Grallaria squamigera UNDULATED ANTPITTA. Humid forest
floor. Locally in Andes, 1650-3800 m, from Colombia and w Venezuela
s through Ecuador and Peru to wc Bolivia.
Grallaria gigantea GIANT ANTPITTA. Humid forest floor.
G. gigantea may be conspecific with G. excelsa, with G. g. hylodroma as
a separate species.
G. g. gigantea Andes, 1500-3800 m, of c Colombia on the
e slope of the Andes in Huila and e Ecuador. See G. excelsa.
G. g. hylodroma Nw Ecuador. May be a separate species.
Grallaria excelsa GREAT ANTPITTA. Humid forest floor.
Mts., 1700-2300 m of w,nc Venezuela.
Grallaria varia VARIEGATED ANTPITTA. Bamboo thickets,
humid forest floor. Lowlands to 750 m, e of Andes, of s Venezuela,
Guianas, Amazonian,e,se Brazil, ne Peru, e Paraguay and ne Argentina.
The e Brazilian imperator subspecies group differs vocally from
the varia subspecies group and may be a separate species.
Grallaria guatimalensis SCALED ANTPITTA. Humid forest
undergrowth or floor, dense second growth. Foothills and mts., 300-3500
m, from Jalisco, Michoacán, México, Morelos, Hidalgo, Veracruz
and Tabasco s to nc Nicaragua, Costa Rica and w,e Panama and from w,n,e
Colombia, w,s Venezuela, adj. nw Brazil and Trinidad s, w of Andes, to
nw Ecuador and, e of Andes, through e Ecuador and e,c Peru to wc Bolivia.
Geographic variation in vocalizations suggests that more than one species
may be involved.
Grallaria alleni MOUSTACHED ANTPITTA. Humid forest
floor. Known only from w slope of C. Andes, 2100-2150 m, of c Colombia.
Possibly a race of G. guatimalensis.
Grallaria chthonia TACHIRA ANTPITTA. Humid forest
floor. Known only from Andes, 1800-2100 m, of sw Venezuela in sw
Táchira. Possibly a race of G. guatimalensis or of G. alleni.
Grallaria haplonota PLAIN-BACKED ANTPITTA. Humid
forest floor. Mts., 1500-2450 m, of n Venezuela and w,se Ecuador.
Grallaria dignissima OCHRE-STRIPED ANTPITTA. Humid
forest floor. Lowlands to 500 m, e of Andes, in se Colombia, e Ecuador
and n Peru.
Grallaria eludens ELUSIVE ANTPITTA. Humid forest flooor.
Known only from lowlands of ne Peru.
Grallaria kaestneri CUNDINAMARCA ANTPITTA. Humid
forest undergrowth. E. Andes, 1800-2300 m, of c Colombia. Most similar
to G. bangsi. See Stiles 1992. Wilson Bull. 104:391.
Grallaria bangsi SANTA MARTA ANTPITTA. Humid forest
undergrowth. Santa Marta Mts., 1200-2650 m, of n Colombia.
See G. kaestneri.
Grallaria ruficapilla CHESTNUT-CROWNED ANTPITTA.
Humid forest floor, edge, open woodland. Mts., 1200-3000 m, from
Colombia and w,n Venezuela s through Andes of nw,e Ecuador to Peru.
Grallaria watkinsi SCRUB ANTPITTA. Humid forest undergrowth,
edge. Andes of sw Ecuador and adjacent nw Peru. Differs morphologically,
altitudinally and vocally from G. ruficapilla.
Grallaria andicola STRIPE-HEADED ANTPITTA. Fern brakes,
dense undergrowth, montane scrub. Andes, 2300-3700 m of n.c Peru;
se Peru and cw Bolivia.
Grallaria rufocinerea BICOLORED ANTPITTA. Humid forest.
C. Andes, 2100-3100 m, of c Colombia.
Grallaria nuchalis CHESTNUT-NAPED ANTPITTA. Humid
forest. Andes, 2200-3000 m, of Colombia; both Andean slopes of nw,e
Ecuador and nw Peru. The subspecies ruficeps is sometimes treated
as a separate species.
Grallaria carrikeri PALE-BILLED ANTPITTA. Humid forest.
Andes, 2300-2950 m, of n Peru.
Grallaria albigula WHITE-THROATED ANTPITTA. Humid
forest. Andes, 1350-2650 m, of s Peru, c Bolivia and nw Argentina.
Grallaria flavotincta YELLOW-BREASTED ANTPITTA. Humid,
mossy forest undergrowth, bamboo, edge. Andes, 1300-1800 m, of w
Colombia and w Ecuador. Sometimes treated as a race of G. hypoleuca,
but it appears to differ somewhat in vocalizations.
Grallaria hypoleuca WHITE-BELLIED ANTPITTA. Humid
forest undergrowth, edge, second growth. Andes, 1500-2100 m, of e
Colombia, Ecuador and nw Peru.
The status of the allopatric species flavotincta, hypoleuca, przewalskii
and capitalis is uncertain, but some differences in songs have been reported.
These four taxa are sometimes lumped in G. hypoleuca. Ref. Ridgely
and Tudor 1994. Birds of S. America, 2:377-378.
Grallaria przewalskii RUSTY-TINGED ANTPITTA. Humid
forest. Andes, 2350-3500 m, of n Peru.
Grallaria capitalis BAY ANTPITTA. Humid forest.
Andes, 1800-3500 m, of c Peru.
Grallaria erythroleuca RED-AND-WHITE ANTPITTA. Humid
forest. Andes, 2300-3400 m, of se Peru.
Grallaria griseonucha GREY-NAPED ANTPITTA. Humid
forest floor. Andes, 2300-2800 m, of w Venezuela.
Grallaria rufula RUFOUS ANTPITTA. Humid forest undergrowth
and floor, edge. Mts., 1350-3600 m, from Colombia and w Venezuela
s through Andes of Ecuador and Peru to wc Bolivia.
Grallaria blakei CHESTNUT ANTPITTA. Humid forest undergrowth.
Andes, 2100-2500 m, of c Peru. Sympatric with G. rufula, which occurs
above 2500 m in areas of sympatry.
Grallaria erythrotis RUFOUS-FACED ANTPITTA. Humid
forest. Andes, 1350-3050 m, of c Bolivia.
Grallaria quitensis TAWNY ANTPITTA. Humid forest.
Andes, 2200-3700 m, of Colombia, Ecuador and n Peru. The race alticola
is vocally distinct, but the differences have not been described.
Grallaria milleri BROWN-BANDED ANTPITTA. Humid forest.
Known only from C. Andes, 3150 m, of c Colombia in Caldas.
Hylopezus perspicillatus SPECTACLED ANTPITTA. Humid
forest floor. Lowlands to 1200 m of Honduras, se Nicaragua, Costa
Rica, Panama, w,nc Colombia and w Ecuador.
Hylopezus macularius SPOTTED ANTPITTA. Humid forest
floor. Lowlands to 500 m, e of Andes, of extreme se Colombia, s Venezuela,
Guianas, n Amazonian Brazil, ne Peru and n Bolivia. Geographic variation
in vocalizations suggests that more than one species may be involved.
Hylopezus dives FULVOUS-BELLIED ANTPITTA. Humid forest
undergrowth, edge, second-growth woodland. Lowlands to 1000 m on
Caribbean slope of ne Honduras, e Nicaragua and Costa Rica; e Panama, w
Colombia, w Ecuador; w Panama. Incl. H. d. flammulatus. Usually
treated as a race of H. fulviventris, but they differ markedly in vocalizations.
Hylopezus fulviventris WHITE-LORED ANTPITTA. Humid
forest undergrowth, edge. Lowlands to 1000 m, e of Andes, in se Colombia
n to Caquetá and e Ecuador.
Hylopezus berlepschi AMAZONIAN ANTPITTA. Humid forest.
Lowlands, e of Andes, of c,se Peru, n,e Bolivia and w Amazonian Brazil.
Possibly conspecific with H. fulviventris.
Hylopezus ochroleucus WHITE-BROWED ANTPITTA. Humid
forest. Ne Brazil from Ceará e to Bahia.
Hylopezus nattereri SPECKLE-BREASTED ANTPITTA. Bamboo
thickets. E Paraguay, ne Argentina and se Brazil. Usually treated
as a race of H. ochroleucus, but they differ in morphology, vocalizations
Myrmothera campanisona THRUSH-LIKE ANTPITTA. Humid
forest floor. Lowlands to 800 m, e of Andes, from se Colombia, s
Venezuela and Guianas s through e Ecuador to e Peru, n Bolivia and n, Amazonian
Myrmothera simplex BROWN-BREASTED ANTPITTA or TEPUI ANTPITTA.
Dense humid forest floor, scrub. Pantepui, 600-2400 m, of s Venezuela
and adj. n Brazil.
Grallaricula flavirostris OCHRE-BREASTED ANTPITTA.
Dense, humid forest undergrowth. Locally in mts., 500-2300 m, of
Costa Rica, w,e Panama, w,se Colombia, w,e Ecuador, n,e Peru and wc Bolivia.
The boliviana subspecies group may be a separate species, but vocal behavior
is poorly known.
Grallaricula ferrugineipectus RUSTY-BREASTED ANTPITTA.
Humid forest undergrowth. Locally in foothills and mts., 250-2800
m, of ne Colombia in Santa Marta Mts., n,ne Venezuela, n,e Peru and cw
Bolivia The subspecies rara is sometimes treated as a species.
The southern race, leymebambae, is vocally and altitudinally distinct and
is probably a separate species.
Grallaricula nana SLATE-CROWNED ANTPITTA. Humid forest
undergrowth. Locally in mts., 700-3050 m, of Colombia, w,n,se Venezuela,
e Ecuador and n Peru.
Grallaricula loricata SCALLOP-BREASTED ANTPITTA.
Humid forest undergrowth. Mts., 1400-2100 m, of nc Venezuela.
Grallaricula peruviana PERUVIAN ANTPITTA. Forest undergrowth.
Andes, 1500-2650 m, of se Ecuador and nw Peru. Possibly conspecific
with G. loricata; vocalizations of both forms unknown.
Grallaricula ochraceifrons OCHRE-FRONTED ANTPITTA.
Humid forest undergrowth. Andes, 1850-2000 m, of n Peru.
Grallaricula lineifrons CRESCENT-FACED ANTPITTA.
Humid forest undergrowth. Andes, 3000-3200 m, of sw Colombia and
Grallaricula cucullata HOODED ANTPITTA. Humid forest
undergrowth. Andes, 1350-2700 m, of Colombia and sw Venezuela.
Conopophaga lineata RUFOUS GNATEATER. Thorny scrub,
bamboo, caatinga. E Brazil; se Brazil, Paraguay and ne Argentina.
The subspecies cearae has been considered to be a possible species; it
is not known to intergrade with lineata where their ranges meet.
Conopophaga aurita CHESTNUT-BELTED GNATEATER. Forest
undergrowth. Lowlands to 500 m, e of Andes, in se Colombia, Guianas,
e Ecuador, e Peru and Amazonian Brazil.
Conopophaga roberti HOODED GNATEATER. Forest undegrowth,
second-growth scrub. Ne Brazil.
Conopophaga peruviana ASH-THROATED GNATEATER. Forest
undergrowth. Lowlands, e of Andes, in e Eduador, e Peru, n Bolivia
and sw Amazonian Brazil.
Conopophaga ardesiaca SLATY GNATEATER. Forest undergrowth.
Andes, 800-2450 m, of se Peru and c,se Bolivia.
Conopophaga castaneiceps CHESTNUT-CROWNED GNATEATER.
Forest undergrowth. Foothills and mts., 500-2500 m, of Colombia,
e Ecuador and n Peru.
Conopophaga melanops BLACK-CHEEKED GNATEATER. Forest.
E Brazil from Bahia, Paraíba, Pernambuco and Alagoas s to São
Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.
Conopophaga melanogaster BLACK-BELLIED GNATEATER.
Forest undergrowth. E of Andes, of n Bolivia in Beni and s Amazonian
Brazil on the Rio Madeira, R. Tapajós and R. Tocantins.
Pteroptochos tarnii HUET-HUET. Dense forest, bamboo
P. t. castaneus Lowlands to 1500 m of c,s Chile from Colchagua
to Concepción and n Bío-Bío. May be a separate
species; not knows to intergrade with tarnii where their ranges meet.
P. t. tarnii S Chile from c Bío-Bío s to
Magallanes and sw Argentina on Andean slopes from Neuquén to Santa
Pteroptochos megapodius MOUSTACHED TURCA. Arid sparse
vegetation, rocky areas, brushy hillsides. Lowlands to 3050 m of
Scelorchilus albicollis WHITE-THROATED TAPACULO.
Dry brushy hillsides, rocky areas. Lowlands to 1500 m of nc,c Chile.
Scelorchilus rubecula CHUCAO TAPACULO. Humid forest
undergrowth, thickets. Lowlands and foothills of c,s Chile, incl.
I. Mocha, and sw Argentina.
Rhinocrypta lanceolata CRESTED GALLITO. Dry scrub,
chaco. Lowlands of e Bolivia, w Paraguay and nw,c Argentina.
Teledromas fuscus SANDY GALLITO. Open brush, dry
hillsides. W Argentina.
Liosceles thoracicus RUSTY-BELTED TAPACULO. Forest
floor. Lowlands to 500 m, e of Andes, of se Colombia, e Ecuador,
e Peru and w Amazonian Brazil.
Psilorhamphus guttatus SPOTTED BAMBOOWREN. Bamboo
thickets, second growth scrub. Se Brazil and ne Argentina.
Affinities much debated; has also been placed in Formicariidae or Sylviidae.
Merulaxis ater SLATY BRISTLEFRONT. Forest.
Merulaxis stresemanni STRESEMANN'S BRISTLEFRONT.
Forest. Coastal lowlands of e Brazil.
Eugralla paradoxa OCHRE-FLANKED TAPACULO. Dense undergrowth,
bamboo thickets. S Chile from Maule to Chiloá. Ranges
n to c Chile in Santiago and sw Argentina to nw Río Negro.
Myornis senilis ASH-COLORED TAPACULO. Forest undergrowth,
bamboo. Andes, 2300-3500 m, of c,e Colombia, Ecuador and n Peru;
reports from sw Venezuela are unverified.
Melanopareia torquata COLLARED CRESCENT-CHEST. Open,
low woodland, cerrado, associated with anthills. E Bolivia in Santa
Cruz, and e,sc Brazil from s Pará s to Mato Grosso and São
Melanopareia maximiliani OLIVE-CROWNED CRESCENT-CHEST.
Bushes, sawgrass, shrubs, in woodland and savanna. C,se Bolivia,
w Paraguay and nw Argentina.
Melanopareia elegans ELEGANT CRESCENT-CHEST. Arid
scrub, deciduous forest undergrowth.
M. e. elegans Pacific lowlands of sw Ecuador and nw Peru.
M. e. maranonica Nc Peru. May be a distinct species.
Scytalopus: "Probably the most complicated and difficult
of all neotropical bird genera, the Scytalopus tapaculos have been called
"feathered mice" by those frustrated in their repeated inability to obtain
a decent view of one. Although they reach their maximum diversity
in the Andes, there are outlying species in the e. Brazil region and others
in various mts. of n. South America; none occurs on the tepuis. They
are skulking and barely capable of flight, and the various species (no
one knows how many there are!) are often nearly impossible to tell apart
on morphological characters, all being essentially some shade of gray or
blackish, usually with some shade of rufous brown on the flanks and rump."
(Ridgely and Tudor, 1994. Birds of South America. Vol. 2:411).
Species as listed by Sibley and Monroe with quotations from Arctander
Scytalopus unicolor UNICOLORED TAPACULO. Humid, mossy
forest undergrowth. Andes, 1700-3500 m, from Colombia and w Venezuela
s through e Ecuador to n Peru; w Ecuador, Peru and c Bolivia.
"Males uniform in color, n populations with blackish males giving
distinctive low-pitched frog-like whistles (the parapatric taxa latrans
and subcinereus) and dark gray southern populations whose songs are short
to very long series of 12-16 notes per second (parvirostris group) are
sympatric in northern Peru, indicating that at least two species are involved."
Scytalopus macropus LARGE-FOOTED TAPACULO. Mossy vegetation
and rocks along mt. torrents. Andes, 1800-3150 m, of n Peru.
"A large, blackish gray form inhabiting dense, mossy, cloud- and
elfin forest in northern Peru. Its song is ... a monotonous series
of low-pitched notes."
Scytalopus femoralis RUFOUS-VENTED TAPACULO. Mossy
forest. Santa Marta Mts., 1200-3100 m of ne Colombia; e slope of
E. Andes of c Colombia; from ne,s Colombia and w Venezuela s through Andes
of e Ecuador and e Peru; se Peru and c Bolivia.
"...fairly large, long-tailed and stout-billed birds of humid
premontane forest, distributed from Venezuela to southern Bolivia.
The blackish S. femoralis atratus (and similar forms) is narrowly bound
to primary forest and (has) a white crown-patch and monotonous series of
sharp notes ... it is sympatric with S. f. micropterus from Colombia to
extreme northern Peru and S. f. femoralis further south in Peru.
The latter two taxa give an endless series of well-spaced resonant notes
which are single (femoralis) or distinctively double (micropterus).
Yet other vocalizations are given by populations in northern Colombia and
Scytalopus panamensis TACARCUNA TAPACULO. Humid, mossy
forest undergrowth. Mts., 1050-1850 m, of e Panama.
Scytalopus vicinior NARINO TAPACULO. Forest undergrowth.
Locally in mts., 1200-1800 m, of e Panama, w,c Colombia and nw Ecuador.
Sometimes considered conspecific with S. panamensis, but has been recognized
as a species.
"... medium-sized, fairly long-tailed and gray, and gives a rapid
series of notes of increasing amplitude; it inhabits humid forest at 1250-2000
(2350) m on the Pacific slope of Colombia and northwestern Ecuador.
Very similar but smaller birds, usually with only 10 rectrices, inhabit
mature, wet foothill forest in western Ecuador. The Esmeraldas Bird
represents the southern extreme of a population inhabiting the Colombian
Choco region. The El Oro bird represents a small isolated population
in southwestern Ecuador. Both have songs composed of long series
of rapid notes (double notes in the El Oro bird)."
Scytalopus argentifrons SILVERY-FRONTED TAPACULO.
Humid forest undergrowth, brushy edge. Mts., 1350-2450 m, of Costa
Rica; w Panama. Reasons have been given for considering S. a. chiriquensis
of w Panama conspecific with argentifrons.
Scytalopus latebricola BROWN-RUMPED TAPACULO. Humid,
mossy forest undergrowth, woodland thickets. Mts., 1600-3650 m, of
Colombia and w Venezuela; coastal mts. of n Venezuela.
"... refers to a complex group of fairly small to large brown-rumped
birds in the northern part of the Andes. S. l. spillmani is slightly
heavier than S. vicinior, and gives long, fast trills. It inhabits
tall forest and bamboo at 1900-3200 m in northern and central Ecuador.
The Zapote Najda Birds represent a population previously included in S.
l. spillmani, but having a slower song which descends at first. It
inhabits large stands of bamboo, in particular, at 2200-3200 m along the
continental divide in southern Ecuador."
Scytalopus magellanicus ANDEAN TAPACULO. Humid forested
ravines, bamboo, riparian thickets. Locally in Andes, 2300-3800 m,
of Colombia, w Venezuela and e Ecuador; Peru and wc Bolivia; Chile and
w,c Argentina; s Chile, s at lower elevations to Cape Horn, and s Argentina
s to Tierra del Fuego, incl. Falkland Is.
"... comprises several populations of small, fine-billed birds,
most of them with densely barred rump and flanks, replacing each other
along the Andes in ecotone habitat at the treeline (3200-4200 m in the
Tropical Andes Region). Among the 15 recognized populations, most
use various combinations of well spaced single or vibrant notes, but some
have strikingly different songs. The Ampay and Millpo Birds, both
probably of very restricted distribution, resemble S. m. simonsi (silvery
gray superciliary), and have distinctive songs of well spaced tras notes
and well spaced vibrating chirps, respectively ... , but similar call notes.
S. m. opacus is nearly a uniform gray and its song an endless, fast trill
with a stuttering start; it is distributed throughout Ecuador, and replaced
by a very similar form, S. m. canus (with similar song) in the western
and central Andean ranges of Colombia. The name S. m. acutirostris
has been applied to three or four different populations, but the type probably
represents a population inhabiting dense cloud forest shrubbery at 2400-3450
m on both sides of the gap formed in the Cordillera Central by the Upper
Huallaga River, in the Carpish Mountains in Huánaco and in the Panao
Mountains in Pasco ... ; this form (has been) presented as an unnamed species
... It is virtually indistinguishable from S. u. parvirostris, but the
vocalizations are qualitatively more like Peruvian S. magellanicus populations,
a monotonous series of well spaced keek calls and a song of short trills
keek-keekrrr. It is replaced near the treeline by the Millpo Bird
in Pasco and by S. magellanicus altirostris in Huánaco."
Scytalopus superciliaris WHITE-BROWED TAPACULO. Alder
thickets. Andes, 2300-3500 m of se Bolivia and nw Argentina.
Sometimes regarded as conspecific with S. magellanicus.
Scytalopus speluncae MOUSE-COLORED TAPACULO. Forest
undergrowth, bamboo thickets. Mts., 1800-2600 m, of e,se Brazil and
Scytalopus novacapitalis BRASILIA TAPACULO. Riparian
woodland. Known only from ec Brazil in vicinity of Brasilia, Distrito
Federal. Originally described as a subspecies of S. indigoticus,
but has been considered a distinct species.
Scytalopus psychopompus CHESTNUT-SIDED TAPACULO.
Undergrowth in flooded forest. Coastal lowlands of se Brazil.
This species is closest morphologically to S. indigoticus.
Scytalopus indigoticus WHITE-BREASTED TAPACULO. Undergrowth,
second growrth, bracken, riparian woodland. Se Brazil.
Scytalopus schulenbergi DIADEMED TAPACULO. Bret M. Whitney.
A new Scytalopus tapaculo (Rhinocryptidae) from Bolivia, with notes on
other Bolivian members of the genus and the magellanicus superspecies.
Wilson Bull. 106:585-614, 1994. Humid temperate cloud forest and
elfin forest. E slope of Andes , 2975-3400 m from Valcón,
Depto. of Puno, Peru s in Bolivia to La Paz and Prov. of Chapare, Depto.
The quotations from Arctander and Fjeldså (1994) demonstrate
the complexity of the variation within some populations and/or species
of Scytalopus. The names, Millpo, Ampay, Zapote Nadja, Esmeraldas
and El Oro are related to DNA specimens from individual birds from these
locations. Each of these is separable from other populations defined
by DNA sequence data; they may represent additional species. The
Millpo Bird is especially distinctive; its DNA sequence places it as the
sister group to the other populations represented in the DNA sequence study.
Only Melanopareia differs more from the Scytalopus sequences. The
geographic and taxonomic variation in Scytalopus indicated by these results
is incomplete, but they reveal the complexity that can evolve in sedentary
birds occupying rough terrain and occurring in disjunct populations.
The original publication should be consulted for details.
Dr. Thomas S. Schulenberg has generously provided the following
The following three new species, A,B,C will be described and
named by N. Krabbe and T. S. Schulenberg. In press. The Scytalopus
tapaculos (Rhinocryptidae) of Ecuador, with descriptions of three new species
and notes on extralimital forms. Auk (Parker Memorial Issue).
Scytalopus sp nov A CHOCO TAPACULO. Panama (Darien)
s to nw Ecuador.
Scytalopus sp nov B ECUADORIAN TAPACULO. Sw Ecuador.
Scytalopus sp nov C CHUSQUEA TAPACULO. Andes of
s Ecuador and n Peru.
These authors also indicate that the "Millpo Bird" and the "Ampay
Bird" (see above) are new subspecies of S. superciliaris. The 25
species of Scytalopus recognized by Krabbe and Schulenberg are: unicolor,
parvirostris, speluncae, macropus, sanctaemartae, atratus, femoralis, bolivianus,
argentifrons, panamensis, vicinior, Sp. nov. A, Sp. nov. B, latebricola,
meridanus, caracae, spillmani, Sp. nov. C., indigoticus, griseicollis,
canus, acutirostris, superciliaris, fuscus, magellanicus.
Several of these 25 species were originally described as subspecies
and have been raised to species level on the basis of new information.
These are indicated in the following list: S. parvirostris (from
unicolor); S. sanctaemartae (from femoralis); S. bolivianus
(from femoralis); S. vicinior (from panamensis); S. meridanus
(from latebricola); S. caracae (from latebricola); S. spillmani
(from latebricola); S. canus (from magellanicus); S. acutirostris
(from magellanicus); S. fuscus (from magellanicus). Two or
more species may be involved under the names S. parvirostris, S. atratus
confusus and S. bolivianus. The following subspecies may be specifically
distinct: S. femoralis micropterus and S. griseicollis fuscicauda.
Thus, the 13 species recognized by Sibley and Monroe (1990) have
increased to 25 as a result of detailed field studies, use of vocalizations
and 'playbacks', and comparisons of DNA sequences -- and it seems likely
that the number of species will increase further by at least 5 or 6.
The furtive, sedentary Scytalopus tapaculos present a special situation
that is not expected to be found in many other groups.
Acropternis orthonyx OCELLATED TAPACULO. Forest undergrowth.
Locally in Andes, 2250-3500 m, of Colombia in the c Andes and e Andes in
Cundinamarca, nw Venezuela in Mérida and Táchira, in Ecuador
and n Peru in Piura and Amazonas.
Cormobates placens PAPUAN TREECREEPER. Forest. Mts.,
1250-3050 m of New Guinea in the Vogelkop, Weyland, Snow and se ranges,
but absent from the c,e highlands.
Cormobates leucophaea WHITE-THROATED TREECREEPER. Moist
C. l. minor. Ne Queensland from Cooktown s to the Eungella
Range. Intermediate population in se Queensland between minor and
C. l. leucophaea. E, se Australia from se Queensland n
to Rockhampton, s through e New South Wales and s Victoria to se S. Australia
in the Mt. Lofty Range.
Climacteris affinis WHITE-BROWED TREECREEPER. Dry woodland.
From wc Australia between upper Gascoyne R. and Kalgoorlie, e through s
N. Territory and S. Australia to sw Queensland, w New South Wales and nw
Victoria to Wyperfeld Natl. Park. Schodde (1993. Bull. Brit. Orn.
Club 113:230-232) has stabilized the name affinis as the correct name for
Climacteris erythrops RED-BROWED TREECREEPER. Rain forest,
dense eucalypt woods. Se Queensland n to near Gympie, s through e
New South Wales to e,sc Victoria w to Melbourne area.
Climacteris picumnus BROWN TREECREEPER. Open forest, riparian
C. p. melanota. Nw Queensland from the w coast of Cape
York Pen. s to Normanton.
C. p. picumnus. E Australia from Queensland n on e coast
to Townsville, s through New South Wales and Victoria to se S. Australia
at Spencer Gulf.
C. picumnus is closely related to rufa and melanura -- the two
groups hybridize in a narrow zone in the Burdekin-Lynd Divide region.
Climacteris melanura BLACK-TAILED TREECREEPER. Open forest,
riparian woods, especially among Eucalyptus camaldulensis.
C. m. melanura. From n W. Australia w to Carnarvon and
n N. Territory to w,c Queensland e to Leichhardt River and Cloncurry.
C. m. wellsi. Wc W. Australia between Gascoyne R. and DeGrey
Climacteris rufa RUFOUS TREECREEPER. Open forest, fallen
trees. From sw W. Australia n to Shark Bay and Nullarbor Plain e
to s S. Australia on the Eyre Peninsula.
Menura alberti ALBERT'S LYREBIRD. Forest, palm forest,
treefern gullies, often in rocky areas. Humid highlands of ce Australia
in extreme se Queensland and adjacent ne New South Wales.
Menura novaehollandiae SUPERB LYREBIRD. Forest, treefern
gullies. E, se Australia from extreme se Queensland (inland of the
range of alberti)
s through e New South Wales to e Victoria, w to the Melbourne
area. Introduced in Tasmania.
Atrichornis rufescensRUFOUS SCRUB-BIRD. Dense forest undergrowth.
Moist highlands above 500 m in extreme se Queensland in the McPherson Range
and Great Dividing Range, and ne New S. Wales, s to Barrington Tops.
Atrichornis clamosus NOISY SCRUB-BIRD. Dense undergrowth,
often near water. Extreme sw W. Australia near Two People Bay, e
of Albany, W.A. Now confined to a small area near Albany. Was
thought to be extinct by 1889, but ca. 40 individuals were discovered in
1961 and are now protected in a reserve.
Bowers and Mating Systems:
Ailuroedus buccoides WHITE-EARED CATBIRD. Humid forest.
Up to 1200 m on the w Papuan islands of Waigeo, Batanta, Salawati and Japen
islands; widespread on New Guinea, except the Trans-Fly River area of sc
New Guinea where melanotis occurs. Occurs below melanotis in most
areas, but above it in the Fly River region.
Ailuroedus melanotis SPOTTED CATBIRD or BLACK-EARED CATBIRD.
Humid forest. Mts. 600-2250 m of mainland New Guinea and to sea level
in Fly R. area of s New Guinea where it inhabits Melaleuca monsoon woodlands;
lowlands in the Aru Is. and on Misool in the w Papuan islands; ne Australia
in ne Queensland from Claudie River s to Townsville.
Ailuroedus crassirostris GREEN CATBIRD. Humid forest.
Se Queensland and e New South Wales, s to Narooma area.
Scenopooetes dentirostris TOOTH-BILLED CATBIRD. Humid forest.
Highlands, 600-1450 m in ne Queensland from Cooktown s to Townsville area.
Often placed in Ailuroedus, but the DNA sequence data cited above (Kusmierski,
et al.) support the assignment to Scenopoeetes.
Archboldia papuensis ARCHBOLD'S BOWERBIRD. Humid forest.
Locally in mts., 2000-3050 m of New Guinea in the Nassau Mts. sector of
the w New Guinea Snow Mts. and near Wissel Lakes (fide W. S. Peckover).
Archboldia sanfordi SANFORD'S BOWERBIRD or TOMBA BOWERBIRD.
Humid forest. Mts. 1800-2800 m of c New Guinea on Mt. Hagen, Mt.
Giluwe and Tari Gap area of the Doma Peaks. Often considered conspecific
with papuensis, but here treated as an allospecies.
Amblyornis inornatus VOGELKOP BOWERBIRD. Humid forest.
Mts. 800-2000 m of nw New Guinea in
the Arfak, Tamrau, Wandammen, Fak Fak and Kumawa ranges.
Amblyornis macgregoriae MACGREGOR'S BOWERBIRD. Humid forest.
Mts. 1050-2800 m of New Guinea from the Weyland and Oranje mts. to the
Adelbert Mts., Huon Peninsula, Owen Stanley Mts. and the se ranges.
Amblyornis subalaris STREAKED BOWERBIRD. Humid forest.
Mts. 650-1500 m of se New Guinea; s slope of Owen Stanley Mts. from the
Angabanga River e to Mt. Simpson. Occurs at lower elevations than
Amblyornis flavifrons GOLDEN-FRONTED BOWERBIRD. Known only
from the Foya Mts., 1000-2000 m of nc New Guinea.
Prionodura newtoniana GOLDEN BOWERBIRD. Humid forest.
Mts., 500-1650 m in ne Queensland, from Cairns and the Atherton Tableland
s to Townsville.
Sericulus aureus FLAME BOWERBIRD. Forest. Locally
in lowlands and foothills to 1400 m of nw, sc New Guinea from the Vogelkop
e to Sepik River and Fly River and to Mt. Bosavi; also occurs in the nc
Torricelli and Prince Alexander mts. from 900-1100 m.
Sericulus bakeri FIRE-MANED BOWERBIRD. Humid forest.
Mts. 900-1400 m in the Adelbert Mts. of ne New Guinea.
Sericulus chrysocephalus REGENT BOWERBIRD. Humid forest.
Se Queensland in the Eungella Range, s to ce New South Wales in the Barrington
Tops and s to the Sydney area.
Ptilonorhynchus violaceus SATIN BOWERBIRD. Forest, edge,
towns. E Australia in highlands, 600-1200 m of e Queensland; coastal
lowlands to 1050 m from se Queensland s through e New South Wales to e,s
Victoria, w to Otway Peninsula.
Chlamydera guttata WESTERN BOWERBIRD. Woodland, savanna,
rocky hills. Inland w,c Australia from ranges of sw N. Territory
and nw S. Australia w to cw W. Australia. Often considered conspecific
with maculata, but they behave as "semispecies" where in contact.
Chlamydera maculata SPOTTED BOWERBIRD. Woodland, savanna,
rocky hills. Inland e, se Australia from c Queensland s through c
and coastal New South Wales to nc Victoria; formerly to se S. Australia.
Chlamydera nuchalis GREAT BOWERBIRD. Humid forest, woods,
thickets. Coastal n Australia from ne W. Australia e through N. Territory
to n Queensland, from Cape York Peninsula, s to Mt. Isa and near Mackay.
Chlamydera lauterbachi YELLOW-BREASTED BOWERBIRD. Kunai
grassland, bushes, edge. Lowlands to 1800 m of nw,s New Guinea from
Geelvink Bay and Siriwo River e to Digul River; nc New Guinea from upper
Mamberamo River e to Ramu River.
Chlamydera cerviniventris FAWN-BREASTED BOWERBIRD. Savanna,
woods, edge. Locally in lowlands to 1400 m in nw,c,e, se,s New Guinea
in the s Vogelkop and from Humboldt Bay and Mamberano River east to the
eastern tip of New Guinea and coastally on the s,se coast w to the Fly
River and Morehead; islands in Torres Strait and ne Queensland from Cape
York Peninsula s to Jardine River and Chester River and on the Mitchell
and Palmer rivers in c Queensland.