the young (female)
  • etc.
Then there are substantives that are invariant in gender, but in each gender have different meaning. Typical example:
  • l seugn, la seugn = the dream, the sleep
  • etc.
Some nouns have two allowed feminine forms:
  • l prior (m), la priora (f), la priira (f) = the prior, the prioress
  • l'amis (m), l'ama (f), l'amisa (f) = the friend (male), the friend (female)
  • etc.
The nouns of animals

The rules are similar to the italian ones. Some animals have a noun for the masculine, and another derived noun for the feminine. For example:
  • l can, la cagna = the dog, the bitch
  • l lion, la lionssa = the lion, the lioness
  • l caval, la cavala = the horse, the mare
  • etc.
For other animals the following forms are used:
  • girafa mas-c, girafa fumela = male giraffe, female giraffe
  • l mas-c dla girafa, la fumela dla girafa = the male of the giraffe, the female of the giraffe
  • etc.
Trees and fruits

In Piedmontese some trees and fruits are masculine ond others feminine. As a difference with respect Italian, the tree and the related fruit have, in Piedmontese, the same gender.
  • l pom (m), l pom (m) = the apple-tree, the apple
  • l pruss (m), l pruss (m) = the pear-tree, the pear
  • la ceresera (f), la ceresa (f) = the cherry-tree, the cherry
  • la nosera, la nos = the walnut-tree, the nut
  • etc.

We give now a summary table of what we said about the passage from masculine to feminine

Masculine ending Rule or exception Example
(Rule 1) nouns , adj. ending by consonant add an a at feminine ël mat ---> la mata (the fool)
Note to R1: nouns , adj. ending by n change n into n- and add an a ël padron ---> la padron-a (the master)
Note to R1: nouns , adj. ending by ch, gh change the ch, gh into c, g and add an a ë rich ---> la rica (the rich)
Note to R1: nouns , adj. ending by cc, gg change the cc, gg into ci, gi and add an a lë scavicc ---> la scavicia (the rascal)
Except. to R1: some nouns of jobs ending by or change or into òira l' artajor ---> l' artajòira (the pork-butcher)
Except. to R1: nouns of artistic jobs ending by tor change tor into triss ël pitor ---> la pitriss (the painter)
Except. to R1: words either adj. or nouns ending by or if adjectives are invariant
.
if nouns they add an a
.
ël pian superior---> la scala superior
(the upper flat --> the upper stair)
ël superior ---> la superiora
(the superior -male-, the superior -female-)
Except. to R1: adj. or nouns ending by al the adjectives are invariant
.
the nouns they add an a
.
ël servissi postal ---> la cartolin-a postal
(the postal service --> the postcard)
ël caval ---> la cavala
(the horse -male-, the horse -female-)
Except. to R1: adjectives ending by il are invariant if ...il is not stressed
.
they add an a if ...il is stressed
.
ël tch fcil ---> la csa fcil
( the easy piece, the easy thing)
ël tch sutil ---> la csa sutila
( the thin piece, the thin thing)
Except. to R1: nound , adj. ending by eur change eur into eusa
few of them add an a
ël farseur ---> la farseusa (the braggart)
ël blagheur ---> la blagheura (the boaster)
Except. to R1: nouns, adj. ending by not stressed er change er into ra
few of them add an a
ël pòver ---> la pòvra (the poor)
liber ---> libera (free)
Except. to R1: nouns, adj. ending by stressed e + cons.(s) change e into ë and add an a
other of them just add an a
spess ---> spëssa (thick)
anter ---> antera (integer, complete)
(Rule 2) nouns , adj. ending by i add an a at feminine degordì ---> degordìa (quick-witted)
(Rule 3) nouns , adj. ending by u add an a at feminine
but also they can add a va
grorolù ---> grorolùa
but also grorolùva (rough, rude)
(Rule 4) nouns , adj. ending by o change the o into a dròlo ---> dròla (fun, strange)
Except. to R4: the noun / adj. vido It adds an a ël vido ---> la vidoa (widower, widow)
(Rule 5 nouns , adj. ending by not stressed e change the e into a màire ---> màira (meagre)
(Rule 6 nouns , adj. ending by acute stressed é change the é into era ël maslé---> la maslera (the butcher)


From singular to plural

As we have already quickly seen, we can say that the majority of Piedmontese substantives and masculine forms of adjectives are invariant at plural. This is not so true for pronouns (but we will see this later). The nearly only variable nouns and forms are the feminine ones ending by not stressed "...a". But, as usual, there are exceptions.

Nouns and adjectives ending at singular by consonant or stressed vowel

These names and adjectives, independently from their gender remain unchanged at plural. For example:
  • l'ajassin (m) (the corn) ---> j'ajassin (the corns)
  • un tch (m) (a piece) ---> doi tch (two pieces)
  • l sold (m) (the soldier) ---> ij sold (the soldiers)
  • la mansion (f) (the task) ---> le mansion (the tasks)
  • l pruch (m) (the barber) ---> ij pruch (the barbers)
  • l beu (m) (il ox) ---> ij beu (the oxes)
  • l novod (m) (the nephew) ---> ij novod (the nephews)
  • la comission (f) (the commission) ---> le comission (the commissions)
  • la saldatriss (f) (the welding-machine) ---> le saldatriss (the welding-machines)
  • etc.

A first exception to this rule is given by substantives and adjectives ending by "...l". These ones, at plural, change the "...l" into "...j":
  • l faudal (the apron) ---> ij faudaj (the aprons)
  • la cusa sivil (the civil suit) ---> le cuse sivij (the civil suits)
  • l botal (the barrel) ---> ij botaj (the barrels)
  • l fieul (the son) ---> ij fijeuj (the sons)
  • l trabial (the roof) ---> ij trabiaj (the roofs)
  • etc.

A second exception is given by some adjectives and pronouns (not so many) that, when masculine, do the plural by adding a "...i" to the singular:
  • nstr fieul (our son) ---> nstri fieuj (our sons)
  • vstr fieul (your son) ---> vstri fieuj (your sons)
  • pch lit(few milk) ---> pchi tch(few pieces)
  • utr esempi (other example) ---> utri esempi (other examples)
  • tant pan (so much bread) ---> tanti gat(so many cats)
  • trp (too much) ---> trpi (too many)
  • etc.
Also the words ann, pver, divers (respectively year, poor, different/much-many) are part of this group, but their behaviour is more complex, and we'll see it a bit more in deep.
The word "ann" = "year", where the double "nn" just indicates the palatal pronounciation of the simple "n", can have two irregular plurals, respectively in "ani" (deletion of an "n" and addition of "...i") or in "agn" (deeper change).
The word "pver", while substantive, remains unchanged at plural. When instead it is adjective, the masculine plural is "pvri". The singular feminine is "pvra" and has a regular plural. For example we have: "a-i son tanti pver" = "there are many poors", but instead "a j'ero doi povri cit = "they were two poor children".
The word "divers" has two meanings. When the meaning is "different" then it doesen't change at plural. When the meaning is "some, much, many" the plural adds an "...i" and becomes "diversi". So we have "a son doi tch divers" = "they are two different pieces" but instead "a-i son diversi tch" = "there are many pieces".

Nouns and adjectives ending at singular by not stressed vowel

As far as this group is concerned, if the noun or the adjective ending by "a, e, i, o" (the ending "u" is always stressed and the related words belong to the previous group) is masculine, then it remains unchanget at plural. The same happens for feminine nouns ending by "...e" (possibly also by "i, o" if any). So we have:
  • l molita (l'arrotino) ---> ij molita (gli arrotini)
  • l prive (the priest) ---> ij prive (the priests)
  • l potagi (the course) ---> ij potagi (the courses)
  • l'sto (the innkeeper) ---> j'sto (the innkeepers)
  • la mare (the mother) ---> le mare (the mothers)
  • etc.
The word "mo" (= man), that can also be "m" at singular, has four possible plurals, whose one follows this rule of invariance:
  • Singular: l'mo, l'm (the man) ---> Plural: j'm, j'mo, j'mni, j'mini (the men)

The feminine nouns and adjectives ending by "...a", do the plural by changing the "...a" into "...e":
  • la siola (the onion) ---> le siole (the onions)
  • l'ora (the ear) ---> j'orie (the ears)
  • la bota (the bottle) ---> le bote (the bottles)
  • la bta (the blow) ---> le bte (the blows)
  • etc.

For this group, if the ending of the word is "...cia" or "...gia", then the ending of the plural becomes respectively "...ce" or "...ge":
  • na fija svicia (a quick girl) ---> doe fije svice (two quick girls)
  • l'ongia (the (finger)nail) ---> j'onge (the (fingher)nails)
  • etc.

As it is for Italian, also in Piedmontese there are substantives having two plurals, one for gender, with different meanings:
  • servel (brain) ---> ij servej (brains, minds) e le servele (brain - anatomy -)
  • buel (intestine. alley) ---> ij buj (alleys) e le bule (bowels - anatomy -)
  • fondament (foundation) ---> ij fondament (the grounding) e le fondamenta (the foundations)
  • etc.
In Piedmontese there is not the word "crno" = "horn" which in Italian has two plurals, while in Piedmontese there is only a plural equal to th singular.

Also in this case there are some particularities:
Then there are nouns having only the plural, that are singular in Italian. Example:
  • le rossole = the measles (in italian = il morbillo)
  • le batiaje = the baptism (in italian = il battesimo)
  • etc.

Also in this case we give a summary table on passage from singular to plural:

Singular ending Rule or exception Example
(Rule 1) all words ending by consonant Are invariant ël tch---> lj tch (the piece, the pieces)
Except. to R1: all words ending by l change the l into j ël fieul ---> ij fieuj (the son, the sons)
Except. to R1: few masculine adjectives add an i tròp ---> tròpi (too much, too many)
Partic. in R1: masculine words like pòver if adject. change er into ri
(and precede the noun)
if noun is invariant
un pòver fieul ---> doi pòvri fieuj (a poor boy, two poor boys)
un pòver ---> doi pòver (a poor, two poors)
Partic. in R1: the word ann (= year) change the last n into i
or becomes agn
n'ann ---> doi ani (a year, two years)
n'ann ---> doi agn (a year, two years)
(Rule 2) all words ending by stressed vowel Are invariant ël soldà ---> ij soldà (the soldier, the soldiers)
(Rule 3) masculine words ending by not stressed vowel Are invariant ël pito ---> ij pito (the turkey, the turkeys)
(Rule 4) feminine words ending by not stressed e Are invariant la mare ---> le mare (the mother, the mothers)
(Rule 5) feminine words ending by not stressed a change the a into e la fija ---> le fije (the daughter, the daughters)
Except. to R5: feminine words
ending with not stressed ...cia, ...gia
change the ...cia into ...ce
change the ...gia into ...ge
la mcia --->le mce ( the stain, the stains)
l'óngia --->j'ónge ( the nail, the nails)

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lago10
An alpine lake
   in Maira valley

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. (photo B. Garmondi)
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