THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE FIELD OF CLINICAL SOCIOLOGY
Jan Marie Fritz
This paper defines clinical sociology and summarizes the history and development of the field. The general contributions of clinical sociologists are outlined and the field's prospects are discussed.
1. Defining clinical sociology
Clinical sociologists in many countries are writing about a range of important academic and practical topics (e.g., Aubert and Gaulejac (l99l) in France; Tosi (1991) in Italy; Clark, Fritz and Ricker (l990) and Lackey (l990) in the United States; Loicq (1992) in Belgium; Rigas (l99l) in Greece and Teixeira (1991) in Brazil). One of their interests has been the development of the field of clinical sociology -- its history, theories and methods.
In the United States, for instance, volumes about the field began appearing in the late 1970s (e.g., Straus, 1979; Glassner and Freedman, 1979; Fritz, 1985; Fritz and Clark, 1989; Rebach and Bruhn, 199l and Straus, 1993) and the Clinical sociology review, a journal, began publication in 1982. Clinical sociology also was being discussed in France (e.g., van Bockstaele, van Bockstaele, Barrot and Magny, 1963; Gaulejac, 1986; Enriquez, 1992), in the Netherlands (e.g., Ramondt, 1991; van de Vall, 1991) and by french-speaking sociologists in Canada (e.g., Sevigny, 1977; Houle, 1987). Two books on clinical sociology currently are under development in Greece.
In the United States the words "clinical" and "sociology" were first linked in print in 1930. Milton C. Winternitz (1930a,b), a physician and dean of the Yale university medical school, wrote about his proposal to establish a department of clinical sociology. That same year Abraham Flexner (1930), mentioned Winternitz' clinical sociology proposal in his Universities: American, English, German.
The first published discussion of clinical sociology by a sociologist appeared in l93l. That was the year Louis Wirth's (1931a) "Clinical sociology" was in The American journal of sociology and when Wirth (193lb), in a career pamphlet, identified clinical sociology as one of the "major divisions of sociology."
A discussion of the "clinical" approach of sociologists and of "clinical sociology" has appeared in American publications at least every few years during the last 60 years (Fritz, 1989b, 1991). The definition usually involved several threads -- analysis, research and intervention. The American literature, over the last ten years, particularly has emphasized intervention.
Clinical sociology is defined here as a multidisciplinary, humanistic field that assesses and reduces problems through analysis and intervention. Clinical analysis is the critical assessment of beliefs, policies and/or practices with an eye toward improving the situation. Intervention, the creation of new systems as well as the change of existing systems, is based on continuing analysis (Fritz, 1991a).
Clinical sociologists have speciality areas -- such as ethnic relations or organizational analysis -- and work in many capacities. They are, for example, community organizers, sociotherapists, conflict interventionists, social policy implementors and administrators. Many clinical sociologists combine their intervention work with full-time or part-time university teaching.
Clinical sociologists use the range of research methods and are very diverse in terms of their theoretical approaches. They most frequently undertake case analysis but use both qualitative and quantitative research skills for assessment and evaluation. Clinical sociologists are eclectic in their use of theory in that they bring together the approaches from the different disciplines they have studied. Usually one sociological approach -- e.g., systems theory, symbolic interaction, conflict theory -- is basic to the practitioner's work and is combined with one or more other approaches. A combination of approaches (e.g., conflict theory and behaviorism) may be determined to be the most useful in analyzing a problem or intervening in a system.
The role of the clinical sociologist can be at one or more levels of focus from the individual to the inter-societal. Even though the clinical sociologist specializes in one or two levels of intervention, the translation of social theory, concepts and methods into practice requires a special kind of skill. The clinical sociologist must not only be able to recognize the various levels of intervention but must move among the levels for analysis and intervention (Freedman, 1984).
2. The History of Clinical Sociology
The origins of the field date back at least five centuries -- to the work in North Africa of Arab historian and statesperson Abu Zaid Abdalrahman ibn Muhammad ibn Khaldun Wali-ad-Din-Hadrami, best known as Ibn Khaldun (1331-1406). He founded "the science of human social organization," the basis for what is now called sociology (Baali, 1988:xi, 107). In his Muqaddimah, Ibn Khaldun provided numerous clinical observations based on his work experiences, which included seal bearer, secretary of state, ambassador, negotiator and judge. In the latter role he was seen as a reformer who practiced with "strict honesty and great integrity" (Baali, 1988:1-3; Fritz, 1989b:73).
Ibn Khaldun was the first to use a scientific approach to the study of social life in combination with intervention. But he and many individuals now designated as early sociologists, were not called sociologists during the periods in which they lived. Identifying the earliest clinical sociologists is also difficult because many of them did not use the label for themselves. Nonetheless, a review of the work of the early scientists and practitioners allows us to identify precursors and clinicians.
Among those in Europe who would be included at the very least as precursors of contemporary clinical sociology were the classical sociologists Auguste Comte, Émile Durkheim and Karl Marx. Comte believed the scientific study of societies would provide the basis for social action. Durkheim and Marx provided a clinical perspective, a model or framework, for the analysis of social dilemmas (Fritz, 1989b:73). Among those whose work has been identified directly as clinical sociology is Beatrice Webb (1858-1943). Webb was active in the Fabian Society and helped to establish the London School of Economics. She identified herself with sociology and social investigation and had a strong influence on British social policy (Fritz, 1991c:17).
The early American sociologists were practitioners and professors, and some -- such as Frank Blackmar (Fritz, 1990c) in Kansas and W.E.B. Du Bois (Fritz, 1990a) in Georgia -- combined these roles. While sociology was taught beginning in the late 1800s in the United States, the earliest references to the label "clinical sociology" are in the late 1920s and 1930s. During those years there were clinical sociologists (e.g., Louis Wirth, Harvey Zorbaugh, Leonard Cottrell) who headed or worked in clinics for children and professors (e.g., Ernest Burgess, Louis Wirth, Harvey Zorbaugh) who taught courses entitled "clinical sociology" (Fritz, 1991a).
During the last sixty years there always has been some discussion of clinical sociology in the United States, but it wasn't until the late l970s that the field again gained some attention from the public and from other sociologists. The growth of clinical sociology has been due in large part to the efforts of the sociological practice Association (established in l978 as the clinical sociology Association). The directors of the organization put an extensive publishing schedule in place and established an innovative, competency-based certification process.
During the 1960s and 1970s interest in clinical sociology also was developing in several other countries, particularly in France and Canada. Among the significant contributors in France were Jacques van Bockstaele, Maria van Bockstaele, Max Pages and Eugene Enriquez and in Quebec one would have to note the pioneering work of Robert Sevigny and his colleagues.
3. The Utility of Clinical Sociology
Each country -- depending on its level of economic development, its priorities and its willingness to see and meet its needs -- will identify, analyze and take actions to alleviate social problems. Clinical sociologists, like those in many fields, can and are helping to solve or at least reduce the problems in their own countries as well as in multinational settings. At this point it might be helpful to focus on the kinds of contributions we might expect from clinical sociologists.
The major contributions will differ depending upon a number of factors such as a practitioner's level of training (B.A., M.A. or Ph.D.), length and type of experience and areas of competence. Many skilled practitioners in the United States apply for certification. We might expect the following contributions, in general, from doctoral-level certified practitioners (Fritz, l992c):
Theoretical analysis. The clinical sociologist has had extensive training in theory. The result is a working knowledge of a range of theories in two or more disciplines that affect her or his area of specialization. The clinical sociologist is expected to:
- have the ability to translate theories for practical use
- periodically reflect on her or his own theoretical approach and the possible effects of this approach on the work undertaken
- provide theoretical perspective, when the situation warrants, for clients, colleagues, employers and interested community members
Social systems perspective. A sociologist's training emphasizes understanding of (l) the social system -- a configuration of positions, roles and norms -- as a dynamic force and (2) the effects of membership in overlapping systems. Clinical sociologists are expected to be knowledgeable about systems, to move between theory and practice in working with systems and to assist individuals and groups in assessing and possibly changing systems.
Levels of analysis. The clinical sociologist is expected to concentrate on a level of analysis (e.g., individual, small group, organization, local community, international) when undertaking an intervention project. But the practitioner also should have the ability not only to recognize the various levels but to move among them for analysis and intervention.
Methodological sophistication. A sociologist receives extensive training in research methods. Clinical sociologists are expected to know the comparative strengths and weaknesses of qualitative and quantitative methods in their practice settings.
A clinical sociologist also is expected to recommend appropriate methods (e.g., participatory research, action research, focus groups) by taking into account the objectives of the involved parties, ethical considerations and available resources.
Intervention skills. A clinical sociologist will have interdisciplinary training and substantial intervention experience in her or his speciality area. The certified practitioner would get beyond simply pointing out a few of the difficulties in a situation. The practitioner will put a process in place which will allow for the analysis of situations and for the development of alternative ways of dealing with situations. The clinical sociologist, when possible, will initiate or facilitate interventions. In any intervention, the clinical sociologist is bound by a code of ethics and is expected to identify and address ethical issues that may arise.
Specialized body of knowledge. Each clinical sociologist has a frame of reference which emphasizes social factors (e.g., socio-economic conditions, ethnicity, gender) and at least one or two areas of special competence -- e.g., health promotion, criminology, counseling, community organization or social policy. A clinical sociologist is expected to work in areas where she or he has particular expertise, and to advise interested parties before undertaking work that goes beyond the special areas of knowledge or intervention.
Social problem identification. The clinical sociologist -- because of her/his critical approach, problem-solving outlook and multidisciplinary education -- is expected to be able to assist in the early identification of social problems and to help put a humane process in place that will reduce or resolve problems.
Certainly clinical sociologists are not the only ones who might make these kinds of contributions. It is true, however, that different disciplines generally emphasize one or more of the areas on the list and give minimal coverage to some others. Sociology programs, for instance, frequently stress certain explanatory factors (e.g., economic or political decisions, stratification systems), social theory and research methods. They often do not provide supervised training in intervention and so many clinical sociologists have had to receive this training outside of their major program.
4. The Market Situation for Clinical Sociology
Clinical sociology is a very diverse field. We intervene or analyze intervention projects at many levels (e.g., individual, interpersonal, neighbourhood, organization, intersocietal). We have a complex labor market situation and so it is difficult to be very specific about the demand for our work. As we have no data on our international labor market, I will rely here on information only from the United States in hopes that there are some general points that may be made from this one case.
The U.S. Department of Labor, in its Occupational Outlook Handbook, has identified clinical sociology as one of the growth areas within sociology in the United States (Clark and Fritz, 1991). Within the field of clinical sociology I think our current growth areas are prevention projects that encourage health or discourage delinquency or criminal behavior; conflict intervention; case management of the delivery of a range of social and economic services; market analysis (including focus groups); democratic renewal/development and economic development/revitalization of communities.
Clinical sociologists who work as part of multidisciplinary teams at major research institutions have been very successful at receiving federal funds particularly in mental health; alcohol and drugs; aging and education. The situation for funding of social science projects at the federal level is very much affected by which political party is in power and by the way in which a funding agency is organized. For instance, the national science Foundation (Nsf) will now have a directorate for social science research and this should assure at least a guaranteed presence for social science work.
The Consortium of social science Associations (Cossa) was established about ten years ago in the United States. It has helped see that federal funding for social science research has not disappeared during periods of economic or political difficulty. This is particularly important when one realizes that at the Institutes of Health each institute generally only spends 3-4% of its research budget on social science research. (Some institutes -- e.g., aging and child health -- do devote a higher percentage of their budget to social and behavioral research.) Cossa likes to think it has been helpful in seeing that NSF established a social science research directorate; in encouraging the U.S. Congress to suggest that each health institute report its funding for social science projects and in obtaining funding for a social science health survey at the institute responsible for studies on aging (Auerbach, 1992).
None of the federal funding sources is equally interested in all theoretical perspectives, all research topics, all methodologies or all kinds of applicants (e.g., unaffiliated research or from a university or college that does not have a national reputation for research). This means that federal funding is only a possibility for a limited number of American clinical sociologists.
Many clinical sociologists do receive funds for their projects from state governments and foundations. In most cases they are able to obtain funds because of their expertise about the subject not because they are sociologists. They are more successful when the reviewing panels are not connected to any particular discipline and when they work as part of a multidisciplinary team. Even saying this, however, attention still needs to be paid to the expectations from the funding source. For instance, tobacco-control projects in California that are funded by the California Department of health services expect certain staff members will be called "health educators" rather than clinical sociologists, sociologists or psychologists.
Some clinical sociologists are interested in important projects that will not easily attract funding. These may be ones, for instance, that are too hot in a political sense or that do not fall within current funding priorities.
Clinical sociologists are hired (on a full-time or part-time basis) by businesses and government units to conduct research or undertake intervention research around questions of marketing. Some of these individuals run consulting operations, others administer market research divisions or work as part of intervention research teams. It appears that employment in larger consulting groups seems to be steady as the larger companies prefer to hand assignments to outside groups now and keep their full-time employment "lean" during these economically difficult times. Unless a business has a sociologist doing the hiring, the fact that an applicant is a sociologist probably will not be seen as a particular advantage. During the hiring process many sociologists only define themselves as "market researchers" or "focus group trainers" rather than as sociologists.
Training opportunities for graduate students in intervention research and intervention are being limited in many ways in the United States. I recently visited a county department of mental health where there were different state employees whose jobs were to supervise graduate students in social work, counseling or administration. No such arrangement was easily possible for graduate students connected to other disciplines (including sociology). This was because state laws did not mandate participation; state organizations and licensing boards had not opened the doors for participation and sociologists were not seen as eligible for third-party payments. The movement on the part of some large professional organizations to see that only their students are eligible for jobs in certain areas may not affect the current employment of sociologists but will affect the number of sociology students that we attract and the viability of our graduate programs.
Clinical sociology is a multidisciplinary, humanistic field that assesses and reduces problems through critical analysis and intervention. Clinical sociologists in at least 25 countries are providing valuable research and intervention expertise to individuals, organizations, local communities, national governments and international bodies. Their work addresses the conditions which are basic to our perceived problems and focuses our efforts on analysis, prevention and early intervention.
The vitality of the field of clinical sociology is indicated in at least three ways:
- the rapidly growing body of literature
- the number of national and international conferences being held that focus on the field or feature clinical sociologists
- the number of professionals in many fields (e.g., psychology, social work, business) who are joining our organizations and conferences because they value clinical sociological perspectives.
The growth of the field of clinical sociology may be facilitated in a number of ways. An analysis of the American case indicates that at least three areas need to be addressed.
First, policymakers and the public need to see the value of our work in policy statements, magazine articles and popular books. This means that those doing intervention need to take the time to write about their work for a popular audience and that those who write need to clearly identify themselves as clinical sociologists.
Second, we need to see that "clinical sociology" is a category in personnel listings and included in funding priorities. (The visibility of clinical sociology is tied, of course, to the visibility of the general field of sociology. We need to see more instances, as in Spain, where a downtown building in Madrid is clearly labelled as the center of sociological research and where an employee, such as at one of the Mondragon cooperatives, has a business card that clearly labels him as a staff sociologist.)
Third, we need to establish clinical sociology (intervention and intervention research) programs within academic settings (Fritz and Clark, 1992). Sociologists and others who are interested in receiving clinical sociology training should have the possibility of doing so within a variety of established sociology programs.
Aubert, Nicole and Vincent de Gaulejac (199l) Le coût de l'excellence. Paris: Seuil.
Auerbach, Judith (1992) Interview with COSSA staff member. March 20.
Baali, Fuad (1988) Society, State and Urbanism. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press.
Battisti, Francesco M. (1990), The social psychology of property. Pp. 130-145 in A. Fusco, F.M. Battisti and R. Tomassoni (eds.) Recent Experiences in General and Social Psychology in Italy and Poland. Cassino, Italy: Università degli Studi di Cassino.
Cernea, Michael (199l) Using Knowledge from Social Science in Development Projects. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
Clark, Elizabeth (1984) Intervention for cancer patients: A clinical sociology approach to program planning. Journal of Applied Sociology. 1(December):83-96.
Clark, Elizabeth and Jan Marie Fritz (1991) The clinical approach to successful program development. Pp. 7-18 in Jan Fritz (ed.) The Clinical Sociology Resource Book. Washington, D.C.: American Sociological Association and the Sociological Practice Association.
Clark, Elizabeth and Jan Marie Fritz (eds.) (l99l) Health Sociology, a special issue of Sociological Practice. East Lansing, Michigan: Michigan State University Press.
Clark, Elizabeth, Jan Marie Fritz and Pat Rieker (eds.)(1990) Clinical Sociological Perspectives on Illness and Loss: The Linkage of Theory and Practice. Philadelphia: The Charles Press.
Clark, Elizabeth, G. Zambelli, A. De Jong and K. Marse (1988) Clinical Intervention for Bereaved Children: A Hospice Model. Montclair, New Jersey: The Hospice, Inc.
Cuthbertson-Johnson, Beverley Ann (1989) The first national traineeship in clinical sociology. The Practicing Sociologist. 11/1(Winter):4-5.
Enriquez, Eugene (1983) De la horde a l'État. Paris: Gallimard.
Enriquez, Eugene (1984) Individu, création et histoire. Connexions. 44:140-160.
Enriquez, Eugene (1992) Remarques terminales vers une sociologie clinique d'inspiration psychanalytique. L'organisation en analyse. Fevrier. Paris: P.U.F.
Eve, Susan (ed.) (1992) Clinical Sociology Review. An annual publication of the Sociological Practice Association. East Lansing, Michigan: Michigan State University Press.
Flexner, Abraham (1930) Universities: American, English, German. New York: Oxford University Press.
Freedman, Jonathan (1984) Integration of levels of focus: Is this what makes clinical sociology unique? Presidential address. Annual meeting of the Clinical Sociology Association (now the Sociological Practice Association). August. San Antonio, Texas.
Fritz, Jan Marie (1979) Practicing clinical sociology: Clients in the classroom. The American Behavioral Scientist. March/April:577-588.
Fritz, Jan Marie (1982 Service-learning, gerontology and sociology: Implications for the discipline. Pp. 34-45 in Service Learning in Aging: Sociology. Washington, D.C.: National Council on Aging.
Fritz, Jan Marie (1985) The Clinical Sociology Handbook. New York: Garland.
Fritz, Jan Marie (1987) The Whyte line. Clinical Sociology Review. 5:13-16.
Fritz, Jan Marie (1988) Charles Gomillion, educator-community activist. Clinical Sociology Review. 6:13-21.
Fritz, Jan Marie (l989a) Dean Winternitz, clinical sociology and the Julius Rosenwald Fund. Clinical Sociology Review. 7:17-27.
Fritz, Jan Marie (1989b) The history of clinical sociology. Sociological Practice. 7:72-95.
Fritz, Jan Marie (1990a) In pursuit of justice: W.E.B. Du Bois. Clinical Sociology Review. 8:15-26.
Fritz, Jan Marie (1990b) The uses of sociology in clinical settings. Pp. 10-22 in E. Clark, J. Fritz, P. Rieker, eds. Clinical Sociological Perspectives on Illness and Loss: The Linkage of Theory and Practice. Philadelphia: The Charles Press.
Fritz, Jan Marie (1990c) Notes from the history of American sociology: Frank Blackmar's last years at the University of Kansas. Mid-American Review of Sociology. 14/1(Winter):13-26.
Fritz, Jan Marie (1991a) The history of American clinical sociology: The first courses. Clinical Sociology Review. 9:15-26.
Fritz, Jan Marie (1991b) The emergence of American clinical sociology. Pp. 17-32 in Howard Rebach and John Bruhn (eds.) Handbook of Clinical Sociology. New York:Plenum.
Fritz, Jan Marie (1991c The contributions of clinical sociology in health care settings. Health Sociology, a special issue of Sociological Practice. 9:15-29.
Fritz, Jan Marie (1992a Creating successful communities. In Roger Straus (ed.) Using Sociology: An Introduction from the Applied and Clinical Perspectives. Second edition. Bayside, New York: General Hall. (in press)
Fritz, Jan Marie (1992b) Communities: Making them work. Reprint of a 1985 publication. In Bryan Byers (ed.) Readings in Social Psychology. New York: Allyn and Bacon. (in press)
Fritz, Jan Marie (1992c) The contributions of clinical sociology in addressing social problems. Sociological Practice Review. 3(July):113-118.
Fritz, Jan Marie (ed.) (1982) Clinical Sociology Review. I. East Lansing, Michigan: Michigan State University Press.
Fritz, Jan Marie (199l) The Clinical Sociology Resource Book. Third edition. Washington, D.C.: American Sociological Association Teaching Resources Center and the Sociological Practice Association.
Fritz, Jan Marie and Elizabeth Clark (1992) An overview of the field of sociological practice: The development of clinical sociology and applied sociology. In Novella Perrin, Carla Howery, John Seem and Robert Bendiksen (eds.) Teaching Sociological Practice. Washington, D.C.: American Sociological Association Teaching Resources Center. (in press)
Fritz, Jan Marie and Elizabeth Clark (eds.) (1986) The Clinical Sociology Resource Book. Second edition. Washington, D.C.: American Sociological Association and the Sociological Practice Association.
Fritz, Jan Marie (1989) The Development of Clinical and Applied Sociology, a special issue of Sociological Practice. East Lansing, Michigan: Michigan State University Press.
Gaulejac, Vincent de (1986) Pour une sociologie clinique. Bulletin de psychologie. XXXIX/377.
Gaulejac, Vincent de (1987) La nevrose de class. Paris: Éditions Hommes et groupes. Glassner, Barry and Jonathan Freedman
Gaulejac, Vincent de (1979) Clinical Sociology. New York: Longman.
Gurdin, J. Barry (1986) Clinical sociology in France and Quebec: A primer and commentary. Clinical Sociology Review. 4:46-56.
Houle, Gilles (1987) Le sens commun comme forme de connaissance: De l'analyse clinique en sociologie. Sociologie et Sociétés. XIX/2: 77-87. Montreal: Presses de l'Université de Montreal.
Hurvitz, Nathan and Roger Straus (1990) Marriage and Family Therapy: A Sociocognitive Approach. New York: Haworth.
Iutcovich, Joyce Miller and Mark Iutcovich (1987) The Sociologist as Consultant. New York: Praeger.
Kallen, David (ed.) (1985-9l) Clinical Sociology Review. East Lansing, Michigan: Michigan University Press.
Kapusinski, Anthony with Terry Sutterlin, Katie Lou Hobbins, Ronald Wright and Robert Bendiksen (1989) Problem solving sociology. Clinical Sociology Review. 7:178-197.
Kennedy, Daniel B. (1984) Clinical sociology and correctional counseling. Crime & Delinquency. 30/2(April):269-92.
Lackey, Al (1990) Community, a special issue of Sociological Practice. East Lansing, Michigan: Michigan State University Press.
Lee, Alfred McClung (1988) Sociology for People: Toward a Caring Profession. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press.
Legrand, Michel and Francis Loicq (199l) Alcoolisme et récit de vie: Premieres étapes d'une recherche. Étude de 4 cas. (Alcoholism and the life story: First states of research. A study of four cases.) A.R.B.R.H. 9, Belgium.
Libert, Vincent, Brigette Borboux, Francis Loicq and Wilma Langer (1987) Fonctionnement de la méthode du récit de vie en travail social dans une institution de readaptation socio-professionnel pour toxicomanes (Life story as a method in social work with drug addicts in rehabilitation). Cahiers de la Dependance. 7:13-65.
Loicq, Francis (1987) Le récit de vie centre sur l'heritage familial et la trajectoire sociale (Life story centered on family heritage and social trajectory). Cahiers de la Dependance. 7:13-65.
Loicq, Francis (1992) L'approche biographique comme lieu de rencontre entre le "faire" du client et le "faire" de l'intervenant (The biographical approach as the meeting point between the actions of the client and the helping worker). Annales Cardijn. 10.
Markadonis, I.E. and Anastasia Rigas (editors) (1992) Family, Maternity, Foster Care. (Greek language). Athens:Maypommath.
Merwe, Henrik W. van der (199l) Constructive conflict intervention in South Africa: Some lessons. Clinical Sociology Review. 9:71-86.
Pages, M., M. Bonetti, V. de Gaulejac and D. Descendre (1979) L'emprise de l'organisation. Paris:PUF.
Ramondt, J.J. (l99l) Clinical organization research: Theory and method. Rotterdam: RISBO, Erasmus University. Manuscript.
Rebach, Howard M. and John G. Bruhn (eds.) (1991) Handbook of Clinical Sociology. New York: Plenum.
Rheaume, Jacques and Robert Sevigny (1988) La sociologie implicite des intervenants en santé mentale. Vol. I. Les pratiques alternatives: des groupes d'entr'aide aux groupes spirituels. Vol. II. Les intervenants professionels: De la croissance personnelle à la guerison. Montreal: Éditions Albert Saint-Martin.
Rigas, Anastasia V. (1988) Adoption: The child without sexual contact. (Greek language). Annales Clinicae Paediatricae Universitatis Atheniensis. January-February-March:16-23.
Rigas, Anastasia V.(1989a) Interfamily conflicts and the adolescent's social behavior. (Greek language) Annales Clinicae Paediatricae Universitatis Atheniensis. October- November-December:232-245.
Rigas, Anastasia V. (1989b) Laissez-moi vivre (Let me live). Psychologie Medicale. 21/10:1487-1493.
Rigas, Anastasia V.(1991) Cancer: The "Dynamic" Repetition from Mother to Daughter. (Greek language). Athens: Maypommath.
Sevigny, Robert (1977) Intervention psychosociologique: Réfléxion critique. Sociologie et Societes. 9/2:7-33.
Sevigny, Robert (1979) Le Quebec en heritage: La vie de trois families montrealaises. Laval, Quebec: Éditions cooperatives Albert Saint-Martin.
Straus, Roger (1930b) Medicine as a social science. Pp. 40-45 in L.D. White (ed.) The New Social Science. Chicago: University of Chicago.
Straus, Roger (1979) Clinical sociology: An idea whose time has come. again. Sociological Practice. 3/l(Fall):21-41.
Straus, Roger (1989) Creative Self-Hypnosis: New Wide-Awake, Nontrance Techniques to Empower your Life, Work and Relationships. New York: Prentice Hall.
Teixeira, Joao Gabriel (1991) A Teoria de Sociedade em Freud (Freud's Theory of Society). Sao Paolo, Brazil: Editora Pedagogica e Universitaria.
Tosi, Michelina(1990) Sociological aspects in serious pathologies' treatment. The disease from the relational pèoint of view, XII World Congress of Sociology, Madrid
Tosi, Michelina(1991) L'aiuto possibile: Situazioni e strategie di intervento per una migliore sopravvivenza dei malati di cancro (Possible Help: Situations and Intervention Strategies to Increase the Survival of Cancer Patients). Roma, Italy: Angeli.
van Bockstaele, Jacques, Maria van Bockstaele, C. Barrot and Cl. Magny (1963) Travaux de sociologie clinique: Quelques conditions d'une intervention de type analytique en sociologie. L'Année Sociologique. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
van Bockstaele, Jacques, Maria van Bockstaele, Colette Barrot, Jacques Malbos and Pierrette Schein (1968) Problemes de la sociologie clinique: Nouvelles observations sur la definition de la socioanalyse. L'Année Sociologique. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
van de Vall, Mark (1989) A comparative case method for "local molar" program evaluation and adjustment. Clinical Sociology Review. 7:52-63.
van de Vall, Mark (199l) The clinical approach: Triangulated program evaluation and adjustment. Knowledge and Policy. 4/3(Fall):4l- 57.
Volpe, Maria and Peter Maida (eds.) (1992) Conflict Processing, a special issue of Sociological Practice. East Lansing, Michigan: Michigan State University Press.
Winternitz, Milton C. (1930a) Report of the School of Medicine to the president of Yale University, 1928-29. Bulletin of Yale University.
Wirth, Louis (193la) Clinical sociology. American Journal of Sociology. 37/l:49-66. Reprinted in the 1982 issue of the Clinical Sociology Review.
Wirth, Louis (1931b) Sociology: Vocations for those interested in it. Pamphlet. Vocational Guidance Series, No. l. Chicago: University of Chicago. Louis Wirth Collection, University of Chicago, Department of Special Collections. Box LVI, Folder 6.