Cronologia degli eventi new media, 1952-1998



United States
John Cage
organizes an untitled event at Black Mountain College consisting of non-coordinated actions in different media (with Merce Cunningham, Charles Olson, Robert Rauschenberg, and David Tudor).

In Milan, the group "les spatialistes" draws up its manifesto for television.

The professional video recorder, produced by the American company Ampex, is imported for the first time. This very cumbersome equipment is mainly used by technicians at Radiodiffusion-Télévision Française (RTF).

Nam June Paik
meets John Cage in Darmstadt. From 1958 to 1961, Paik works with Karl-Heinz Stockhausen in the Studio für Elektronische Musik at the Westdeutscher Rundfunk (WDR) in Cologne.

A sketch in George Brecht's notebook, dated 25 June, shows a "television piece", an assemblage of nine working televisions forming what would now be called a video wall. In the notes relating to his "television piece", Brecht enumerates in detail the possibilities for intervening: "picture and horizontal adjustment, sound, volume, tuning depends on picture."

TV-décollage (events and actions for the Millions in 1959) by Wolf Vostell.

United States
Allan Kaprow presents 18 Happenings in Six Parts at the Reuben Gallery in New York.

Video as an art form emerges at the beginning of the decade from the encounter of visual artists, engineers, and television station managers who work together to explore new possibilities for the use of the video medium.

Pierre Schaeffer
becomes the head of the Research Department at the RTF (future ORTF). He creates the Groupe de Recherche Musicale and in 1968 the Groupe de Recherche Image (GRI), the first group for the creation of video images in France.

In Venice, L'Enterrement d'une chose (Burial of a Thing), conceived and carried out by Jean-Jacques Lebel, Alain Jouffroy, and Jean Tinguely becomes the first happening in Europe.

First presentation of Karl-Heinz Stockhausen's Originale at the Theater am Dom in Cologne. Nam June Paik begins his experiments in the electronic studio at the WDR.

George Maciunas coins the term fluxus during his three lectures on "Musica antica et nova" (June).

First Fluxus Festival at the American Students and Artists Center in Paris: "Poetry, music, and antimusic, factual and concrete". The program includes musical works by George Maciunas (In Memoriam to Adriano and Solo for Mouth and Microphone), Nam June Paik (One for Violin Solo, Serenade for Alison), Wolf Vostell (Décollage Musique "Kleenex"), and Robert Filliou (Poi Poi Symphony no. 2 and Père Lachaise no. 10), along with a selection of films by Paik. At the same time, Jean-Jacques Lebel creates the first Free Expression Workshop at the American Students and Artists Center. This initiative will help future exchanges between French and American artists (3-8 December).

Nam June Paik, invited by the experimental music studio of the WDR in Cologne, undertakes experiments with cathode tubes and the possibilities of modulating the electronic image (summer).

The nascent Fluxus group gives fourteen concerts/happenings in Wiesbaden. The professional musicians who refuse to play the music they are given are replaced by artists, who proceed to compose three hours of "antiviolin" music (the famous scene in which Dick Higgins, George Maciunas, Ben Patterson, Wolf Vostell, and Emmett Williams destroy a grand piano) (September).

The World Fluxus Festival of Total Art, organized by Ben Vautier with the participation of George Maciunas, takes place at the Hôtel Scribe in Nice. The event is marked by various happenings (Ben, Robert Bozzi, and George Maciunas). Films by Ben record the festival (25 July-3 August).

Jean-Christophe Averty and Max Debrenne experiment with the first graphic effects on television images for the monthly variety shows "Histoire de sourire" (Story of Smiling) and "Les Raisins verts" (Green Grapes) on France's first channel.

Nam June Paik and Wolf Vostell present their first experiments with images at the Parnass Gallery in Wuppertal (Exposition of Music-Electronic Television, 11-20 March). On the model of John Cage's prepared pianos, and in the spirit of Fluxus events, Paik places thirteen televisions prepared for the distortion of images on the floor among many other objects. This "event" is retrospectively identified as the beginning of video art.

Wolf Vostell
makes Sun in Your Hand, his first film work conceived like a video. It will be shown for the first time in 1964 in Amsterdam. Vostel films television images in order to modify and scramble them later on.

Jean-Jacques Lebel and Marc'O organize the first Free Expression Festival at the American Students and Artists Center in Paris. It includes happenings, film screenings, and a Fluxus concert by Ben with the participation of Serge Oldenbourg (Serge III). The festival is combined zith an exhibition of Pop and Nouveau Réaliste artists. Also present are George Brecht, Nam June Paik, Wolf Vostell, and La Monte Young (25-30 May).

Creation of the ORTF (French Radio Television Office), which replaces the RTF (May).

Peter Foldès makes Un appétit d'oiseau (Eating Like a Bird), an animated color video short, at the ORTF.

The first Sony mass-market video recorder goes on sale.

United States
First television broadcast with an experimental treatment of the image on WGBH-TV, Boston, for the "Broadcast Jazz Workshop".

Publication of Marshall McLuhan's Understanding Media.

Jean-Christophe Averty does two theater pieces in black and white, with special effects : Ubu Roi by Alfred Jarry and He Joe by Samuel Beckett. Produced by the ORTF, they are broadcast on the first channel.

Jean-Jacques Lebel organizes the Second Free Expression Festival at the American Students and Artists Center in Paris, with the participation of Arrabal, Ben, Robert Filliou, Serge III, Nam June Paik, and Charlotte Moorman (video installation : Robot Opera) (17-25 May).

Wolf Vostell's exhibition "'Phänomene', Verwischungen, Parituren" and happening dé-coll/age are organized by the Autofriedhof and the René Block Gallery in Berlin (9 February-27 April).

24 Stunden, dé-coll/age happening by Wolf Vostell at the Parnass Gallery in Wuppertal.

United States
TV Chair
, video sculpture by Nam June Paik, is presented at the third annual Avant-Garde festival in New York.

First "New Cinema" Festival at the New York Cinémathèque (videotapes by Nam June Paik and Charlotte Moorman).

With a Rockerfeller Foundation grant, Nam June Paik buys one of the first Sony Portapaks on the American market. On 4 October he shows a tape accompanied by a text entitled "Electronic Video Recorder" at the Café Au Go-Go in New York, a gathering place where performances often take place.

Les Levine, one of the early Portapak users, makes his first videotape, Bum. In 1966 he makes one of the first closed-circuit installations using a time lag, so that viewers see themselves with a five-second delay. The installation is presented at the Toronto Art Gallery.

Jean-Christophe Averty sets up the Vidéo Production Company with Igor Barrère, François Chatel, Pierre Tchernia, and Alexandre Tarta (March).

Third Free Expression Festival at the American Students and Artists Center in Paris, with actions by Robert Filliou, Jean-Jacques Lebel, and Kudo. The festival is suspended by the police (April).

Verwischungen. Happening-Notationen
, presentation of works, performance, and happening by Wolf Vostell at the Kunstverein in Cologne (July).

Pierre Gaudibert creates the ARC (Animation, Recherche, Confrontation) at the Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris.

Sony places the 12-inch, black-and-white Portapak on the French market (its appearance in the US goes back to 1965).

Martial Raysse creates Portrait Electro Machin Chose at the Research Department of the ORTF. Initially filmed in video in order to make use of special effects techniques, the videotape is subsequently transferred to 16 mm film. The same year, Raysse creates a closed-circuit video installation, Identité, maintenant vous êtes un Martial Raysse (a camera that films visitors in order to reflect them in a "monitor-painting").

Luciano Giaccari presents videotapes at Studio 971 in Varese.

United States
Aldo Tambellini opens the Black Gate in New York, the first "Electromedia Theater," where he organizes screenings and creates environment-actions using video.

KQED-TV in San Francisco sets up an experimental workshop on the double initiative of Brice Howard and Paul Kaufman and with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. In 1969 it will be named "National Center for Experiments in Television at KQED-TV" and funded by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting and the National Endowment for the Arts. WGBH-TV in Boston initiates its artists- in-residence program through a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation.

"American Sculpture of the Sixties," exhibition presented at the Los Angeles County Museum, includes a video installation by Bruce Nauman.

Creation of the Centro de Arte y Communicación (CAYC) in Buenos Aires for the distribution of videos abroad.

In Québec, Jean-Luc Godard develops the project for a broadcast entitled "Communications" for Radio-Nord. Several programs, recorded in video, are to be transferred to film for the broadcast; the quality of the result is deemed inadequate and the project is abandoned (December).

Danish artist William Louis Sørensen conceives his first video installation, Any Magnetic or Magneto-Optical Recording System That..., a magnetic tape loop with live recording and nearly simultaneous playback of the image.

Creation of the GRI (Groupe de Recherche Image) at the ORTF under the direction of Pierre Schaeffer. François Coupigny develops the "truqueur universel" (universal special effects device), which is used by Martial Raysse, Peter Foldès, and Jean-Paul Cassagnac for attempts at coloring the video image from black-and-white images.

New production and distribution structures emerge: Jean-Luc Godard creates the Sonimage Company in Paris, then moves it to Grenoble. Chris Marker creates the SLON (Service for Launching New Works) group with André Delvaux: "a cooperative available for all those who wish to make documentaries and who share certain common preoccupations." Filmmakers, workers, and political activists join (autumn).

French television commissions Le Gai Savoir from Jean-Luc Godard. Filmed in the studio in December 1967, it will be edited after May 1968. By deconstructing the traditional narrative structure of film, Godard explores its critical and educational capacities. His argument is deemed too subversive, and the film is never broadcast.

Video becomes an additional tool (shooting and editing facilities) for political filmmakers. Godard and Marker use the first Sony 2100 12-inch black-and-white cameras to create rough documents that will be distributed in the form of a counter-culture magazine called Vidéo 5 in François Maspéro's bookstore. Also shown in this bookstore are works by students at a school run by Noël Burch and Jean-André Fieschi.

United States
Creation of the San Francisco artists group Ant Farm (Chip Lord, Doug Michels, and Curtis Schreier). They begin using video in 1971 and participate in Radical Software magazine. They also create Guerilla Television (which gives its name to the 1972 book by Michael Shamberg), where they will be joined by Global Village, Video Freex, and Paper Tiger TV.

First exhibition including video art organized by Pontus Hulten at the Museum of Modern Art in New York: "The Machine to Make the Mechanical Age," with work by Nam June Paik.

Multi Medial in Vienna. Peter Weibel presents two videotapes: Prozess als Produkt, recording the preparations for the exhibit during which it was to be shown, and Publikum als Exponent.

In Copenhagen, Danish artist Torben Siborg opens a video workshop at Haslev Teachers College.

Alain Jacquier, of the ORTF's Research Department, installs the first 14-inch and 12-inch equipment allowing taping and editing in one-inch Ampex and later I.V.C. at the University of Paris 8-Vincennes and the Ecole nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He places video equipment borrowed from Jean-Luc Godard at the disposal of the Cinéthique group.

Fred Forest sets up a video installation in an abandoned church (transformed into the Galerie Sainte-Croix) in Tours. The work, Interrogation 69, uses screens integrated into a wall (May).

Creation of resource centers in the provincial MJCs (community art centers) in order to facilitate local access to video.

Appearance of mass-market Sony portable video recorders at the Salon de la Radio-Télévision (September).

Creation of the Atelier des Techniques de Communication (Communications Techniques Workshop, ATC), which organizes out the first video animation projects in cultural centers. The workshop directors, Jean-Marie Serreau and Guy Milliard, obtain a research contract from the Ministry of Cultural Affairs' Research Department (with equipment donated by the director of cultural action) (September-December).

In Darmstadt, creation of the Telewissen video group, whose motto is, "Do your own TV."

Martial Raysse makes Camembert Martial extraterrestre with the support of the German TV station ZDF. Shooting in video, he uses Francis Coupigny's "truqueur universel" synthesizer and later transfers Camembert Martial onto film.

Gerry Schum opens the TV Gallery in Berlin and, shortly afterward, inaugurates the Videogalerie in Dusseldorf, the first in Europe. The videotapes he shows include not only his own productions (he invites, among others, Daniel Buren for a video installation produced in 1971, Wolf Knoebel, and John Baldessari), but other works as well (Bruce Nauman).

Werner Höfer, manager of WDR, allows the broadcast of memorable conceptual projects. From 11 to 18 October, the English artist Keith Arnatt, in an intervention entitled TV Project Self-Burial, shows an image of his own photograph for two seconds, either just after the news or during prime time. During Christmas week, Jan Dibbets' TV as a Fireplace, shows the slow end of a hearth fire at the end of the evening's programming.

Katsuhiro Yamagushi creates the video installation Image Modulator.

Catalan artists Joan and Oriol Durán Benet carry out the first experiments with closed-circuit video (Daedalus Video).

Harald Szeemann organizes the exhibition "When Attitudes Become Form" at the Bern Kunsthalle. Among the 69 artists invited to this key event for the 1970s are Joseph Beuys, Hans Haacke, Robert Morris, Bruce Nauman, Dennis Oppenheim, Richard Serra, Lawrence Weiner, and Gilberto Zorio (27 March-27 April).

Analysis of the video medium is undertaken by artist-theorists like Jean Otth, René Bauermeister, Gérald Minkoff, and Muriel Oleson, who open the Galerie Rencontre in Lausanne. This gallery will present a vast international survey of video in 1974. The Swiss pioneers (in 1969) come from the French-speaking community: René Bauermeister, Gérald Minkoff, Muriel Oleson, Jean Otth, Janos Urban, and later Chérif and Sylvie Defraoui. Among the first German-speaking Swiss video artists are Urs Lüthi, Dieter Meier, Dieter Roth, and Hannes Vogel.

René Berger, director of the Musée d'art moderne in Lausanne, is one of the first Swiss theorists to deal with video and television at the University of Lausanne and in publications.

United States
In Boston, WGBH-TV broadcasts "The Medium Is the Medium," a thirty-minute program produced by Fred Barzyck and the Public Broadcasting Laboratory and featuring the works of Allan Kaprow, Nam June Paik, Otto Piene, James Seawright, Thomas Tadlock, and Aldo Tambellini.

With the end of the decade, political video collectives, action groups, and research workshops are created in New York and San Francisco (Televisionary Associated, the Alternate Media Center, Open Channel, the Media Bus). Political and community organizations use video as a means of communication and activism (Vietnam Veterans Against the War, Gay Activist Alliance, Environmental Protection Agency, etc.).

In New York, John Reilly and Rudi Stern create Global Village, a collective video space seeking to explore video as a cultural, educational, artistic, and community-based medium. Global Village, funded by the City of New York and the Rockefeller Foundation, makes its technicians and equipment available to outside groups. Each week, Global Village broadcasts ten hours of programs on New York's public television stations (September).

Video Freex, an experimental video group, is set up in New York by Skip Blumberg, Nancy Cain, David Cort, Bart Friedman, Ann Woodward, and others.

Bruce Nauman shows his first neons, videotapes, and a closed-circuit video installation, Live/Taped Video Corridor, at the Leo Castelli Gallery in New York.

The Howard Wise Gallery in New York organizes a video exhibition, "TV as a Creative Medium," with works by Frank Gillette, Charlotte Moorman, Nam June Paik, Earl Reiback, Ira Schneider, Eric Siegal, Thomas Tadlock, Aldo Tambellini, and Joe Weintraub.

Russell Connor organizes the "Video and Television" exhibit at Brandeis University's Rose Art Museum in Waltham, Massachusetts.

Body Art is born in New York. Like their European counterparts, artists Vito Acconci, Dan Graham, Bruce Nauman, Dennis Oppenheim, and others begin to use their own bodies as a medium.



Split Reality, the first video installation by Austrian artist Valie Export.

Birth of several artists' collectives in Montreal, including Véhicule, which is committed to new forms of expression like performance and video. Creation of alternative production and exhibition spaces (A Space in Toronto, Western Front in Vancouver).

The beginning of the decade is marked by the spread of video, not only as an art form but also as a sociological phenomenon. Through local distribution networks, it becomes a means of information and communication among individuals and groups.

At the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, Paul and Carole Roussopoulos set up the "Vidéo Out" collective. Its first video, featuring Jean Genet speaking about Angela Davis, is a kind of counter-television. A series of political videos defend the cause of women and workers (January).

The first cable TV experiments take place in Paris, and cable spreads in France's new towns (Villleneuve-de-Grenoble, Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Créteil, Cergy-Pontoise) and the provinces (Grenoble, Metz, Chamonix, Nice, Rennes) (March).

A "guerrilla television" project, aimed at combatting the ORTF monopoly with local TV, is set up by ACT and a group from the Beaux-Arts. They work out of a Montparnasse apartment in Paris, with two video cameras and a control panel.

The Ligue française de l'enseignement tapes a neighborhood news program in Bourges with a light video camera; twenty minutes of news are broadcast daily on a "mini-network."

Jean-Pierre Beauviala of the A.A.T.O.N. Company invents the "paluche" (paw), a miniature video camera measuring some 20 cm, which is intended to be mobile, easily manipulated and held in the hand.

Harald Szeemann and Hans Sohm organize Happening Fluxus at the Kunstverein in Cologne (November).

Identification broadcast on Westdeutscher Rundfunk I (Gerry Schum's "TV Gallery") with artists Giovanni Anselmo, Joseph Beuys, Alighiero e Boetti, Pierpaolo Calzolari, Jan Dibbets, Gilbert & George, Mario Merz, Ulrich Rückriem, Reiner Ruthenbeck, Lawrence Weiner, and Gilberto Zorio.

Great Britain
Exhibition at the Whitechapel Art Gallery in London, "3>Ï: New Multiple Art," featuring Joseph Beuys, Robert Filliou, and Bruce Nauman (19 November 1970-3 January 1971). Their works are also shown at two international exhibits partly devoted to video art, Expo 70 in Osaka and the Sixth Tokyo Biennale, organized by art critic Yusuki Nakahara.

At the end of the 1960s, during a period of intense artistic activity and soon after the arrival of the portable video camera on the market, the medium attracts the attention of Japanese artists coming from film, photography, acting, painting, sculpture, music, journalism, or publishing.

Among the new groups are Video Hiroba and Video Earth, created by Ko Nakajima.

Three Western video artists, the Americans John Reilly and Rudi Stern and the Canadian Michael Goldberg, head Video Hiroba, which includes some thirty artists. They acquire a portable video camera, rent a space in Tokyo, and undertake collective projects.

United States
First issue of Afterimage, edited by Simon Fields and Peter Sainbury (April).

Publication of The Expanded Cinema by Gene Youngblood.

The Museum of Modern Art in New York presents the "Information" show, curated by Keniston McShine, on the different currents in Conceptual Art. Artists include Vito Acconci, Art & Language, Joseph Beuys, Gilbert and George, Dan Graham, Hans Haacke, Bruce Nauman, and Lawrence Weiner (2 July-20 September).

Willoughby Sharp founds the magazine Avalanche in New York. Devoted to avant-garde activities and particularly video art, it continues publication until 1976.

Creation of the magazine Radical Software, edited initially by Beryl Korot, Ira Schneider, Phyllis Gershuny, and Michael Sheberg and later by Korot and Schneider alone. It features texts on the video medium but also philosophical and critical reflections and is published until 1974.

Creation of the Synapse Video Center in Syracuse, a group for production and distribution of videotapes (Gary Hill, Bill Viola, etc.).

Tom Mariani founds the Museum of Conceptual Art in San Francisco, an alternative space presenting performances and multimedia artworks.

Independent of the Paik-Abe synthesizer, Stephen Beck builds his Direct Video Synthesizer and Eric Siegal his Electric Video Synthesizer.

The "Bodyworks" exhibition, curated by Willoughby Sharp, presents videotapes by Vito Acconci, Tery Fox, Dennis Oppenheim, Keith Sonnier, and William Wegman.

The "This Is Your Roof" exhibition is presented at the international art festival held in Pamplona, Spain. Willoughby Sharp produces a series of videos, mainly documentaries on the activities of New York artists, for the same event.

"Artists' Propositions for Closed-Circuit Television," presented at the Yellow Now Gallery in Liège, is the first real video event in Belgium. The minimal setup consists of a camera and a monitor. Guy Jungblut invites some fifty artists to offer their ideas on information. Among those participating are Jacques Lizène, Jacques-Louis Nyst, and Jean-Pierre Ransonnet.

Jean-Pierre Boyer creates the Montréal Vidéographe, a space for creation and distribution that invites city residents to make their own videotapes and distribute them upon request. Grants from the National Film Board will allow some 140 projects to be carried out.

Anne Couteau and Yvonne Mignot-Lefebvre create the Paris video collective Vidéo 00. With a dozen members, this Leftist group takes on the defense of immigrants, workers, and other minorities (June).

At the Seventh Paris Biennale, the artists' films section curated by Alfred Pacquement includes works by Vito Acconci, Dan Graham, Bruce Nauman, Dennis Oppenheim, Richard Serra, and Keith Sonnier (24 September-1 November).

Vidéogrammes de France is set up by the ORTF and the publisher Hachette for the manufacture and distribution of mass-market videotapes.

For the first time, artist Gina Pane has herself filmed with a video camera in order to document her action Nourriture / Actualités TV / Feu in a Paris apartment (24 November).

Martial Raysse makes a 3/4-inch video with Alain Jacquier, En prime Pig Music.

Great Britain
Scottish television retransmits ten works by video artist David Hall. This program, "TV Interruptions", is the first artistic broadcast on British television.

The Lijnbanncentrum in Rotterdam opens a video studio producing documentaries and educational tapes. It also shows tapes by Dutch artists (Van Elk, Ben d'Armagnac, Jan Dibbets) as well as Americans (notably Terry Fox, Dan Graham, and Dennis Oppenheim).

The first Spanish installation of TV screens is presented at the Galería Vandrés in Madrid: Espacio (Acción/Interacción)/Space(Action/Interaction) by Antoni Muntadas, a member of the first generation of Spanish video artists.

United States
Steina and Woody Vasulka create the Kitchen Center for Video, Music, Performance, and Dance in New York; it presents, produces, and distributes artists' works, notably in video.

Howard Wise founds Electronic Arts Intermix, which funds other organizations like the Kitchen Center and the annual New York Avant-Garde Festival for projects in video as a medium of personal expression and communication. In 1973, it begins distributing artists' videotapes.

"Electronic Art III" exhibit at the Bonino Gallery in New York. Presentation of the Paik/Abe synthesizer.

"A Special Video Show" at the Whitney Museum in New York presents works by Stephen Beck, Douglas Davis, Nam June Paik, and Steina and Woody Vasulka.

On the initiative of its curator, David Ross, the Everson Museum in Syracuse inaugurates the first video art department created in a museum. In collaboration with major New York galleries (Leo Castelli, Sonnabend, Howard Wise), the museum also establishes a network for the presentation of video productions by organizing regular exhibitions around the medium.

Peeling Off, Richard Kriesche's first video presentation, at the Innsbrucker Galerie in Innsbruck.

The MLT Gallery, directed by Fernand Spillemaeckers, distributes tapes by Gerry Schum.

First appearance of "video art" at the Palais des Beaux-Arts in Brussels with a performance-video installation by William Wegman for the group exhibit "Onze Artistes de la West Coast" (February).

First presentation of Gerry Schum's Land Art and Identification organized by Annie Lummerzhzim at the RTBF in Liège (April).

The group General Idea starts its own magazine, File, in Toronto.

"Projektion" exhibit at the Louisiana Art Gallery in Humlebaek (January-February).

Fred Forest begins interventions on State-run television (second channel). He broadcasts "one minute of white" in the middle of the news on Télé-Midi (January).

Gina Pane uses a video camera herself to tape the reaction of the public during Le Lait chaud, an action in a Paris apartment (31 March).

The Vidéogazette, a studio for local video production and distribution, is set up in Grenoble (September).

Martial Raysse makes Le Grand Départ with the help of the ORTF's Research Department.

Jochen Gerz tapes a video with Sarkis in which each of them speaks his native language, German for Gerz, Turkish for Sarkis.

Daniel Buren develops a project for a video installation before the closing of Gerry Schum's TV Gallery in Disseldorf. Recouvrement-effacement, presented in Venice in 1973 and in Florence in 1974, will be dedicated to Schum.

Gerry Schum presents videotapes at Documenta 5 in Kassel and at the Venice Biennale.

Great Britain
The House Gallery in London presents 60 TV, the first video installation by David Hall and Tony Sinden, in the exhibition "A Survey of the Avant-Garde in Britain" (including objects, performances, films, and conceptual works).

Environments and other forms of video art are presented in galleries, museums, theaters, and specialized centers, including the American cultural centers in Tokyo and Kyoto, Sony headquarters, the underground cinémathèque, the Maki, Tamura, and Shirbakaba Galleries in Tokyo, the 16 and Art Core Galleries and the National Museum of Modern Art in Kyoto.

United States
Creation of the California Art Institute (CalArts), with a teaching program specialized in multimedia performance. Personal initiatives of artists such as John Baldessari, Mike Kelley, and Paul McCarthy are encouraged.

The Everson Museum in Syracuse organizes a Douglas Davis show including videotapes and projects for communication by television.

Ed Emshwiller's Scape Mates, a complex mix of computer drawings and tapes of actors, is produced in the laboratories of WNET-TV.

The first major video exhibition in Austria, "Trigon: Audiovisuelle Botschaften," organized by Austria, Italy, and Yugoslavia, is held in Graz. Ii features works by Austrian, Italian, and Yugoslav artists, American video retrospectives, and video workshops.

In Antwerp, Flor Bex opens a video department at the Internationaal Cultureel Centrum (ICC), which then becomes the main center for video production and distribution in Belgium (and Europe).

Peter Beyls begins his projects for televisions, involving the generation of abstract images with analog computers, with the installation TV Tower at the IPEM in Ghent.

First contacts between Raymond Zone of the Video Chain group, which has one of the first studios in Belgium, and Jacques Lennup, Jacques Lizène, and Jacques-Louis Nyst (December).

"Canada Trajectoires 73" festival at the ARC, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris (curator, Suzanne Pagé): painting, sculpture, installations, ceramics, video, and film. Video artists include Joseph Bodolai, Robert Bowers, Gilles Chartier, Stephen Cruse, Ernest Gusella, Robert Lewis, Tom Sherman, Lisa Steele, and Jane and Walter Wright. Presentation of the Vidéographe, a department of the National Film Board of Montreal, which functions as a workshop permitting the French public not only to view tapes but also to experiment with video equipment (14 June-15 August).

Lyons becomes a center for video distribution with the creation of the CREDA (Centre de Recherche et d'Entraînement aux Disciplines Artistiques), which offers regular programs of screening-discussions as well as a workshop for video, Super 8 and 16 mm film.

The Galerie Numer shows performance videos.

ORTF technician Marcel Dupouy invents the "Movicolor" synthesizer (colorizing and special effects), which combines three kinds of functions: generation and combination of synthetic, geometric, or abstract forms and colorizing (which, with the help of an electronic palette, allows color to be added to a black-and-white video signal as well as other modifications of the electronic signal).

Eighth Paris Biennale at the Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris: the German group Telewissen makes a videotape with the public (14 September-21 October).

Opening of the Berlin Videothek (videotapes by Hans Hodicke, Rebecca Horn, Taka Iimura, Wolf Kahlen, Allan Kaprow, Wolf Vostell).

In Florence, Maria Gloria Biccochi founds Art/Tapes/22, a center for the production of artists' videos and their distribution, not only in Europe but also in the United States and Japan.

Toshio Matsumoto makes Mona Lisa, the first Japanese work to use the Scanimate synthesizer.

United States
Nam June Paik's video A Tribute to John Cage is shown in the "Video'n Videology" exhibit at the Everson Museum of Art in Syracuse (January).

The Everson Museum of Art organizes "Circuit: A Video Invitational," a traveling exhibition featuring video works by 65 artists.

Working in the research laboratory of WNET-TV in New York, Nam June Paik completes Global Groove, a tape made from TV images with the Paik/Abe synthesizer.

In Syracuse, Bill Viola meets David Tudor, with whom he founds "Composers Inside Electronics." This group organizes numerous sound performances throughout the world from 1974 to 1980.

The studios of the Internationaal Cultureel Centrum (ICC) go into operation under the direction of Flor Bex and in collaboration with Chris Goyvaerts and Yvan Bekaert of Continental Video. Numerous Belgian artists will be produced by the ICC, including Alessandro, Gary Bigot, Leo Copers, Pierre Courtois, Daniel Dewaele, Edit Dewitt, Danny Matthijs, Guy Mees, Ludo Mich, Nicola, Hugo Roeland, Carl Uytterhaegen, Christine Van de Moortel; Raoul Van den Boom, Hubert Van Es, Frank Van Herk, Raf Verjans, and Daniel Weinberger.

The Provinciaal Museum voor Moderne Kunst in Ypres acquires its first videotapes.

Peter Beyls creates On the Origin, a performance with live electronics, television, and film, at the Scoop studio in Ghent, and Transformation, a multimedia project, at the Vrije Akademie in The Hague.

Don Foresta, director of the American Center in Paris, organizes an evening on the theme of "Television Used as a Medium for Art" at the RTB in Liège (25 April).

At the Bruges Triennale, a film and video selection by Michel Baudson includes Marcel Broodthaers, the CAP group, and Jean Antoine, among others (26 June-1 September).

Opening in Brussels of the Cologne-based Oppenheim Gallery and the Galerie Guy De Bruyn, which will present the Castelli-Sonnabend video collection.

"Expmtl 5" in Knokke: the video section of the fifth international experimental film competition includes works by Peter Campus, Wendy Clark, Ed Emschwiller, Nam June Paik (TV Buddha), and Woody and Steina Vasulka (25 December 1974-2 January 1975).

Creation of the Institut national de l'audiovisuel (INA), which absorbs the ORTF's Groupe de Recherche Image (GRI) to create its own research and creation studio. Thierry Kuntzel, Robert Cahen, Dominique Belloir, and Patrick Prado create their first video works at the INA.

Founding of "Mon Oeil," a collective bringing together the existing Cent Fleurs, Vidéo 00, Vidéodeba, and Vidéo Out collectives.

"Art vidéo couleur" exhibit at the American Center in Paris, featuring videotapes by Nam June Paik, Woody and Steina Vasulka, Ed Emschwiller, Bill and Louise Etra, and others.

Using Sonimage video editing equipment, Jean-Luc Godard and Anne-Marie Miéville complete the film Jusqu'à la victoire, shot in the Middle East in 1970, and now renamed Ici et ailleurs.

Thierry Kuntzel makes his first videotape, La Rejetée (now lost), based on Chris Marker's film La Jetée.

Formation of the feminist video group Vidéa (September).

Manifesto of the Collectif d'art sociologique, created by Fred Forest, Jean-Paul Thénot, and Hervé Fischer. One of its interventions will take place in Perpignan in September 1976. The collective will break up in 1981.

"Art/Vidéo Confrontation 74" at the ARC, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris. Organized by ARC 2 and the CNAAV (Centre National pour l'Animation Audio-Visuelle), this is the first major exhibition to show tapes and video installations by American and Canadian artists (such as Fred Forest, Kit Galloway, Frank Gillette, Dan Graham, Taka Iimura, and Nam June Paik) loaned by the American Center and the Canadian Cultural Center, and to produce tapes by French artists (Roland Baladi, Christian Boltanski, Bernard Borgeaud, Robert Cahen, Paul-Armand Gette, Françoise Janicot, Bertrand Lavier, Léa Lublin, Gina Pane, Martial Raysse, Bernard Teyssèdre, Tomek, Nil Yalter). The Movicolor video synthesizer, developed by the ORTF in 1973, is placed at the disposal of the public (8 November-8 December).

"Video Tapes" exhibit at the Cologne Kunstverein (with Vito Acconci, Chris Burden, Bruce Nauman, Dennis Oppenheim, etc.). At the Kunstverein and the Wallraf-Richartz Museum, Projekt '74, which opens with a concert by Philip Glass, brings together 75 international artists for performances, video screenings, and discussions (July-August).

In Florence, the opening of the Art-Tapes Gallery, which publishes tapes by Italian artists (Chiari, Vaccari), other European artists (Christian Boltanski), and Americans (John Baldessari, Joan Jonas, Paul Kos).

Antoni Muntadas exhibits for the second time at the Galería Vandrés in Madrid: Arte Û Vida.

"Impact Art Video 74" at the Musée des arts décoratifs in Lausanne. Belgian video with the CAP group (8-15 October).

United States
The Anthology Film Archives in New York, the first film museum, founded in 1970 by Jonas Mekas, opens its collection to videos.

The Everson Museum in Syracuse presents a closed-circuit installation by Peter Campus, Circuit: A Video Invitational. It organizes a series of talks and video screenings on "Video and the Museum."

Performance video by Vito Acconci, Command Performance, created at 112 Greene Street in New York.

"Video Projects," the beginning of a series of presentations of video works by Barbara London, at the Museum of Modern Art in New York.

"Artists' Video Tapes", an exhibition organized by Michel Baudson at the Palais des Beaux-Arts in Brussels, with Joseph Beuys, Christian Boltanski, Allan Kaprow, Nam June Paik, and Wolf Vostell. Belgian artists include CAP group, Jacques Charlier, Leo Copers, 50/04 group, Mass Moving, Danny Matthijs, Hubert Van Es, and Mark Verstockt (25 February-16 March).

Jan Veercruysse organizes the exhibition "Kunst als Film" at the Elsa Von Honolulu Gallery in Ghent. The video section includes Jacques Charlier, the CAP group, the 50/04 group, Leo Copers, Eddy Devolder and Carl Uytterhaegen, Lili Dujourie, Danny Matthijs, Guy Mees, Hubert Van Es, and Mark Verstockt (14-16 March).

The RTBF Liège creates the "Vidéographie" program, produced by Jean-Paul Tréfois. This is the first European broadcast devoted exclusively to video. Topics for 1975-1976 include: cable TV, Fred Forest, Léa Lublin.

Flor Bex, director of the ICC, joins with Integan to propose the screening of artists' videos on Antwerp cable TV. The city refuses to approve the project.

Video installations by Dan Graham at the Palais des Beaux-Arts in Brussels: Double Mirror and Double Time Delay

The magazine Parachute is founded by Chantal Pontbriand and France Morin on the basis of an idea of René Blouin and Chantal Pontbriand.

"Video International" exhibition at the Arhus Art Museum in Copenhagen.

At the Ninth Paris Biennale, Douglas Davis presents a video section with 28 artists, including Christian Boltanski, Pierre-Alain Hubert, Gordon Matta-Clark, Misloslav Moucha, Antoni Muntadas, Keith Sonnier, and Bill Viola. Spanish artists show their first videotapes.

Jean-Luc Godard and Anne-Marie Miéville make Six fois deux: Sur et sous la communication, a series of six videos totaling about 100 minutes for the second channel (coproduced by INA and Sonimage). They will be broadcast as of July 1976. Godard and Miéville also make Comment ça va?, part of which is shot in video, and Numéro deux in color video, with the on-screen image then filmed in 35 mm because of the difficulty of doing a transfer (produced by Sonimage, Bela Production, and SNC Paris).

Michel Jaffrenou and Patrick Bousquet open a projection room for Super 8 and video on a Paris riverboat.

Sony develops Betamax, which allows TV programs to be recorded on video.

First Body Art exhibition, organized by François Pluchart at the Galerie Stadler in Paris. It includes the work of 21 artists, from Marcel Duchamp to Chris Burden and Katharina Sieverding. The first Body Art manifesto is published at this time.

The CAYC organizes a presentation of Latin American video works at the Espace Cardin in Paris.

"Une expérience d'art socio-écologique" at the ARC, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris presents a video project conducted by various artists (Hervé Fischer, Fred Forest, Léa Lublin, Nil Yalter) in Neuenkirchen, Germany (13 November-14 December).

Heure Exquise! collective is founded near Lille for the promotion of art video. In 1982 the collective will specialize in the distribution of videotapes. In 1985 it will become a video station, as an alternative to TV broadcasting, and in 1992, a training and documentation center.

"Art-animations-video" organized by Pierre Restany and René Berger at the Annemasse city hall. Participants include Jean-François Bory, Fred Forest, Paul-André Hubert, Jeannet, Léa Lublin, Rabascall, and Sosno (13-20 December).

"Belgian Junger Künstler," an exhibit of young Belgian artists at the Neue Galerie in Aachen, with Jacques Charlier, Filip Francis, Alain d'Hooghe, Jacques Lizène, Bernd Lohaus, Mass Moving, Jacques-Louis Nyst, Henri Pousseur, Philippe Van Snick, and Marthe Wéry.

Great Britain
The "Video Show" at the Serpentine Gallery is the first international exhibition of videos, installations, performances, and films. The main artists include Roger Barnard, David Crichtley, David Hall, Brian Hoey, Steve James, Tamara Krikorian, Mike Legget, Peter Livingstone, Stuart Marshall, Alex Meigh, Steve Partridge, Liz Rhodes, Tony Sindon, and Reindeer Werk.

Nam June Paik retrospective at the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam.

United States
Gary Hill presents Synergism, a series of multimedia performances (dance, music, video), in Woodstock.

"Bodyworks" exhibit organized by Jennifer Licht at the Chicago Museum of Contemporary Arts, featuring Vito Acconci, Ben, Joseph Beuys, Günther Brus, Chris Burden, Marcel Duchamp, Robert Morris, Bruce Nauman, Gina Pane, Klaus Rinke, Lucas Samaras, and William Wegman (March-April).

The cover of the contemporary art magazine +­0 features Dan Graham's exhibition "Mirror Window Corner Piece," organized in Liège at the Véga Gallery run by Manette Repriels (September).

Video evening at the CIAP in Hasselt, with a lecture by Jan Debbaut entitled "Video, een nieuw medium in beeldende kunst" and videos by Hugo Duchateau, Lili Dujourie, Jacques Lennep, Danny Matthijs, and Jacques-Louis Nyst (8 December).

The Internationaal Cultureel Centrum (ICC) in Antwerp organizes the Fifth International Video Encounter in collaboration with Jorge Glusberg, director of the Centro de Arte y Communicación (CAYC) in Buenos Aires. Twenty-seven countries are represented by some 250 videotapes.

Founding of the "Producteurs de vidéogrammes associés," including artists Nicole Croiset, Jean-Paul Cassagnac, Léa Lublin, François Testut, and Nil Yalter. Joining them subsequently are Ronald Baladi, Robert Cahen, Jochen Gerz, Paul-Armand Gette, Alain Jacquier, Françoise Janicot, Martial Raysse, and Jean Roualdès. The PVA group, open to all those working with video (visual artists, graphic artists, students), is intended to distribute artists' videos.

Don Foresta creates a video department at the Ecole nationale supérieure des arts décoratifs (ENSAD) in Paris in collaboration with Jean-Pierre Dezeuze, head of animated film. ENSAD sets up editing rooms for 34-inch video and sound, acquires special effects and graphics equipment, and produces tapes by Dominique Belloir and the Wonder Products group. Durnig the 1980s Foresta organizes exchanges with the United States via satellite, telex, and telephone (slowscan).

The exhibition "Art vidéo: recherches et expériences," organized by René Berger at Portes de la Suisse in Paris, presents five Swiss artists (René Bauermeister, Gérald Minkoff, Muriel Oelson, Jean Otth, and Jacob Urban).

Jean-André Fieschi's series "Les Nouveaux Mystères de New York" reveals the stylistic possibilities of his "paluche" miniature video camera (first episode: Enfance, une).

First Nam June Paik retrospective, organized at the Kunstverein in Cologne.

The exhibition "Soho-Downtown-Manhattan," organized by René Block at the Akademie der Künste in Berlin, brings together visual arts, dance, theater, film, music, performance, and video (featuring works by Robert Morris, Nam June Paik, Richard Serra, and others) (5 September-17 October).

Great Britain
The "Video Show," an exhibition of video installations at the Tate Gallery in London, featuring works by Roger Barnard, Brian Hoey, Tamara Krikorian, Stuart Marshall, and Steve Partridge.

Founding of London Video Arts (LVA), an artists' organization for the promotion and distribution of video.

"Arena," a special program of British and American artists' videotapes, is broadcast on BBC's channel 2. The program is presented by David Hall and produced by Mark Kidel and Anna Ridley. For the occasion, Hall makes This Is a TV Receiver," with Richard Baker.

Significant video art sections at the Bologna Art Fair (May) and the Venice Biennale (July-October).

Significant video art section at the Basel Art Fair (June).

United States
First issue of Videography, a magazine entirely devoted to video.

Jean Dupuy makes a series of tapes entitled Artists Propaganda I (New York), for which he asks artists to carry out an action of their choice before the camera within a fixed period of time.

Retrospective exhibition "Art, Artists, and Media" in Graz. International artists and theorists participate in the conference organized in conjunction with this event.

Dan Graham exhibition at the Museum voor Hedendaagse Kunst in Ghent (27-30 May).

Robert Filliou conceives the "five-billion year video project," entitled From Madness to Nomad-ness. He makes Portafilliou (a video including performances with Brian Gyson and Emmet Williams and a film done with George Brecht) as a supplement to his book Teaching and Learning as Performing Arts. He also makes And So On End So Soon, Telepathic Music no. 7, and 14 Sings and 1 Riddle.

Creation of the first and most important workshops: the Danish Video Workshop in Haderslev and the Danish Film Workshop in Copenhagen, both of which are funded by the Danish Film Institute. They provide equipment for persons seeking to express themselves via film and video.

Exhibition "Video International" at the Arhus Art Museum in Copenhagen (autumn).

The Tenth Paris Biennale includes a video section. Among the videos presented is Dawn Burn by Mary Lucier, a video-performance that extends over seven days and includes seven recordings of seven sunrises (September).

At the Musée national d'art moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, in Paris, Pontus Hulten creates a "photo-film-video" department, which is headed by Alain Sayag. Between 1976 and 1978, Mnam buys about fifty videotapes (by Jean Dupuy, Paul-Armand Gette, Suzanne Nissim, Teresa Weinberg, Bob Wilson, etc.).

Jean Dupuy tapes Artists Propaganda II (Paris) at the Centre Georges Pompidou. Among the artists whose short performances are recorded are: Roy Adzack, Ben, Christian Boltanski, André Cadere, Béatrice Casadesus, Jacqueline Dauriac, Charles Dreyfus, François Dufresne, Robert Filliou, Gérard Gassiorowski, Alain Germain, Raymond Hains, Bernard Hiedsieck, Joël Hubaut, Françoise Janicot, Piotr Kowalski, Bruno de Lard, Emile Laugier, Annette Messager, Jacques Monory, Jacques de Pindrey, Guy de Rougemont, Richard Texier, Martial Thomas, Claude Torey, and Nil Yalter (December 1977-January 1978).

First video by Orlan, documenting a performance entitled Mesurage, in which the artist uses her "Orlan-corps" (Orlan-body) unit to measure the Centre Georges Pompidou.

Publication of Fred Forest's Art sociologique. Vidéo.

Documenta 6 at the Friedericianum Museum in Kassel shows Numéro deux (1975) by Jean-Luc Godard and Anne-Marie Miéville and a video by Fred Forest made with Jean-Philippe Butaud (a 1973 project with residents of an old-age home). This year's Documenta, devoted to "Art and Media," presents performances and videos, including Joseph Beuys' Freie Internationale Universität, plus a retrospective of videotapes and installations by over forty American artists (selected by Wulf Herzogenrath). Certain tapes--those by Paik, Beuys, and Douglas Davis (The Last Nine Minutes)--are retransmitted to the United States by satellite (July-September).

At the Venice Biennale, a seminar on "Art, Artist, and the Media" is organized by Richard Kriesche, Peggy Gale, Wulf Hersogenrath, and Marshall McLuhan.

"Video en film manifestatie," an international exhibition and colloquium, is held at the Bonnefantenmuseum in Maastricht with British artists including Roger Barnard, David Crichley, David Hall, Tamara Krikorian, Stuart Marshall, and Steve Partridge (February-March).

Eighth International Video Encounter, organized in Lima by the Centro de Arte y Communicación (CAYC) of Buenos Aires.

VII Encuentro Internacional Abierto de Vídeo organized at the Fundació Joan Miró in Barcelona by the CAYC of Buenos Aires.

United States
"A View of a Decade" is presented at the Chicago Museum of Contemporary Art, including works by Vito Acconci, Robert Morris, Bruce Nauman, Lucas Samaras, Richard Serra, Lawrence Weiner, and others (10 September-10 November).

"Artists' Video, An Alternative Use of the Medium," at the Biddick Farm Center in Washington includes videotapes by British artists Doron Abrahami, Lindsay Brufton, David Crichley, Peter Donebauer, Keith Frake, Mike Hartney, Brian Hoey, Tamara Krikorian, Stuart Marshall, and Steve Partridge.

Video installation at the Kitchen in New York (Bill Viola, Peter Campus, and Ed Emschwiller).

First International Video Encounter, organized by Walter Zanini at the Museu da imagen e do som in São Paolo.

Creation of the Arhus Film Workshop, which will organize video festivals and exhibitions during the 1980s.

Nam June Paik's installation T.V. Garden is presented at the Musée national d'art moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, in Paris (8 March).

In conjunction with the "Paris-Berlin" exhibit, the Centre Georges Pompidou presents filmmaker Chris Marker's first installation, Quand le siècle a pris formes (Guerre et Révolution), composed of twelve monitors with solarized images (12 July-6 November).

The Espace Lyonnais d'Art Contemporain (ELAC) in Lyons sets up a department for the promotion of video and art films (artistic director, Georges Rey). The ELAC is the first such institution in France to present video on a weekly basis (documents touching on visual arts, television, dance, music, architecture, and society in relation to contemporary art), as well as installations and events involving state-of-the-art technology.

Creation of Vidéoglyphes, an association for the promotion of research on the electronic image. In collaboration with the Audiovisual Activities unit of the Foreign Affairs Ministry, Vidéoglyphes organizes four visits to the U.S. for four artists (Paul-Armand Gette, Philippe Guerrier, Thierry Kuntzel, and Philippe Oudard), which result in four productions in the studios of the Educational TV Office-Berkeley and two exhibitions (New York and San Francisco).

Second episode of Jean-André Fieschi's Nouveaux Mystères de New York: L'Ile de la Vierge.

Don Foresta becomes artistic director of the Center for Media Art at the American Center in Paris (1978-1981). He presents video programs from the Buffalo Museum and the Kitchen in New York and invites American artists including Juan Downey, Kit Fitzgerald, Gary Hill, Joan Logue, John Sanborn, and Bill Viola. Nam June Paik gives a year-long seminar there. Among the French artists working at the American Center in the early 1980s are Hervé Nisic, Alain Longuet, Patrick Prado, Jean-Louis Le Tacon, Orlan, Pierre Lobstein, and Catherine Ikam. After Don Foresta, the Center for Media Art will be directed by Anne-Marie Stein (1980-82) and the Canadian Scott MacLeay (1982-87), who will enlarge the perspective by creating the Center for Media Art and Photography.

Jean-Luc Godard and Anne-Marie Miéville make France Tour Détour Deux Enfants, a series of 12 programs of 26 minutes each (produced by INA and Sonimage), for France's second channel (broadcast in April 1980).

Léa Lublin makes Discours sur l'art, interviews with twelve artists: a camera films the scene in a static shot while Lublin films the artist with a portable camera. The images shot by the two cameras are shown live on three video monitors.

Robert Wilson makes Video 50, fifty 30-second videos conceived as interludes, in the Centre Georges Pompidou's studio (co-produced by INA, CNAC-CGP, NIRT, ZDF).

At the Centre culturel de l'Abbaye ("Vidéo ABI") in Paris, video screenings and "vidéothéâtries" performances are organized by Michel Jaffrenou and Patrick Bousquet.

Nam June Paik retrospective at the ARC, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris: Fluxus installations Moon Is the Oldest TV and TV Clock. In conjunction with this retrospective, the American Center shows his recent tapes (Global Groove, Guadalcanal Requiem, Merce by Merce by Paik, etc.) and organizes interventions by Paik and Charlotte Moorman. Paik also gives two workshops for video professionals (22 November 1978-8 January 1979).

"Video + Fernsehen" conference at the Neue Galerie-Sammlung Ludwig in Aachen. Participants include Hans Backes, Wolfgang Becker, Wibke von Bonin, Klaus Vom Bruch, Wulf Herzogenrath, Nan Hoover, Marcel Odenbach, Ingrid von Oppenheim, Ulrike Rosenbach, and Mike Steiner (March).

Great Britain
"Video Art '78" at the Herbert Art Gallery and Museum in Coventry: an international exhibition of installations, performances, tapes, and films organized by Steve Partridge, with works by Kevin Atherton, Roger Barnard, Lindsay Bryfton, David Crichley, Keith Frake, David Hall, Brian Hoey, Tamara Krikorian, Stuart Marshall, Alex Meigh, Marceline Mori, and Steve Partridge. European and American artists include Marina Abramovic, Nan Hoover, Friederike Pezold, Ulrike Rosenbach, Bill Viola, and Peter Weibel.

United States
Phillips introduces the videodisk.

Ars Electronica '79 festival in Linz on the theme of "Kunst und Technik."

Walter Moens creates the Nieuwe Workshop in Brussels for the presentation of work by Belgian and foreign artists. Video workshops, including one run by Chris Dercon, are set up. The Nieuwe Workshop receives funding from the Nederlandse Commisie voor Cultur.

"British Video Art in Canada," curated by David Hall, features a selection of videotapes by British artists (traveling exhibit: Toronto, Halifax, and Queens University in Kingston).

"Symposium sur le corps," a program of performances and videos on the body organized by the Centro de Arte y Communicación (CAYC) of Buenos Aires, at the Musée national d'art moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, in Paris, with the participation of numerous international artists.

Porte-vue, an installation by Keith Sonnier, is presented at the Musée national d'art moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, in Paris: four images are retransmitted on two video monitors (two images from video cameras placed inside the museum, two images from TV screens).

Vidéoglyphes publishes a review of the same name (issue no. 1 on the economics of video, no. 2 on video works, nos. 3-4 on video, landscape, architecture).

Creation of the Video Department at the Musée national d'art moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, in Paris. International video works are collected by Christine Van Assche.

The ELAC (Espace Lyonnais d'Art Contemporain) presents the exhibition "Fluxus International and Co.," curated by Ben Vautier and Marie-Claude Jeune. It also organizes the first International Symposium on Performance Art (curated by Orlan and Hubert Besacier), a Fluxus concert (Ben Vautier, Serge Oldendorf, Giuseppe Chiari), artists performances and actions (Jean-Jacques Lebel, Benito and Cerda) (4 April-6 May).

France's second channel, Antenne 2, broadcasts "Video U.S.A.," a series of five programs by Catherine Ikam and Adrien Maaden on American video and the vast expressive possibilities of the electronic image (June).

Jean-Jacques Lebel presents "Polyphonix I, " an international festival of performance, direct poetry, music, and video, at the American Center in Paris (June).

Arrival of 34-inch editing decks in France.

Robert Filliou makes his first videotape in French in Montreal: Vidéo-Universecity, Grâce à Fournier.

Thierry Kuntzel makes Nostos I, a color videotape produced by the Groupe de Recherche Image of the Institut national de l'audiovisuel (INA).

Purple Cross for Absent Now, a performance/installation by Jochen Gerz, is presented at the Stadtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus in Munich. Gerz will recreate it in 1987 with Esther Shalev-Gerz at Documenta 6 in Kassel.

Exhibition in homage to Gerry Schum at the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam.

XXI Setmana Internacional de Cinema de Barcelona: presentation of videotapes by Jean-Luc Godard and Anne-Marie Miéville.


In the beginning of the 1980s, the development of the VHS standard and improvements in the color system lower costs and improve the quality of video production. The possibilities for electronic treatment of images recorded by the video camera are also greatly increased.

The video clip that comes to the fore in the pop music industry is the main demonstration of the transition from intermedia to multimedia that is underway. Music conquers the techniques of the image, and interactions with the visual arts abound.

Ars Electronica '80 festival in Linz: works by Wolfgang Burde, Herbert W. Franke, Frederic A. Friedel, Otto Pienne, Gerhard Rühm, and others.

"Video Made in America," retrospective presented by the Moderner Kunst Museum in Vienna: works by recognized and younger artists.

The magazine Parachute organizes a colloquium entitled "Performance: postmodernisme et multidisciplinarité" at the University of Quebec in Montreal.

In Montreal, an international artists festival is organized by Chantal Pontbriand and Parachute with Laurie Anderson, Stuart Brisley, Daniel Buren, Marc Chaiimowicz, Max Dean, Dan Graham, Richard Roreman, Tom Sherman, Robert Wilson, and others.

"Espaces libres" exhibit at the ARC, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris. Artists include: Assaf, Dominique Belloir, Robert Cahen, Casadeus, Clareboudt, Nicole Croiset, Olivier Debré, Jean Dupuy, Philippe Guerrier, Catherine Ikam, Michel Jaffrenou, Thierry Kuntzel, Longuet and Lavialle, Léa Lublin, Hervé Nisic, Orlan, Gina Pane, Parmegiani, Jean-Jacques Passera, Jean Roualdès, Pierre Rovere, Torra, and Nil Yalter, as well as other artists from the United States, Switzerland, Germany, Israel, and Brazil (30 January-2 February).

The Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris presents two video installations by Catherine Ikam: Dispositif pour un parcours vidéo, which plays on the interactivity and reflexiveness of the video image, and Fragments d'un archétype: hommage à Léonard de Vinci, where sixteen monitors show the fragmented image of Leonardo's "man" (January-March).

"Art-Allemagne aujourd'hui," exhibition at the ARC, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, organized by Dany Block and Suzanne Pagé, with works by Joseph Beuys, Hanne Darboven, Hans Haacke, Robert Filliou, Wolf Vostell, and others (January-March).

In collaboration with Vidéoglyphes, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs organizes a traveling exhibition for French cultural centers abroad: "Vidéo: la région centrale," featuring nine video works by Martine Aballea, Dominique Belloir, Judy Blum, Robert Cahen, Nicole Croiset, Paul-Armand Gette, Philippe Guerrier, Françoise Janicot, Thierry Kuntzel, Mimi, Philippe Oudard, Jean Roualdès, and Nil Yalter (July).

The Eleventh Paris Biennale, organized by Georges Boudaille, shows works by Barrias, Dominique Belloir, Patrick Bousquet, Robert Cahen, Fernando Calhau, Sophie Calle, Nicole Croiset, Tom Drahos, Jean-Paul Fargier, Bernard Faucon, Alain Fleischer, Gloria Freidman, Catherine Ikam, Danielle Jaeggi, Thierry Kuntzel, Pierre Minot, Tony Oursler, François Pain, and Patrick Prado (2 September-2 November).

Japanese videotapes presented at the ARC (December).

First Montbéliard Festival.

Thierry Kuntzel makes Echolalia, Time Smoking a Picture and Still, with the help of the groupe de Recherche Image of the Institut national de l'audiovisuel.

"Videokunst in Deutschland 1963-1982," the first major exhibition devoted to video, is held at the Kunstverein in Cologne with works by Klaus Vom Bruch, Barbara Hammann, Peter Kolb, Marcel Odenbach, Friedericke Pezold, Frank Soletti, and Ulay (June).

Great Britain
"About Time: Video, Performance and Installation by Women Artists" is presented at the Institute of Contemporary Art, London and the Arnolfini Gallery, Bristol: works by Catherine Elwes, Rose Finn Kelcey, Rose Garrard, Roberta Graham, Susan Hiller, Tina Keane, Alex Meigh, Marceline Mori, and Jane Rigby.

Traveling exhibition, "Japanese Experimental Film 1960-1980," organized by the American Federation of Arts.

"Video, el temps y l'espai. Sèries informatives 2/Video, Time and Space," organized in Barcelona by the Barcelona Architects' Association. Works by Spanish and foreign artists including Juan Downey, Dan Graham, Wolf Kahlen, Shigeko Kubota, and Antoni Muntadas.

"Fluxus International and Co.," organized by Ben Vautier at the Musée Rath in Geneva, with works by John Armeleder, Joseph Beuys, Robert Filliou, Nam June Paik, Daniel Spoerri, Ben, and others (March-April).

First video art festival of Locarno, organized by Rinaldo Bianda, director of the Galerie Flaviana (August).

United States
"Art in the Olympics," videotapes by Kit Fitzgerald and John Sanborn, installations by Nam June Paik, Frank Gillette, and Ira Schneider, created for the winter Olympics at Lake Placid.

Pampelona Grazalema, the Ritual of the Bull in Spain, a video installation by Antoni Muntadas, is exhibited at the Guggenheim Museum, New York.

A videotape by Thierry Kuntzel, Time Smoking a Picture, is shown in the "Video About Video" exhibit at the University Art Museum, Berkeley, and the Téléthèque of the Alliance Française, New York.

United States-France
The Kitchen in New York presents "French Video Art-Art vidéo français," a week of French video. Curated by Don Foresta of the Center for Media Art in Paris, the program surveys video creation in France through productions of four major institutions: the Center for Media Art at the American Center, the Centre Georges Pompidou, the Institut national de l'audiovisuel, and the Ecole nationale supérieure des Arts décoratifs in Paris. Artists represented include: Roland Baladi, Dominique Belloir, Robert Cahen, Roman Cieslewicz, Colette Deblé, Olivier Debré, Catherine Ikam, Thierry Kuntzel, Chris Marker, Hervé Nisic, François Pain, Slobodan Pajic, Patrick Prado, Pierre Rovère, Claude Torey, Teresa Wennberg and Suzanne Nissim, Nil Yalter and Nicole Croisset (4-29 November). A parallel exhibition with the same title is presented at the American Center in Paris.

First Franco-Latin American video arts festival is held in Santiago.

First broadcast on France's second channel, Antenne 2, of a monthly information program on video, "Vidéo 2," produced and directed by Catherine Ikam and Jean-Paul Fargier (12 April).

ELAC (Espace Lyonnais d'Art Contemporain) organizes the second Performance Art symposium (curated by Hubert Besqcier and Orlan) (12 May-21 June).

France's first channel, TF1, broadcasts "La peinture cubiste," an art program produced for television by Philippe Grandrieux and Thierry Kuntzel and coproduced by the Institut national de l'audiovisuel (October).

Video art fortnight at the Anerican Center in Rennes (November).

"Ateliers 81 / 82" at the ARC, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, featuring an installation by Michel Jaffrenou and Patrick Bousquet (Vidéoscopie) and videotapes by Colette Deblé, Jean-Paul Fargier and Danielle Jaeggi, Yann N'Guyen Minh, Charles Picq and Alain Garlan, Patrick Prado, James Ristorcelli, and Nil Yalter (26 November 1981-21 February 1982).

Publication of Vidéo, la mémoire au poing, by Anne-Marie Duguet.

France-United States
Slowscan hookup between Boston and the American Center in Paris (1 February).

Great Britain
"Performance, Video, Installation" exhibition at the Tate Gallery, London, with films by Vito Acconci, Robert Morris, Bruce Nauman, and Stuart Brisley and videos by Ian Baum, David Hall, Tina Keane, and others (September).

Second video art festival in Locarno (August).

Ars Electronica '82 festival in Linz, on the theme "Sky."

1. Danske Symposium on Videokunst, the first Danish symposium on video art, is organized by Niels Lomholt and Torben Søborg (director of the Haslev Video Workshop) at the Huset in Copenhagen. Four issues are addressed: forms of creation through the video medium, production strategies, the role of video as art in relation to Danish institutions, and exhibition possibilities in Denmark and abroad (November).

France's second TV channel, Antenne 2, introduces "Les Enfants du rock," hosted by Philippe Manoeuvre and Jean-Pierre Dionnet. By broadcasting the first video clips, this program contributes to the recognition of work by artists exploring the creative possibilities of video in relation to music (7 January).

First International New Images Forum in Monte Carlo (5-7 February).

Paralleling the New York exhibition "Statements, Leading Contemporary Artists from France," the Kitchen organizes "Paris to New York," a program of videotapes, installations, and performances by Robert Cahen, Jean-Paul Fargier, Catherine Ikam, and Bob Wilson (7-8 February).

The Center for Media Art (directed by Scott MacLeay) at the American Center in Paris organizes evening programs with videotapes by American artists Gary Hill, Nam June Paik, Bill Viola, and Woody and Steina Vasulka (February).

Antenne 2 broadcasts the first installment of the program "Juste une image," shot in video and prepared by Thierry Garel, Louisette Neil, and Philippe Grandrieux (28 April). Produced by the Institut national de l'audiovisuel, this monthly program helps to make the tapes of American video artists such as Dara Birnbaum, Gary Hill, Joan Logue, Nam June Paik, Steina Vasulka, Bill Viola, and Bob Wilson known in France. It also presents interviews with Robert Cahen, Joëlle de la Casinière, Jean-André Fieschi, and Philippe Quéau.

Creation of the International Video and Television Festival by the Centre d'action culturelle in Montbéliard (biennial, competition among some forty video works, one artist retrospective, talks), directed by Pierre Bongiovanni. The first year's festival includes videos by Dominik Barbier, Dominique Belloir, Alain Bourges, Robert Cahen, Philippe Demontant, Nicole Croiset and Nil Yalter, Michel Jaffrenou and Patrick Bousquet, Jean-Louis Le Tacon, Pierre Lobstein, Hervé Nisic, Yann N'Guyen Minh, Teresa Wennberg, and others (6-12 December).

Vidéocéanes festival, organized by the Maison de la Culture in Brest: Jean-Louis Le Tacon and Sophie Handschutter create a multi-screen, multi-source set-up. French artists present include Alain Jomier, Hervé Nisic, and Orlan (December).

Nam June Paik's Tricolor Video, an installation with 384 color TVs, is presented in the Forum of the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris (15 December 1982-10 April 1983)

Following the release of his film Passion in 1981, Jean-Luc Godard makes Scénario du film Passion in video.

First "Vidéodanse" program, organized by Michèle Bargues and presented at the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris (22 September-7 November).

Carole Roussopolos, Delphine Seyrig, and Iona Wiener found the Centre audiovisuel Simone de Beauvoir in Paris in order to assist women in the creation and distribution of audiovisual works.

Great Britain
Channel 4 goes on the air. The Workshop Declaration establishes an agreement between TV technicians of the Union Act and those of Channel 4 for the creation of open workshops. These workshops serve for the production of films and videos and allow the broadcasting of programs outside the usual union agreements.

The first San Sebastián Video Festival, held in parallel with the 30th San Sebastián International Film Festival. Focus programs feature Kit Fitzgerald, Antoni Muntadas, and Nam June Paik. Selections by the Kitchen in New York, the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris, and Vidéographe (RTBF). Installations by Michel Jaffrenou and Patrick Bousquet, Marie-Jo Lafontaine, Joan Logue, and Antoni Muntadas, and a performance by Jean-Paul Fargier and Philippe Sollers. Eugènia Balcells presents her first video installation in Spain, Atravesando Lenguajes/Crossing Through Languages.

Third video art festival in Locarno (August).

United States
Wolf Vostell creates Dépression endogène in Los Angeles--an installation of live turkeys making their way among gutted video monitors that have been filled with cement. The one monitor in working condition continuously plays a videotape made by the artist in San Francisco and showing the different neighborhoods and freeways encircling the city.

Nam June Paik retrospective at the Whitney Museum in New York.

The Kitchen in New York presents "Return-Jump," a 1979-1982 video retrospective including French artists living in New York such as Martine Barrat and Michel Auder (10-17 October).

"Art vidéo: Rétrospective et perspective," a historic exhibition for the twentieth anniversary of video, is organized by Laurent Busine at the Palais des Beaux-Arts in Charleroi as a pendant to the 1975 exhibit "Artists Video Tapes" held at the Palais des Beaux-Arts in Brussels. Video environments that could not be presented in 1975 for financial reasons are created in 1983. Main artists include Marie André, Michèle Blondel, Joëlle de la Cassinière, Lili Dujourie, Dan Graham, Marie-Jo Lafontaine, Nam June Paik, Michael Snow, Serge Van de Velde, Franck Van Herck, and Wolf Vostell (February-March).

Stefaan Decostere and Chris Dercon make Er ligt een videocassette in de soep (There's a Videocassette in the Soup) for "Tele=Visions", a documentary series on video as art produced and broadcast by the BRT.

The exhibition "Figures imposées" at the Espace Lyonnais d'Art Contemporain includes Hommage à Nam June Paik, a nine-monitor installation by Patrick Bousquet and Michael Jaffrenou (25 January-16 March).

Second International New Images Forum in Monte Carlo, organized by the Institut national de la Communication audiovisuelle in collaboration with International Marketing Video (2-4 February).

"C'est un dur métier que l'exil" at the ARC, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris presents video installations by Nil Yalter (15 March-24 April).

"Technopop in Wonderland" at the ARC, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris presents videos and performances by the group Wonder Products (6 May-12 June).

"Pleine lune", a program taped in video and produced by the Institut national de l'audiovisuel is broadcast on Antenne 2. Directed by Thierry Kuntzel and Jérôme Prieur (in collaboration with Philippe Grandrieux and Pierre Zucca), this program lasting 2 hours and 35 minutes offers the general public a selection of American videos: music clips (John Sanborn), a Self-Portrait by Peter Campus, interviews, and a tape by Nam June Paik (22 August).

"Electra" at the ARC, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, features an installation bt Wolf Vostell, an attempt at video theater by Michel Jaffrenou, and a video performance by Orlan. A retrospective videotape includes excerpts from the most representative works and experiments conceived and produced by the ORTF's GRI, as well as an electronic canvas (25 screens, 4 computer-programmed video sources) conceived by Jean-Louis Le Tacon, Sophie Handschutter, and Alain Jomier and proposed to some thirty French video artists (Domonique Belloir, Pierre Bousquet, Jean-Christophe Bouvet, Robert Cahen, Jean-Paul Fargier, Jean-Michel Gautreau, Catherine Ikam, Michel Jaffrenou, Marie-Jo Lafontaine, Pierre Lobstein, Alain Longuet, Yves de Peretti, Patrick Prado, Ugolini, Teresa Wennberg, and others) (1 December 1983-31 January 1984).

Bill Viola exhibition at the ARC, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris. For his first solo exhibit in Europe, the American artist shows two video sound installations: An Instrument of Simple Sensation and A Room for Saint John of the Cross, along with a selection of tapes from 1977 to 1983 (20 December 1983-29 January 1984).

Great Britain
A collaboration between Channel 4-TV and London Video Arts results in Access Funding to facilitate video post-production.

Second San Sebastián Video Festival with video installations by Isabel Herguera and Mikel Arce (Lavabo/Washbasin) and Eugènia Balcells (From the Center) and a performance video by Esther Ferrer.

"Vanguardia y últimas tendencias" in Saragossa includes Eugènia Balcells, Pierre Lobstein, Joan Logue, Antoni Muntadas, and others, with video performances by Marshall Reese and Nora Ligorano.

United States
"Recent British Video," programmed by the Kitchen in New York, includes works by John Adams, Ian Bourn, Catherine Elwes, Mick Hartney, Steve Hawley, Tina Keane, Richard Layzell, Antonio Sherman, Margaret Warwick, and Jeremy Welsh.

Thierry Kuntzel is represented in "Video Viewpoints" at the Museum of Modern Art in New York (May).

"Language, Drama, Source, and Vision" at the New Museum of Contemporary Art in New York includes Vito Acconci, William Wegman, and Lawrence Weiner, among others (8 October-27 November).

John Sanborn creates the video opera Perfect Lives with writer Robert Ashley.

Ars Electronica '84 festival in Linz. participants include Glen Branca, Jürgen Claus, Herbert W. Franke, Isao Tomito, Peter Weibel, Gene Youngblood, and others.

"British/Canadian Video Exchange," A Space, Toronto, featuring ninstallations by Mick Hartney, Tina Keane, and Alison Winkle, performances by Marty St. James and Anne Wilson, and a program of videotapes.

A group of Danish video artists create the private gallery Tretanken in Copenhagen as a production cooperative with its own equipment.

Third International New Images Forum in Monte Carlo, organized by the Institut national de l'audiovisuel and International Marketing Video on the theme "Number and Light." Forum-INA program head: Philippe Quéau (8-11 February).

d'action culturelle in Montbéliard (director, Pierre Bongiovanni). French video artists in competition include Roland Baladi, Elsa Cayo, Danielle Jaeggi, Michel Jaffrenou, and Agathe Labernia (13-18 March).

Robert Filliou retrospective at the ARC, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris (October-December).

Canal + goes on the air and becomes the first TV station to undertake regular video production through its "short programs" department (4 November).

Nostos II, a nine-monitor video installation by Thierry Kuntzel, is produced and presented by the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris(16 November-24 December).

Jean-Paul Fargier organizes a colloquim on "The New Fictions." Participants include Don Foresta and Woody Vasulka.

France-United States
The Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris and WNET/Thirteen's Television Laboratory in New York coproduce Nam June Paik's Good Morning Mr. Orwell, a live broadcast by satellite hookup. French artists Robert Combas, Pierre-Alain Hubert, Sapho, Studio Berçot, and Ben Vautier participate in the project from Paris along with foreign artists Joseph Beuys, John Cage, Merce Cunningham, Peter Gabriel, Allan Ginsburg, and Charlotte Moorman (1 January).

Politician Lothar Späth proposes the idea of the Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie (ZKM) in Karlsruhe. Its goals will be defined with the publication of Concept 88 in 1988. In 1992, construction gets underway for the ZKM, which already participates in the organization of the Multimediale (opened in 1997).

Alfred Biolek, a popular host on German television, invites Nam June Paik to build five large installations during his "Bei Bio" program (April).

1. Videonale Bonn, the city's first international art video festival, is organized by Dieter Daniels, Bärbel Moser, and Petra Unützer (September).

Great Britain
Creation of "Network 1, Travelling Video Library," a videotape collection temporarily stored in video libraries and accessible to the public in Bristol and Newcastle. Organized by the Arnolfini Gallery in Bristol and Project UK, Newcastle, under the direction of Mike Stubbs.

"The Luminous Image" at the Stedelijk in Amsterdam, with videotapes and installations by Marina Abramovic and Ulay, Vito Acconci, Max Almy, Dara Birnbaum, Michel Cardena, Brian Eno, Kees de Groot, Nan Hoover, Michael Klier, Shigeko Kubota, Thierry Kuntzel, Marie-Jo Lafontaine, Mary Lucier, Marcel Odenbach, Tony Oursler, Nam June Paik, Al Robbins, Lydia Shouten, Elsa Stanfield and Madelon Hooykaas, Francesc Torres, Bill Viola, and Robert Wilson.

First National Video Festival, organized by the Circulo de Bellas Artes in Madrid, which opens a new era in the history of Spanish video. Video installations by Carles Pujol (Alicia), Concha Jerez (Trepan, descienden por la escalera o), Eugènia Balcells (Color Fields). Foreign artists include Inge Graf and Zyx, Dan Graham, Michel Jaffrenou (Circus), Marie-Jo Lafontaine, Woody and Steina Vasulka, Wolf Vostell, and Peter Weibel.

United States
"BLAM (The Explosion of Pop, Minimalism, and Performance, 1958-1964)" at the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York.

"Video Art, A History" organized by Barbara London at the Museum of Modern Art in New York.

First International Video-Biennale at the Museum Moderner Kunst in Vienna. Participants in the symposium held during the Biennale include Chris Dercon, Anne-Marie Duguet, Barbara London, Ulrike Rosenbach, Jean-Paul Tréfois, and others. A retrospective of women's videotapes presents works from Quebec, Hamburg, and Australia (18-21 April).

"Salade liègeoise," a retrospective of ten years of video production in Liège, is organized by the International Culturel Centrum in Liège with works by Marina Abramovic and Ulay, Jean-Pierre and Luc Dardenne, Michel Jaffrenou, Eddy Luyckx and Marc Emmanuel Melon, Jacques-Louis Nyst, Anne-Françoise Perrin, Jean-Claude Riga, Frank Van Herck, and Nicole Widart (February-April).

"Nouvelles Fictions dans la vidéo en France" is presented at the Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris with works by Emma Abadi, Dominique Belloir, Alain Bourges, Jean-Christophe Bouvet, Jean-Yves Cousseau, Jean-Paul Fargier, Danielle Jaeggi, Agathe Labernia, Eric Maillet, Anne Raufaste and Denis Couchaux, Wonder Products, and Teresa Wennberg (2 March-24 April).

"Les Immatériaux" is organized at the Musée national d'art moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, in Paris and features, notably, La Desserte blanche by Thierry Kuntzel.

Great Britain
Channel 5 video festival is presented at different sites in London: London Video Arts, the Institute of Contemporary Art, Der TV Rentals, the Albany, and the Café Gallery.

"The British Art Show," a traveling exhibition organized in Great Britain by the Arts Council, includes installations by Kevin Atherton and videotapes by Mick Hartney and Sandra Goldbacher, among others.

"The New Pluralism," a selection of films and videos made between 1980 and 1985, curated by Michael O'Pary and Tina Keane at the Tate Gallery in London, includes British artists John Adams, Catherine Elwes, David Finch, Sandra Goldbacher, Tamara Krikorian, Margaret Warwick, Jeremy Welsh, Mark Wilcox, Graham Young, and others.

Channel 4-TV broadcasts "The Eleventh Hour," a series of three programs produced by Triple Vision and directed by Terry Flaxton and Penny Dedman, with videos by Georges Barber, Ian Breakwell, the Duvet Brothers, Catherine Elwes, David Hall, Chris Rushton, Gorilla Tapes, Jeremy Welsh, and Graham Young and performances by Keven Atherton.

Teleconfronto de Chianciano Terme, the first International TV Film Fair, extends its scope to video by creating the first International Video Fair in collaboration with the Montbéliard and Locarno festivals. Solo exhibit by Nam June Paik and exhibitions of works by American and European artists.

Time Based Arts (an Amsterdam producer and distributor with its own projection site) presents a three-part program of British art videos, "Subverting Television: Deconstruct/Scratch/After Image. Among the artists included are Georges Barber, the Duvet Brothers, Catherine Elwes, David Hall, Steve Hawley, John Maybury, John Scarlett-Davies, Jeremy Welsh, Mark Wilcox, Graham Young, and the Flying Lizards.

Second National Video Festival, organized by the Circulo de Bellas Artes in Madrid. Installations by foreign artists including Nan Hoover, Thierry Kuntzel, Mary Lucier, Marcel Odenbach, Nam June Paik, and Bill Viola. Spanish artists include Francesco Torres (Los juguetes se rompen, un diorama [a]histórico) and Gabriel Fernández Corchero (Naturaleza viva/Naturaleza muerta).

"Video Encounter" exhibition organized by the Circulo de Bellas Artes in Madrid, featuring video installations by Gabriel Fernández Corchero, Mary Eugenia Funes and Mareta Espinosa, Sento Bayarri, Maldonado and Os Iavados, and Paco Utray and Zaher Sufi.

First International Video Week (Biennale de l'image en mouvement) at the Centre pour l'image contemporaine in Saint-Gervais, Geneva (November).

Ars Electronica '86 festival in Linz.

Creation of the annual Vidéoformes festival in Clermont-Ferrand, including a solo retrospective, a "video à la carte" service, a prize for video creation, performances, and talks (April).

Third International Video and Television Festival organized by the Centre d'action culturel in Montbéliard (directed by Pierre Bongiovanni). Videotapes by Dominik Barbier, Alain Bourges, Christian Boustany, Robert Cahen, Paul Chamussy, Patrick de Geetere and Catherine Maes, Michael Gaumnitz, Pierre Lobstein, Claude Mourieras, and others (5-11 May).

"Où va la vidéo, une réponse en 10 installations, 50 bandes et 3 rétrospectives", exhibition organized by Jean-Paul Fargier at La Chartreuse de Villeneuve-les-Avignon during the Avignon Theater Festival. As the title indicates, it includes three retrospectives (Robert Cahen, Klaus Vom Bruch, and Bill Viola), ten installations (Alain Bourges, Jean-Michel Gautreau, Patrick de Geetere, Michel Jaffrenou, Thierry Kuntzel, Marie-Jo Lafontaine, Ko Nakajima, Nam June Paik, Bill Viola), and a program of videotapes (Jean-Claude Riga and Klaus vom Bruch, prize-winners at the Montbéliard festival, along with productions by the INA, the Octet agency, and independent artists) (12 July-6 August).

"Vidéo Plaisir", the first twice-monthly program addressing video creation for general audiences is directed by Jean-Louis Le Tacon and broadcast by France's encoded station Canal+ (autumn).

Videonale, the Second International Video Festival, is held in Bonn (13-21 September).

With support from Daniel Brücher, the Cologne publisher DuMont issues Axis, a videotape including twenty-one contributions (Bettina Gruber, Maria Vedder, etc.) accompanied by a book. This project is run by Vera Body, who thus continues the work of her husband, filmmaker Gabor Body (d. 1985).

Great Britain
"Channel 6, LVA," projections of international videotapes, are presented at the Institute of Contemporary Art in London, the Bracknell Video Festival, and the London Filmmakers Co-Op, with a historical survey of British video art by Tamara Krikorian.

Opening of the Museo Naciónal Centro de Arte Reina Sofía in Madrid with the exhibition "Processors," featuring video installations by Antoni Muntadas, Paloma Navares, and Nam June Paik.

United States
"New Video: Japan" exhibition organized by the American Federal Arts and the Museum of Modern Art in New York. Works by Shoichiro Azuma, Masaki Fujihata, Teiji Furuhashi, Mako Idemitsu, Kumiko Kushiyama, Akira Matsumoto, Tetsuo Mizuno, Ko Nakajima, Jun Okazaki and Emi Segawa, Noriyuki Okuda, Shuntaro Tanikawa and Shuji Terayama, Keigo Yamamoto, and others (16 January-2 March).

Ars Electronica '87 festival in Linz, on the theme "Der freie Klang."

Video is the theme of the Steirischer Herbst in Graz. Young Austrian artists present their work in "Video of the 80s."

Creation of the exhibition space Baghuset in Copenhagen by a group of students at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. From the outset, artists work in collaboration with art historians and theorists. During the same period, the group Koncern is created by artists Jirgen Michaelson, Siren Andreasen, Jan Bäcklund, and Jakob Jakobsen. Their works are influenced by the theories of the 1960s British group Art & Language. Koncern organizes exhibitions and other events and issues its own publication, Skrift for kunstnerisk-filosofisk grundforskning (Journal of Basic Research in Art History).

Creation of the association Muu by a group of artists, critics, and curators including Marikki Hakola, minna Tarkka, and Perttu Rastas. Its aim is to encourage artistic creation in little-known areas such as video, performance, and installations.

Dan Graham exhibition at the ARC, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris. Five works are presented (Two Viewing Rooms, Cylinder Inside Cube, Alteration of a Suburban House, Three Linked Cubes, and Two Cubes, One 45° Rotated) along with a selection of his video work (20 February-19 April).

The TV station Canal+ alternates two monthly video programs: "Vidéo Plaisir" and "Picnic TV" (May).

"L'Epoque, la Mode, la Morale, la Passion" exhibition at the Musée national d'art moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris. Video programming includes works by Robert Ashley and John Sanborn, Dara Birnbaum, Jonathan Borofsky and Gary Glassman, Stefaan Decostere and Chris Dercon, Ed Emshwiller, Jean-Luc Godard and Anne-Marie Miéville, Dan Graham, Peter Greenaway, Gary Hill, Michael Klier, Thierry Kuntzel, Joan Logue, Meredith Monk, Jacques-Louis Nyst, Marcel Odenbach, Tony Oursler, Nam June Paik and Shigeko Kubota, Michael Smith, Bill Viola, William Wegman, and Robert Wilson (21 May-17 August).

Jean-Luc Godard begins the video series Histoire(s) du cinéma. The first two parts are shown at the Cannes Film Festival the same year but only broadcast on Canal+ in 1989. A total of six chapters are completed by 1997, to which may be added Les enfants jouent à la Russie and Deux fois cinquante ans du cinéma français (1994).

Documenta 8 at the Friedericianum Museum in Kassel, with Joseph Beuys, Christian Boltanski, Robert Morris, Nam June Paik, Richard Serra, and Jeff Wall (June-September).

Great Britain
"The Elusive Sign: British Avant-Garde Film and Video 1977-1987" at the Tate Gallery in London, organized by the Arts Council and the British Council, followed by an international tour. Selection by Michael O'Pray, Tamara Krikorian, and Catherine Elwes, with works by Catherine Elwes, Georges Barber, Ian Bourn, Sera Furneaux, Judith Goddard, David Hall, Mona Hatoum, Steve Hawley, Tamara Krikorian, David Larcher, Jayne Parker, Christopher Rowland, Mark Wilcox, and Graham Young.

First Barcelona Video Biennale, held at the Barcelona Savings Bank with video installations by Silvia Gubern, Angel Jové, Marie-Jo Lafontaine, Antoni Llena, Mary Lucier, Xavier Olivé, Carles Santos, and Bill Viola.

"Die Gleichzeitigkeit des Anderen" at the Bern Kunstmuseum, an exhibition organized by J. Glaesemer on dominant and marginal cultures through the visiual arts (with works by Marina Abramovic, Joseph Beuys, Christian Boltanski, Rebecca Horn, Dennis Oppenheim, and others) (21 March-14 June).

United States
Creation of the Media Arts Department at the San Francisco Museum of Art.

"The British Edge: Video: Rescanning" at the Institute of Contemporary Arts in Boston. Selection by Jeremy Walsh with works by Kevin Atherton, Catherine Elwes, Tina Keane, Culture Video, Graham Young, Marion Urch, and Steve Hawley.

Ars Electronica '88 festival in Linz on the theme "Kunst der Szene."

Video Marathon II at the Pumpehuset in Copenhagen. Presentation of videotapes and installations, notably by Marcel Odenbach and Marie-Jo Lafontaine, and Danish works by King Kong Productions (November).

Beginning of TV2 on the model of Channel 4 in Great Britain: a television network with limited in-house production and a policy of buying outside programs and broadcasting and distributing videos.

First Danish Film + Video Workshop Festival, organized by the Danish Film Workshop and to be held every two years.

"Ateliers 88" at the ARC, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris (28 April-26 June).

Creation of Media Art Productions in Cologne.

In conjunction with the Marcel Duchamp exhibit "Ubrigens sterben immer die Anderen. Marcel Duchamp und die Avantgarde seit 1950" at the Museum Ludwig in Cologne, video programming includes Anemic Cinema and an interview with Duchamp by Russell Connor, Duchampmania by Shigeko Kubota, Merce by Merce by Paik by Nam June Paik, The Last Videotapes of Marcel Duchamp by John Sanborn and Kit Fitzgerald, and Through the Large Glass by Hannah Wilke.

In conjunction with "Internationale Photoszene Köln" presented at the Museum Ludwig in Cologne, Circling, the first transmission of a video image by cable between Vancouver and Cologne. Artists participating: Birgit Antoni, Hank Bull, Douglas Davis, Delta Galerie, Karin Hazelwander, Infermental VIII, Mischa Kuball, Station Rose, Maria Vedder, Videolabyrinth, and Waterfront (5-11 November).

Great Britain
"Down the Tube" at the City Art Gallery in Manchester: videotapes by Catherine Elwes, Marion Urch, Sven Harding, Culture Video, Marty St. James, and Anne Wilson, plus installations by Mineo Aayamaguchi.

Edge 88, international festival of performance, installations, and videos, organized by Rob La Fresnais, is held in various venues in London with "The Observatory" vidéothèque by Jeremy Welsh, European video programming including Marina Abramovic and Ulay, Klaus Vom Bruch, and installations by Ulrike Rosenbach and Tina Keane.

"Genlock," traveling video exhibition organized by Interim Art and LVA, presents videotapes commissioned from Kevin Atherton, Atalia Shaw and Cathy Acker, Stuart Marshall and Neil Bartlett, Isaac Julien and Julian Sommerville. Also includes a selection of videos by international artists and historical works around the themes of the monologue, the confessional, the self-portrait, the portrait, and the performance.

"La Imagen Sublime: Video de creación en España 1970-1987," exhibition at the Museo Naciónal Centro de Arte Reino Sofía in Madrid.

United States
"Planes of Memory," exhibition at the Long Beach Museum of Art (curator Jacqueline Kain): retrospective of the first video installations by Bruce Nauman, Beryl Korot, and Peter Campus.

"Open Channels III" (curator Peter Kirby): a program of production funding initiated in 1985 by the Long Beach Museum. Participants include David Bunn, Paul Kos, Donna Matorin, Paul McCarthy, and Jim Shaw (24 January-28 February).

Ars Electronica '89 festival in Linz on the theme "Im Netz der System - Für eine interaktive Kunst." Includes European Mobile Media Art Project, featuring Gerhard J. Lischka, Jeffrey Shaw, Peter Weibel, and others.

Creation of the School of Media Art at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen on the initiative of Torben Christensen, who was to become the academy's first Media Art professor in 1994. The members of the Koncern group were the school's first students (I.N. Kjaer, Joachim Koester, Lars Bent Petersen, and Ann-Kristin Lislegaard).

Creation of AV-Arkki, a production and distribution structure affiliated with the Muu group. This initiative of Marikki Hakola, Minna Tarkka, and Perttu Rastas is intended to collect and archive Finnish production and allow it to circulate.

First MuuMediaFestival in Kuopio, on the initiative of the Muu group, devoted to video in Finland. In 1991 the festival will move to Helsinki.

Imagina, the Eighth International New Images Forum in Monte Carlo, organized by the International Television Festival of Monte Carlo and the Institut national de l'audiovisuel on the theme "Images en liberté" (8-11 February).

"La Fée Electricité" at the ARC, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris: two video sculptures (robots) by Nam June Paik, Cicero and Diderot, are presented in the gallery decroated with Raoul Dufy's fresco La Fée électricité (28 April-31 October).

Chris Marker begins work on the Zapping Zone installation (some twenty tapes made between 1985 and 1990). The installation will be assembled in its first version in 1990 for the exhibition "Passages de l'image" at the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris. Composed of thirteen video areas and seven computer areas, Zapping Zone is an open work that will be modified for each new presentation (1992, 1994, 1997, 1998).

Creation of the artists group ATV (Alternativ Television) by Klaus Vom Bruch, Ingo Günther, Marcel Odenbach, and others.

"Video-Skulptur retrospektiv und aktuell 1963-1989," exhibition organized by the Kunstverein/DuMont-Kunsthalle in Cologne. Among the forty-five artists represented (sculptures, installations) are Shigeto Kubota, Thierry Kuntzel, Les Levine, Bruce Nauman, Marcel Odenbach, and Nam June Paik. Klaus vom Bruch does a live manipulation of images from a Russian TV program (March).

Publication of Video-Skulptur retrospektiv und aktuel: 1963-1989 by Wulf Herzogenrath and Edith Decker.

Great Britain
"The Arts for Television, and Revision" at the Tate Gallery: traveling exhibition of TV artists, initiated by the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam.

"Video Positive," traveling exhibition (Tate Gallery in London, Blue Coat Gallery and Williamson Art Gallery in Liverpool) curated by Eddie Berg and Steve Littman. Includes video installations, performances, projections, and talks. The first national video wall is commissioned from Judith Goddard, Steve Littman, Kate Meynell, Steve Partridge, Simon Robetshaw, and Mike Jones. Installations commissioned from David Hall, Mineo Aayamaguchi, Zoe Redman, Chris Rowland, Marion Urch, and Jeremy Welsh.

First International Biennale-ARTEC '89 is held at the Nagoya City Art and Science Museum. Artists represented: Ed Emshwiller, Ingo Günther, Catherine Ikam, Takamichi Ito, Piotr Kowalski, Tatsuo Miyajima, Ko Nakajima, Bill Parker, Fabrizio Plessi, Jeffrey Shaw and Dirk Groeneveld, and others (7 July-26 November).

Arts Electronica '90 festival in Linz on the theme "Digital Träume - Virtuelle Welten."

The Museum for Contemporary Art in Roskilde acquires a video collection composed of tapes documenting artistic events and performances.

"Tendances multiples," exhibition at the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris devoted to video in the 1980s. Video programs or individual presentations feature works by French and international artists including Jean-Pierre Bertrand, Robert Cahen, Marc Caro, Philippe Découflé, Jean-Luc Godard, Peter Greenaway, Thierry Kuntzel, Joan Logue, Jean-Baptiste Mondino, Danielle and Jacques-Louis Nyst, Marcel Odenbach, Tony Oursler, and Pierre Trividic (7 March-6 May).

"Passages de l'image," exhibition curated by Raymond Bellour, Catherine David, and Christine Van Assche, at the Musée national d'art moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, in Paris. Works by Dennis Adams, Robert Adams, Geneviève Cadieux, Roberta Friedman, Jean-Louis Garnell, Dan Graham, Bill Henson, Gary Hill, Thierry Kuntzel, Suzanne Lafont, Chris Marker, John Massey, Marcel Odenbach, Michael Snow, Bill Viola, Jeff Wall, and Grahame Weinbren (12 September-18 November). Subsequently travels to the Fundació Caixa de Pensiones, Barcelona; the Wexner Center for the Arts, Columbus, Ohio, and the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art.

First Artifices Biennale in Saint-Denis, "Art à l'ordinateur: invention, simulation," curated by Jean-Louis Boissier and Pierre Courcelles. Works presented include videos on graphics palette, computer animations, interactive videodisks, computer-image videos, interactive computer images, and a digital image network (4-31 October).

"Art & Pub," exhibition at the Musée national d'art moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, in Paris. Accompanying AV program features advertising films and artists videos from the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s by Luc Besson, Jean-Jacques Beineix, Etienne Chatilliez, Raymond Depardon, Alain Franchet, Jean-Luc Godard, Jean-Paul Goude, Chris Marker, Jean-Baptiste Mondino, and others (30 October 1990-25 February 1991).

Creation of the Kunsthochschule für Medien (KHM) in Cologne. Directed by Siegfried Zielinski as of 1994.

Great Britain
"19/4/90 Television Interventions," broadcast on Channel 4 TV (produced by Anna Ridley and Jane Rigby), inspired by David Hall's 1971 program "TV Interruptions." Shorts commissioned from Rose Garrard, Ron Geesin, David Hall, Pictorial Heroes, Steve Littman, David Mach, Bruce McClean, Alistair McLennan, Steve Partridge, and others. Rebroadcast of four works by David Hall from his 1971 program. Presentation of works that will later be exhibited at the Third Eye Centre in Glasgow and the Ikon Gallery in Birmingham.

British Film and Video Biennale at the Institute of Contemporary Art in London. Traveling program of independent British films and videos curated by Tilda Swinton and organized by the Arts Council and the British Council.

Edge 90, International Performance, Installation, and Video Biennale in Newcastle-Upon-Tyne. Features "The Observatory" vidéothèque by Michael Maziere and a selection of international tapes by Marina Abramovic and Ulay, Robert Cahen, Gianni Toti, Robert Wilson, and Cerith Wyn Evans.

London Film Festival at the National Film Theatre / Museum of the Moving Image in London includes a video section by Jeremy Walsh and Michael Maziere. Among the artists invited are John Sanborn and Mary Perillo, Breda Beban, Hrvoje Horvatic, and Gianni Toti.

"One Minute Television," one-minute films and videos commissioned jointly by the BBC and the Arts Council, are broadcast on "The Late Show" on BBC 2 TV.

"Sign of the Times, A Decade of Video, Film, and Slide-Tape Installations, 1980-1990," exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art in Oxford, curated by Chrissie Iles in collaboration with the British Council. Includes works by Rose Finn-Kelcey, Judith Goddard, Roberta Graham, David Hall, Susan Hiller, Tina Keane, Tamara Krikorian, Stuart Marshall, Joyne Parker, Holly Warburton, Chris Welsby, Jeremy Welsh, Anthony Wilson, and Cerith Wyn Evans.

"The Dazzling Image," produced by Jane Thorburn for "The Eleventh Hour" on Channel 4 TV. Features videos and films produced by the Arts Council, the British Film Institute, and Channel 4, including works by Isaac Julien, Sandra Lahire, David Larcher, Cordelia Swann, Cerith Wyn Evans, and Graham Young.

Bienal de la imagen en Movimiento '90, exhibition organized by the Museo Naciónal Centro de Arte Reina Sofía in Madrid, curated by José Ramón Pérez Ornia). Presentation of installations by Eugènia Balcells, Gary Hill, Thierry Kuntzel, Barbara Steinman, and Bill Viola along with a Peter Greenaway retrospective (12-24 December).

United States
"Bay Area Media," exhibition organized by Robert Riley for the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. Includes works by Jim Campbell, Bill Fontana, Doug Hall, Lynn Hershman, Paul Kos, Tony Labat, Chip Lord and Mickey McGowan, and Alan Rath (15 March-13 May).

"Image World. Art and Media Culture," exhibition at the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York. Video installations by Dara Birnbaum, Nancy Burson and David Kramlich, Peter Campus, Carol Ann Klonarides, Bruce Nauman, Nam June Paik, Richard Serra, and Bill Viola.

Ars Electronica '91 festival in Linz on the theme "Out of Control" (with the participation of Paul Virilio). Video retrospectives, installations by Paul De Marinis, Ingo Günther, and others. Presentation of a project on television art, Stadtwerkstatt-TV, broadcast live (10-13 September).

7. Arhus Internationale Videofestival, organized by the Danish Film Institute Workshop and the Haderslev and Arhus Film Workshop. This year's festival presents Scandinavian video works along with several installations.

Imagina, the Tenth International New Images Forum in Monte Carlo, organized by the Television Festival of Monte Carlo and the Institut national de l'audiovisuel on the theme "Virtual Worlds." Head of the Imagina-France program: Philippe Quéau (30 January-1 February).

Robert Filliou retrospective at the Musée national d'art moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, in Paris (July-September).

Vidéo-Arts Plastiques Festival in Hérouville-Saint-Clair (near Caen). Features a retrospective of videotapes by David Hall and works by British artists George Barber, Clio Barnard, John Butler, David Cox, Lei Cox, Michael Denton, Terry Flaxton, Rose Garrard, Clive Gillman, Judith Goddard, David Larcher, William Latham, Alison Leaf, Steve Littman, Steve Partridge, and Dean Stockton.

"L'Amour de l'art," First Lyons Biennale of Contemporary Art. The video section, "Et si la télévision devenait un art," curated by Georges Rey, presents various trends in French video: dance video, TV programs, video clips, documentaries, ads, and artists tapes.

"Jean-Christophe Averty, collages, découpages," exhibition at the Espace Electra in Paris, curated by Anne-Marie Duguet.

Great Britain
"Video Postive," the second international festival of installations and videos, held at the Tate Gallery in London, Blue Coat Gallery, Open Eye, and Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool. Features works by Nail Bartlett, Simon Biggs, Ian Bourn, Lei Cox, Catherine Elwes, Louise Forshaw, Clive Gillman, Judith Goddard, David Hall, Mick Hartney, Mona Hatoum, Severed Heads, Tamara Krikorian, Stuart Marshall, and Mark Wilcox.

Second International Biennale - ARTEC '91 at the Nagoya City Art and Science Museum and Shirakawa Park in Nagoya. Artists include Gary Hill, Shigeko Kubota, Marie-Jo Lafontaine, Mary Lucier, Studio Azzuro, Keiichi Tanaka, Peter Vogel, and others (10 October-10 November).

United States
Paper Tiger TV collective produces regular broadcasts on a New York public television station. It uses TV and the news reporting format for critiques of institutions.

Ars Electronica '92 festival in Linz on the theme "Die Welt von Innen," curated by Peter Weibel. (22-27 June).

Imagina, the Eleventh International New Images Forum in Monte Carlo, organized by the Television Festival of Monte Carlo and the Institut national de l'audiovisuel. Head of the Imagina-France program: Philippe Quéau (30 January-1 February).

Creation of the "Revue Virtuelle" at the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris by Christine Van Assche, Martine Moinot, and Jean-Louis Boissier. This virtual "magazine" addresses all the new technologies (the virtual, computer images, multimedia) from the multiple viewpoints of science, aesthetics, museography, and education. Twelve thematic "issues" will fgive rise to public lectures, publications, and exhibitions. A bilingual CD-ROM, L'Actualité du virtuel / Actualizing the Virtual (1996) provides a synthesis of these activities.

"Manifeste. 30 ans de création en perspective, 1960-1990," exhibition at the Musée national d'art moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, in Paris. Video installations by international artists in the museum's collection include Peter Campus, Jean-André Fieschi, Dan Graham, Thierry Kuntzel, Bruce Nauman, Marcel Odenbach, Nam June Paik, Martial Raysse, and Bill Viola. Opening of a permanent space within the museum for viewing videos on demand. Curator for the New Media Department: Christine Van Assche (18 June-28 September).

Artifices 2 in Saint-Denis on the theme "Le réel saisi par les machines," curated by Jean-Louis Boissier and Anne Perrot. Includes installations by Bill Fontana, Piero Gilardi, Piotr Kowalski, Matt Mullican, and Woody Vasulka (6 November-3 December).

Gary Hill retrospective at the Musée national d'art moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, in Paris. The exhibition, curated by Christine Van Assche, includes seven recent installations (1987-1992) and a retrospective of video works (25 November 1992-24 January 1993).

"Ateliers 1992" at the ARC, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris. The video section features works by Philippe Andrevon, Cuckovic, Bénédicte Espiau, Laure Girardeau, Lydie Jean-Dit-Panel, Franck Magnant, and César Vayssié.

Multimediale 1 at the ZKM in Karlsruhe.

Great Britain
Second Biennial of Independent Film and Video at the Institute of Contemporary Art in London, curated by Peter Wollen.

"Video France 92" at the Institut Français in Florence features videos made and produced in France. The French selection is organized by the Centre international de création vidéo (CICV) in Montbéliard, a partner in the exhibition. Artists include Alain Bourges, Christian Boustani, Robert Cahen, Dominique Debaralle, Catherine Derosier, Stéphane Gatti, Véro Goyo, Alain Jomier, Sandra Kogut, Jean-Louis Le Tacon, Jérôme Lefdup, Alain Longuet, Yann N'Guyen Minh, Claude Mourieras, Marcel Odenbach, Georges Pasquier and Alain Willaume, Yves de Peretti, Estelle Pianet, Eve Ramboz, Pierre Trividic, Teresa Wennberg, Wonder Products, and Patrick Zanoli (11-13 April).

Bienal de la imagen en Moviemento '92, "Spanish Visionaries," at the Museo Naciónal Centro de Arte Reina Sofía in Madrid.

"Electronic Art: Imatges en moviment. Obres de la collecció del ZKM Karlsruhe," exhibition organized by the Fundació Joan Miró in Barcelona. Artists include Jonathan Borofsky, Klaus vom Bruch, Ingo Günther, Rebecca Horn, Dieter Jung, Marie-Jo Lafontaine, Bruce Nauman, Nam June Paik, Friederike Pezold, Fabrizio Plessi, Jeffrey Shaw, and others (2 July-6 September).

United States-France
"Trans-Voices," a public art event organized simultaneously in Paris (American Center) and New York (Whitney Museum/Public Art Fund), includes fourteen videos broadcast by Canal+ in France and MTV in the United States. The French tapes are produced by the CICV in Montbéliard (16 September-10 November).

Ars Electronica '93 in Linz (14-18 June).

Imagina, the Twelfth International New Images Forum in Monte Carlo, organized by the Television Festival of Monte Carlo and the Institut national de l'audiovisuel on the theme "Le temps du temps réel." Head of the Imagina-France program: Philippe Quéau (17-19 February).

In conjunction with the Canadian cinema retrospective at the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris, the Musée national d'art moderne presents a program of Canadian videos including tapes by Colin Campbell, General Idea, Janine Marchessault, Doug Porter, Lisa Steele, Kim Tomczak, and others (31 March-30 June).

Thierry Kuntzel exhibition at the Galerie national du Jeu de Paume in Paris, curated by Anne-MarieDuguet. Includes objects, videos, and video installations (27 April-20 June).

"Transpositions," exhibition at the Ferme du Buisson, Centre d'art et de culture in Marne-la-Vallée, Noisiel. Artists include Akarova, Judith Barry, Andrea Blum, Nigel Coates, Sonja Dicquemare, Loïe Fuller, Dan Graham, Robert Morris, Bruce Nauman, and Oskar Schlemmer. A colloquium is held on relations between contemporary art and dance (29 April-28 June).

"Images en scène" organized by ART 3000 (Christian Oddos, director) at the Palais de Tokyo in Paris. Features video installations by Dominik Barbier, Dominique Belloir, Christian Boustani, Sabine de Chalendar, Claire Dehove, Jean-Paul Fargier, Ghislaine Gohard, Loïc Jugue, Eve Ramboz, and others (11-13 June).

"Ici Paris (Europe): Nouvelles tendances de la vidéo en France," exhibition at the Musée national d'art moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, in Paris. Features the works of seventeen artists: Philippe Andrevon, Joël Bartoloméo, Sabine de Chalendar, Florence Deygas, Esti, Christiane Geoffroy, Véro Goyo, Hänzel and Gretel, Octavio Iturbe, Loïc Jugue, Olivier Kuntzel, Jérôme Lefdup, Francisco Ruiz de Infante, Pierrick Sorin, Wim Vandekeybus, César Vaussié, and Walter Verdin (23 June-30 September). The exhibition travels to New York and Japan.

"Images et artifices: un choix de jeunes créateurs français. Vidéo et infographie," exhibition at the ARC, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, curated by Angeline Scherf. Includes videotapes by Cécile Babiole, Bériou, Marc Caro, Eric Coignoux, Didier Kerbrat, Jérôme Lefdup, Françoise Petiot, and Dominique Pochat (24 June-12 September).

"Et tous ils changent le monde," Second Lyons Biennale of Contemporary Art, organized by Marc Dachy, Thierry Prat, and Thierry Raspail. Features works by George Brecht, John Cage, Robert Filliou, Allan Kaprow, George Maciunas, Robert Morris, Bruce Nauman, and others (3 September-13 October).

Multimediale 3, ZKM in Karlsruhe (6-13 November).

11th World Wide Video Festival, Kijkhuis, in The Hague, featuring an international selection of recent video productions and multimedia installations (19-25 April).

"Beyond Sight," Bill Viola exhibition organized by the Museo Naciónal Centro de Arte Reina Sofía in Madrid.

Fifth International Video Week (Biennale de l'image en mouvement) at the Centre pour l'image contemporaine in Saint-Gervais, Geneva, featuring retrospectives of the works of Vito Acconci, Robert Cahen, and Bill Viola, programs by René Pulfer and Philippe Grandrieux, and installations by Dan Graham, General Idea, and Bill Viola (29 October-6 November).

United States
"Fluxus", exhibition at the Walker Arts Center in Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Ars Electronica '94 in Linz on the theme "Intelligente Ambiente" (21-25 June).

Stan Douglas exhibition at the Musée national d'art moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, in Paris, featuring three multimedia installations (12 January-7 February).

"L'Hiver de l'amour bis" at the ARC, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, with works by Sadie Benning, Dominique Gonzalez-Foerster, Marie-Ange Guilleminot, Chris Hover, General Idea, Tom Kalin, and Julia Scher (10 February-13 March)

Imagina, the Thirteenth International New Images Forum in Monte Carlo, organized by the Television Festival of Monte Carlo and the Institut national de l'audiovisuel on the theme "Le temps des clones." Head of the Imagina-France program: Philippe Quéau (16-18 February).

First presentation in France of a selection of works (1983-1994) by Mona Hatoum at the Musée national d'art moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, in Paris. The video installation Corps étranger is specially conceived for this exhibit (8 June-22 August).

Joseph Beuys exhibition at the Musée national d'art moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, in Paris. A program of his films and videos, "Joseph Beuys, films et videos. Je suis un émetteur, je rayonne," is available for viewing on demand (30 June-3 October).

"Artifices 3" in Saint-Denis on the theme "Scénographie de la mémoire," curated by Jean-Louis Boissier and Anne-Marie Duguet. Features installations by Maurice Benayoun, Chen Chih-Cheng, Luc Courchesne, Frank Fietzek, Masaki Fujihata, Claude Gaçon, Rainer Ganahl, Agnès Hegedüs, Eric Lanz, George Legrady, Cécile Le Prado, Laurent Mignonneau, and Christa Sommerer (5 November-4 December).

"Ateliers 94" at the ARC, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, featuring works by Joël Bartoloméo, Rebecca Bournigault, Philippe Dorain and Serge Comte, and Cyrille Doukhan (4 November 1994-8 January 1995).

"Hors limites," exhibition at the Musée national d'art moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, in Paris, includes a program of films and videos by Vito Acconci, Ben, Jean Dupuy, Michel Journiac, George Maciunas, Nam June Paik, Gina Pane, and others (9 November-22 December). A parallel program of videotapes from the museum collection is presented under the title "Hors Limites Off" (Off-Off Limits).

"Points de vue (Images d'Europe)," exhibition at the Musée national d'art moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, in Paris, a sequel to "Ici Paris (Europe)", organized in 1993. Artists include Martin Arnold, Joël Bartoloméo, Michel Curran, Douglas Gordon, Johan Grimonprez, Matthias Müller, Alison Lurray, Chris Saunders, Ron Sluik and Reiner Kurpershoek, Stephanie Smith, Georgina Starr, Imogen Stidworthy, and Keith Stutter (14 December 1994-30 March 1995).

Great Britain
Third Biennial of Independent Film and Video at the Institute of contemporary Art in London, curated by John Wywer.

First Biennale of Video Art in Santiago.

"Time Slice," exhibition at the Royal Museum of Fine Arts in Copenhagen. Presentation of Works by students at the School of Media Art, including Simone Aaberg Karn, Siren Martinsen, Stine Meldgaard, Nikolaj Recke, Jeanette Schou, and others.

Imagina, the Fourteenth International New Images Forum in Monte Carlo, organized by the Television Festival of Monte Carlo and the Institut national de l'audiovisuel on the theme "Le cyber ère." Head of the Imagina-France program: Philippe Quéau (1-3 February).

Matthew Barney exhibition at the Fondation Cartier pour l'art contemporain in Paris, curated by Hervé Chandès (3 March-16 April).

"Morceaux choisis", exhibition at the Magasin / Centre national d'art contemporain in Grenoble, curated by Paul-Hervé Parsy and Christine Macel. Artists include Marina Abramovic and Ulay, Vito Acconci, Valie Export, Gilbert and George, Marie-Ange Guilleminot, Rebecca Horn, Michel Journiac, Mike Kelley, Paul McCarthy, Bruce Nauman, Nam June Paik, and Cindy Sherman (14 October 1995-7 January 1996).

The exhibition "Fémininmasculin, le sexe de l'art" at the Musée national d'art moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, in Paris, curated by Marie-Laure Bernadec and Bernard Marcadé. Features special sections with a number of young artists working with the latest media: slide projections, videotapes, video installations, CD-ROMs, sound mixes, and online works. Artists in these sections include Sadie Benning, Marie-Ange Guilleminot, Marie Legros, Alberto Sorbelli, and others (26 October 1995-12 February1996).

Doublas Gordon exhibition at the Musée national d'art moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, in Paris (9 December 1995-22 January 1996).

The Pierre Schaeffer Online Creation Workshop at the CICV in Montbéliard offers artists possibilities for online creation and dissemination of their work. French artists with projects on the CICV Website include: Gisela Domsche and Fabio Itapura, Marc Etc, Nicolas Frespech, Patrick de Geetere, Christiane Geoffroy, Ghislaine Gohard, Olivier Goulet, Michel Guet, David Guez, Fabrice Hybert, Antoine Moreau, and Karine Vonna and Georges Cazenove.

Third Lyons Biennale of Contemporary Art, curated by Thierry Prat, Thierry Raspail, and Georges Rey, is devoted to moving images. Artists include Vito Acconci, Catherine Beaugrand, Jean-Louis Boissier, Café Electronique, Pater Campus, Emmanuel Carlier, Claude Closky, Cheryl Donegan, Ken Feingold, Paul Garin, Dan Graham, Marie-Ange Guileminot, Ann Hamilton, Gary Hill, Pierre Huyghe, Fabrice Hybert, Joan Jonas, Jon Kessler, Laurent Mignonneau and Christa Sommerer, Bruce Nauman, Dennis Oppenheim, Orlan, Tony Oursler, Philippe Parreno, Eric Rondepierre, Pierrick Sorin, Mike and Doug Starn, Diana Thater, Bill Viola, and others (20 December 1995-18 February 1996).

The second half of the 1990s is marked by the appearance of artists' sites on the Internet. In France, along with the site of the CICV in Montbéliard, Icono & Cie, created by Emmanuel Barrault, Sophie Rostain, Christophe Salaün, and Maï Tran, is one of the early initiatives using the Internet not simply to present existing works but to generate projects for the Web.

Multimediale 4 at the ZKM in Karlsruhe.

Publication of Künstler-Videos. Entwicklung und Bedeutung, by Friedemann Malsch, Dagmar Streckel, and Ursula Perucchi-Petri.

Great Britain
"Rites of passage", exhibition at the Tate Gallery in London, with video works by Susan Hiller, Mona Hatoum, and Bill Viola (June).

"The British Art Show" in Manchester features video works by Douglas Gordon, Georgina Starr, Mark Wallinger, Jane and Louise Wilson, and films by Tacita Dean, Ceal Floyer, and Steve McQueen (November, travels afterward).

"Señales de Vídeo," exhibition at the Museo Naciónal Centro de Arte Reina Sofía in Madrid, curated by Eugeni Bonet. Features forty works by thirty-four Spanish artists and groups, including EnriqueFontanilles, Grupo 3TT, Javier Montero, Antoni Muntadas, Francisco Ruiz de Infante, and Francesc Torres (11 October-4 November).

Sixth International Video Week (Biennale de l'image en mouvement) at the Centre pour l'image contemporaine in Saint-Gervais, Geneva. Includes Chris Marker, Robert Filliou, and Guy Debord retrospectives and cartes blanches to Saskia Bos, Rudolf Friedling, Carol Ann Klonarides, Johan Grimonprez and Herman Asselbergs, and Stéphanie Moisdon Trembley and Nicolas Trembley (November).

United States
Silent Movie
, a multimedia installation by Chris Marker, is produced and presented at Arts in Columbus, Ohio. Composed of videotapes, videodisks, and still images, this installation is an homage to the centennial of the invention of the cinema (26 January-9 April).

For "Copenhagen Cultural City 1996," Ane Mette Ruge and Jacob Schokking create Danske piger viser alt (The Danes Show Everything), an anthology of twenty shorts by Danish and foreign film- and videomakers. Schokking is the founder of Holland House (1988), an organization that produces a long series of video-opera installations, notably the video oratorio Public Secret in 1996.

"Impermanent," exhibition at the Kuvataideakatemian Galleria in Helsinki. Twenty-two artists from different countries, including Claire Angelini, Hui Kiang Seng, Jan Kopp, and Pia Lindman, present videos, films, slide shows, sound installations, concerts, poetry, and contemporary dance (31 December 1996-12 January 1997).

Imagina, the Fifteenth International New Images Forum in Monte Carlo, organized by the Television Festival of Monte Carlo and the Institut national de l'audiovisuel on the theme "Arts en réseaux." Head of the Imagina-France program: Philippe Quéau (21-23 February).

"Auto Reverse 2," exhibition at the Magasin, Centre d'art contemporain in Grenoble, the second part of a project by Stéphanie Moisdon Trembley. The first part took place in May 1995 in Geneva, with a colloquium and a program of videotapes. Artists include Absalon, Vito Acconci, Joël Bartoloméo, Dominiaue Gonzalez-Foster, Douglas Gordon, Marie-Ange Guilleminot, and Pipiloti Rist (22 June-8 September).

"L'art au corps, le corps exposé de Man Ray à nos jours", exhibition at the Musée d'art contemporain in Marseille, curated by Philippe Vergne. Includes artists videos by Vito Acconci, Chris Burden, Dan Graham, Marie-Ange Guilleminot, Mona Hatoum, Fabrice Hybert, Mike Kelley, Bruce Nauman, Orlan, Tony Oursler, Gina Pane, Friedericke Pezold, Alberto Sorbelli, Ben Vautier, and others (7 July-15 October).

"Artifices 4" in Saint-Denis, artistic director: Jean-Louis Boissier. Features installations by Jeffrey Shaw, CD-ROMs, artist Websites, and discussion series on contemporary art (6 November-5 December).

Great Britain
"Pandaemonium," exhibition at the Institute of Contemporary Art in London, curated by George Muir.

Manifesta, first European Biennale of Contemporary Art, curated by C. Neray, Andrew Renton, Hans Ulrich Obrist, Rosa Martinez, and Victor Misiano (June).

United States
"Hall of Mirrors: Art and Film Since 1945," exhibition at the Los Angeles Museum of Contemporary Art, curated by Kerry Brougher. Installations and films by John Baldessari, Joseph Beuys, Luis Buñuel, James Coleman, Stan Douglas, Jean-Luc Godard, Douglas Gordon, Dan Graham, Chris Marker, Cindy Sherman, and others (17 March-28 July).

Le printemps de Cahors, photography and art festival. "1 minute scénario", artist films and videos, curated by Jérôme Sans (6-22 June).

Immemory, CD-ROM by Chris Marker, coproduced by the Centre Georges Pompidou and Films de l'Astrophore, is presented in installation form at the Musée national d'art moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris, and a large number of festivals in France and abroad, notably Documenta 10 in Kassel.

Be Careful! By playing the phantom, you become one, an installation by Johan Grimonprez and Herman Asselberghs, is presented in the Grand Foyer at the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris (4 June-29 September). Grimonprez also presents dial H-I-S-T-O-R-Y (21 June-28 September).

Fourth Lyons Biennale of Contemporary Art on the theme of the Other, curated by Harald Szeemann. Artists include Martine Alballéa, Rebecca Bournigault, Chris Burden, Serge Comte, Stan Douglas, Douglas Gordon, Marie-Ange Guilleminot, Gary Hill, Chris Marker, Paul McCarthy, and Richard Serra (9 July-24 September). In conjunction with the Biennale, an exhibition on the Internet, "Version originale: 27 artistes sur Internet," curated by Georges Rey, is presented by the Musée d'art contemporain in Lyons. Artists include Joël Bartoloméo, Ben, Jean-Louis Boissier, Serge Comte, Patrick Corillon, Christiane Geoffroy, Paul-Armand Gette, Hervé Graumann, Marie-Ange Guilleminot and Fabrice Hybert, Pierre Joseph, Matthieu Laurette, Ange Leccia, Philippe Parreno and Pierre Huyghe, Philippe Perrin, Alberto Sorbelli, Jean-Luc Vilmouth, and Bruno Yvonnet.

"Bruce Nauman Image/Texte 1966-1996," exhibition at the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris (travels afterward to the Kunstmuseum in Wolfsburg, the Hayward Gallery in London, and Kiasma/Helsinki Museum of Contemporary Art) (16 December 1997-9 March 1998).

Inauguration of the Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie (ZKM) at the Hammenbau in Karlesruhe (18-19 October).

Multimediale 5 at the ZKM in Karlsruhe (18 October-9 November).

For the French Pavilion at the Venice Biennale, Fabrice Hybert installs a television studio, "Eau d'or, eau dort, ODOR - La danse des cameramen. La télévision est un lieu inexploré de sensualité" (15 June-9 November).

Seventh International Video Week (Biennale de l'image en mouvement), Centre pour l'image contemporaine in Saint-Gervais, Geneva. Chantal Akerman, Rebecca Horn, and Roman Signer retrospectives, exhibitions by Fischli and Weiss, Chris Marker and Felix S. Huber, Philip Pocock and Florian Wenz (31 October-8 November).

Ars Electronica '98 in Linz on the theme "Infowar" (7-12 September).

"Kunst und Globale Medien," exhibition at the Steirischer Herbst '98 in Graz, curated by Peter Weibel. Artists include Harun Farocki (video program, Schnittstelle installation), Joris Ivens (screenings), Chris Marker (program of his films and videos, Zapping Zone, Immemory, and Roseware installations) (26 September-26 October).

Second "Verbindingen. Jonctions" media art festival organized by Constant vzw in collaboration with various cultural institutions in Brussels. Includes installations, CD-ROMs, films, videos, and performances presented throughout Brussels (Palais des Beaux-Arts, Galerie Ravenstein, Kaaitheaterstudio's, Beursschouwburg, Moving Art Studio, Filmmuseum) (19 March-24 April).

São Paolo Biennale, includes It's Really Nice, installation by Pierrick Sorin.

ARC, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, exhibition by Pierre Huyghe, Dominique Gonzalez-Foster, and Philippe Parreno.

"Projections, Transports de l'image," inaugural exhibition at Le Fresnoy, Studio national des arts contemporains in Tourcoing. Curated by Dominique Paini, the exhibition includes film and video installations by Jean-Pierre Bertrand, Patrick Bokanowski, the Cellule d'intervention Metamkine, Alain Fleischer (director of Le Fresnoy), Henri Foucault, Bill Seaman, and Michael Snow (March).

The Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris presents the videotape collection of the Musée national d'art moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, and Chris Marker's Immemory during the closing of the Centre Pompidou for renovations.

Stan Douglas exhibition at the Kunstverein in Hanover.

Manifesta 2, the Second European Biennale of Contemporary Art, curated by Robert Fleck, Maria Lind, and Barbara Vanderlinden (28 June-11 October).

Solo exhibitions devoted to Dan Graham, Antoni Muntadas (Hibridos), and Marcel Odenbach organized by the Museo Naciónal Centro de Arte Reina Sofía in Madrid.

"68-98: trente ans de film militant... et quelques restes," exhibition organized by the Centre pour l'image contemporaine in Saint-Gervais, Geneva. Artists include Guy Debord, Jean-Luc Godard, Johan Grimonprez, and Chris Marker (May-June).

Gary Hill exhibition at the Centre pour l'image contemporaine in Saint-Gervais, Geneva (5 September-11 October).