Grallaria squamigera   UNDULATED ANTPITTA.  Humid forest floor.  Locally in Andes, 1650-3800 m, from Colombia and w Venezuela s through Ecuador and Peru to wc Bolivia.

Grallaria gigantea   GIANT ANTPITTA.  Humid forest floor.  G. gigantea may be conspecific with G. excelsa, with G. g. hylodroma as a separate species.

 G. g. gigantea  Andes, 1500-3800 m, of c Colombia on the e slope of the Andes in Huila and e Ecuador.  See G. excelsa.
 G. g. hylodroma  Nw Ecuador.  May be a separate species.

Grallaria excelsa   GREAT ANTPITTA.  Humid forest floor.  Mts., 1700-2300 m of w,nc Venezuela.
Grallaria varia   VARIEGATED ANTPITTA.  Bamboo thickets, humid forest floor.  Lowlands to 750 m, e of Andes, of s Venezuela, Guianas, Amazonian,e,se Brazil, ne Peru, e Paraguay and ne Argentina.
 The e Brazilian imperator subspecies group differs vocally from the varia subspecies group and may be a separate species.
Grallaria guatimalensis   SCALED ANTPITTA.  Humid forest undergrowth or floor, dense second growth.  Foothills and mts., 300-3500 m, from Jalisco, Michoacán, México, Morelos, Hidalgo, Veracruz and Tabasco s to nc Nicaragua, Costa Rica and w,e Panama and from w,n,e Colombia, w,s Venezuela, adj. nw Brazil and Trinidad s, w of Andes, to nw Ecuador and, e of Andes, through e Ecuador and e,c Peru to wc Bolivia.  Geographic variation in vocalizations suggests that more than one species may be involved.

Grallaria alleni   MOUSTACHED ANTPITTA.  Humid forest floor.  Known only from w slope of C. Andes, 2100-2150 m, of c Colombia.  Possibly a race of G. guatimalensis.
Grallaria chthonia   TACHIRA ANTPITTA.  Humid forest floor.  Known only from Andes, 1800-2100 m, of sw Venezuela in sw Táchira.  Possibly a race of G. guatimalensis or of G. alleni.
Grallaria haplonota   PLAIN-BACKED ANTPITTA.  Humid forest floor.  Mts., 1500-2450 m, of n Venezuela and w,se Ecuador.
Grallaria dignissima   OCHRE-STRIPED ANTPITTA.  Humid forest floor.  Lowlands to 500 m, e of Andes, in se Colombia, e Ecuador and n Peru.

Grallaria eludens   ELUSIVE ANTPITTA.  Humid forest flooor. Known only from lowlands of ne Peru.
Grallaria kaestneri   CUNDINAMARCA ANTPITTA.  Humid forest undergrowth. E. Andes, 1800-2300 m, of c Colombia.  Most similar to G. bangsi.  See Stiles 1992. Wilson Bull. 104:391.
Grallaria bangsi   SANTA MARTA ANTPITTA.  Humid forest undergrowth.  Santa Marta Mts., 1200-2650 m, of n Colombia.  See G. kaestneri.
Grallaria ruficapilla   CHESTNUT-CROWNED ANTPITTA.  Humid forest floor, edge, open woodland.  Mts., 1200-3000 m, from Colombia and w,n Venezuela s through Andes of nw,e Ecuador to Peru.

Grallaria watkinsi   SCRUB ANTPITTA.  Humid forest undergrowth, edge.  Andes of sw Ecuador and adjacent nw Peru.  Differs morphologically, altitudinally and vocally from G. ruficapilla.
Grallaria andicola   STRIPE-HEADED ANTPITTA.  Fern brakes, dense undergrowth, montane scrub.  Andes, 2300-3700 m of n.c Peru; se Peru and cw Bolivia.
Grallaria rufocinerea   BICOLORED ANTPITTA.  Humid forest. C. Andes, 2100-3100 m, of c Colombia.
Grallaria nuchalis   CHESTNUT-NAPED ANTPITTA.  Humid forest.  Andes, 2200-3000 m, of Colombia; both Andean slopes of nw,e Ecuador and nw Peru.  The subspecies ruficeps is sometimes treated as a separate species.

Grallaria carrikeri   PALE-BILLED ANTPITTA.  Humid forest.  Andes, 2300-2950 m, of n Peru.
Grallaria albigula   WHITE-THROATED ANTPITTA.  Humid forest.  Andes, 1350-2650 m, of s Peru, c Bolivia and nw Argentina.
Grallaria flavotincta   YELLOW-BREASTED ANTPITTA.  Humid, mossy forest undergrowth, bamboo, edge.  Andes, 1300-1800 m, of w Colombia and w Ecuador.  Sometimes treated as a race of G. hypoleuca, but it appears to differ somewhat in vocalizations.
Grallaria hypoleuca   WHITE-BELLIED ANTPITTA.  Humid forest undergrowth, edge, second growth.  Andes, 1500-2100 m, of e Colombia, Ecuador and nw Peru.

 The status of the allopatric species flavotincta, hypoleuca, przewalskii and capitalis is uncertain, but some differences in songs have been reported.  These four taxa are sometimes lumped in G. hypoleuca.  Ref. Ridgely and Tudor 1994. Birds of S. America, 2:377-378.

Grallaria przewalskii   RUSTY-TINGED ANTPITTA.  Humid forest.  Andes, 2350-3500 m, of n Peru.
Grallaria capitalis   BAY ANTPITTA.  Humid forest.  Andes, 1800-3500 m, of c Peru.
Grallaria erythroleuca   RED-AND-WHITE ANTPITTA.  Humid forest.  Andes, 2300-3400 m, of se Peru.
Grallaria griseonucha   GREY-NAPED ANTPITTA.  Humid forest floor.  Andes, 2300-2800 m, of w Venezuela.
Grallaria rufula   RUFOUS ANTPITTA.  Humid forest undergrowth and floor, edge.  Mts., 1350-3600 m, from Colombia and w Venezuela s through Andes of Ecuador and Peru to wc Bolivia.

Grallaria blakei   CHESTNUT ANTPITTA.  Humid forest undergrowth.  Andes, 2100-2500 m, of c Peru.  Sympatric with G. rufula, which occurs above 2500 m in areas of sympatry.
Grallaria erythrotis   RUFOUS-FACED ANTPITTA.  Humid forest.  Andes, 1350-3050 m, of c Bolivia.
Grallaria quitensis   TAWNY ANTPITTA.  Humid forest.  Andes, 2200-3700 m, of Colombia, Ecuador and n Peru.  The race alticola is vocally distinct, but the differences have not been described.
Grallaria milleri   BROWN-BANDED ANTPITTA.  Humid forest.  Known only from C. Andes, 3150 m, of c Colombia in Caldas.

Hylopezus perspicillatus   SPECTACLED ANTPITTA.  Humid forest floor.  Lowlands to 1200 m of Honduras, se Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, w,nc Colombia and w Ecuador.
Hylopezus macularius   SPOTTED ANTPITTA.  Humid forest floor.  Lowlands to 500 m, e of Andes, of extreme se Colombia, s Venezuela, Guianas, n Amazonian Brazil, ne Peru and n Bolivia.  Geographic variation in vocalizations suggests that more than one species may be involved.
Hylopezus dives   FULVOUS-BELLIED ANTPITTA.  Humid forest undergrowth, edge, second-growth woodland.  Lowlands to 1000 m on Caribbean slope of ne Honduras, e Nicaragua and Costa Rica; e Panama, w Colombia, w Ecuador; w Panama.  Incl. H. d. flammulatus.  Usually treated as a race of H. fulviventris, but they differ markedly in vocalizations.

Hylopezus fulviventris   WHITE-LORED ANTPITTA.  Humid forest undergrowth, edge.  Lowlands to 1000 m, e of Andes, in se Colombia n to Caquetá and e Ecuador.
Hylopezus berlepschi   AMAZONIAN ANTPITTA.  Humid forest.  Lowlands, e of Andes, of c,se Peru, n,e Bolivia and w Amazonian Brazil.  Possibly conspecific with H. fulviventris.
Hylopezus ochroleucus   WHITE-BROWED ANTPITTA.  Humid forest.  Ne Brazil from Ceará e to Bahia.
Hylopezus nattereri   SPECKLE-BREASTED ANTPITTA.  Bamboo thickets.  E Paraguay, ne Argentina and se Brazil.  Usually treated as a race of H. ochroleucus, but they differ in morphology, vocalizations and ecology.

Myrmothera campanisona   THRUSH-LIKE ANTPITTA.  Humid forest floor.  Lowlands to 800 m, e of Andes, from se Colombia, s Venezuela and Guianas s through e Ecuador to e Peru, n Bolivia and n, Amazonian Brazil.
Myrmothera simplex   BROWN-BREASTED ANTPITTA or TEPUI ANTPITTA.  Dense humid forest floor, scrub.  Pantepui, 600-2400 m, of s Venezuela and adj. n Brazil.
Grallaricula flavirostris   OCHRE-BREASTED ANTPITTA.  Dense, humid forest undergrowth.  Locally in mts., 500-2300 m, of Costa Rica, w,e Panama, w,se Colombia, w,e Ecuador, n,e Peru and wc Bolivia.  The boliviana subspecies group may be a separate species, but vocal behavior is poorly known.

Grallaricula ferrugineipectus   RUSTY-BREASTED ANTPITTA.  Humid forest undergrowth.  Locally in foothills and mts., 250-2800 m, of ne Colombia in Santa Marta Mts., n,ne Venezuela, n,e Peru and cw Bolivia  The subspecies rara is sometimes treated as a species.  The southern race, leymebambae, is vocally and altitudinally distinct and is probably a separate species.
Grallaricula nana   SLATE-CROWNED ANTPITTA.  Humid forest undergrowth.  Locally in mts., 700-3050 m, of Colombia, w,n,se Venezuela, e Ecuador and n Peru.
Grallaricula loricata   SCALLOP-BREASTED ANTPITTA.  Humid forest undergrowth.  Mts., 1400-2100 m, of nc Venezuela.

Grallaricula peruviana   PERUVIAN ANTPITTA.  Forest undergrowth.  Andes, 1500-2650 m, of se Ecuador and nw Peru.  Possibly conspecific with G. loricata; vocalizations of both forms unknown.
Grallaricula ochraceifrons   OCHRE-FRONTED ANTPITTA.  Humid forest undergrowth.  Andes, 1850-2000 m, of n Peru.
Grallaricula lineifrons   CRESCENT-FACED ANTPITTA.  Humid forest undergrowth.  Andes, 3000-3200 m, of sw Colombia and ne Ecuador.
Grallaricula cucullata   HOODED ANTPITTA.  Humid forest undergrowth.  Andes, 1350-2700 m, of Colombia and sw Venezuela.

Conopophaga lineata   RUFOUS GNATEATER.  Thorny scrub, bamboo, caatinga.  E Brazil; se Brazil, Paraguay and ne Argentina.  The subspecies cearae has been considered to be a possible species; it is not known to intergrade with lineata where their ranges meet.
Conopophaga aurita   CHESTNUT-BELTED GNATEATER.  Forest undergrowth.  Lowlands to 500 m, e of Andes, in se Colombia, Guianas, e Ecuador, e Peru and Amazonian Brazil.
Conopophaga roberti   HOODED GNATEATER.  Forest undegrowth, second-growth scrub.  Ne Brazil.
Conopophaga peruviana   ASH-THROATED GNATEATER.  Forest undergrowth.  Lowlands, e of Andes, in e Eduador, e Peru, n Bolivia and sw Amazonian Brazil.

Conopophaga ardesiaca   SLATY GNATEATER.  Forest undergrowth.  Andes, 800-2450 m, of se Peru and c,se Bolivia.
Conopophaga castaneiceps   CHESTNUT-CROWNED GNATEATER.  Forest undergrowth.  Foothills and mts., 500-2500 m, of Colombia, e Ecuador and n Peru.
Conopophaga melanops   BLACK-CHEEKED GNATEATER.  Forest.  E Brazil from Bahia, Paraíba, Pernambuco and Alagoas s to São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro.
Conopophaga melanogaster   BLACK-BELLIED GNATEATER.  Forest undergrowth.  E of Andes, of n Bolivia in Beni and s Amazonian Brazil on the Rio Madeira, R. Tapajós and R. Tocantins.

Pteroptochos tarnii   HUET-HUET.  Dense forest, bamboo thickets.

 P. t. castaneus  Lowlands to 1500 m of c,s Chile from Colchagua to Concepción and n Bío-Bío.  May be a separate species; not knows to intergrade with tarnii where their ranges meet.
 P. t. tarnii  S Chile from c Bío-Bío s to Magallanes and sw Argentina on Andean slopes from Neuquén to Santa Cruz.

Pteroptochos megapodius   MOUSTACHED TURCA.  Arid sparse vegetation, rocky areas, brushy hillsides.  Lowlands to 3050 m of nc,c Chile.
Scelorchilus albicollis   WHITE-THROATED TAPACULO.  Dry brushy hillsides, rocky areas.  Lowlands to 1500 m of nc,c Chile.
Scelorchilus rubecula   CHUCAO TAPACULO.  Humid forest undergrowth, thickets.  Lowlands and foothills of c,s Chile, incl. I. Mocha, and sw Argentina.
Rhinocrypta lanceolata   CRESTED GALLITO.  Dry scrub, chaco.  Lowlands of e Bolivia, w Paraguay and nw,c Argentina.
Teledromas fuscus   SANDY GALLITO.  Open brush, dry hillsides.  W Argentina.

Liosceles thoracicus   RUSTY-BELTED TAPACULO.  Forest floor.  Lowlands to 500 m, e of Andes, of se Colombia, e Ecuador, e Peru and w Amazonian Brazil.
Psilorhamphus guttatus   SPOTTED BAMBOOWREN.  Bamboo thickets, second growth scrub.  Se Brazil and ne Argentina.  Affinities much debated; has also been placed in Formicariidae or Sylviidae.
Merulaxis ater   SLATY BRISTLEFRONT.  Forest.  Se Brazil.
Merulaxis stresemanni   STRESEMANN'S BRISTLEFRONT.  Forest.  Coastal lowlands of e Brazil.
Eugralla paradoxa   OCHRE-FLANKED TAPACULO.  Dense undergrowth, bamboo thickets.  S Chile from Maule to Chiloá.  Ranges n to c Chile in Santiago and sw Argentina to nw Río Negro.

Myornis senilis   ASH-COLORED TAPACULO.  Forest undergrowth, bamboo.  Andes, 2300-3500 m, of c,e Colombia, Ecuador and n Peru; reports from sw Venezuela are unverified.
Melanopareia torquata   COLLARED CRESCENT-CHEST.  Open, low woodland, cerrado, associated with anthills.  E Bolivia in Santa Cruz, and e,sc Brazil from s Pará s to Mato Grosso and São Paulo.
Melanopareia maximiliani   OLIVE-CROWNED CRESCENT-CHEST.  Bushes, sawgrass, shrubs, in woodland and savanna.  C,se Bolivia, w Paraguay and nw Argentina.

Melanopareia elegans   ELEGANT CRESCENT-CHEST.  Arid scrub, deciduous forest undergrowth.
  M. e. elegans  Pacific lowlands of sw Ecuador and nw Peru.
 M. e. maranonica  Nc Peru.  May be a distinct species.

Scytalopus:  "Probably the most complicated and difficult of all neotropical bird genera, the Scytalopus tapaculos have been called "feathered mice" by those frustrated in their repeated inability to obtain a decent view of one.  Although they reach their maximum diversity in the Andes, there are outlying species in the e. Brazil region and others in various mts. of n. South America; none occurs on the tepuis.  They are skulking and barely capable of flight, and the various species (no one knows how many there are!) are often nearly impossible to tell apart on morphological characters, all being essentially some shade of gray or blackish, usually with some shade of rufous brown on the flanks and rump." (Ridgely and Tudor, 1994. Birds of South America. Vol. 2:411).

Species as listed by Sibley and Monroe with quotations from Arctander and Fjeldså

Scytalopus unicolor   UNICOLORED TAPACULO.  Humid, mossy forest undergrowth.  Andes, 1700-3500 m, from Colombia and w Venezuela s through e Ecuador to n Peru; w Ecuador, Peru and c Bolivia.

 "Males uniform in color, n populations with blackish males giving distinctive low-pitched frog-like whistles (the parapatric taxa latrans and subcinereus) and dark gray southern populations whose songs are short to very long series of 12-16 notes per second (parvirostris group) are sympatric in northern Peru, indicating that at least two species are involved."

Scytalopus macropus   LARGE-FOOTED TAPACULO.  Mossy vegetation and rocks along mt. torrents.  Andes, 1800-3150 m, of n Peru.

 "A large, blackish gray form inhabiting dense, mossy, cloud- and elfin forest in northern Peru.  Its song is ... a monotonous series of low-pitched notes."

Scytalopus femoralis   RUFOUS-VENTED TAPACULO.  Mossy forest.  Santa Marta Mts., 1200-3100 m of ne Colombia; e slope of E. Andes of c Colombia; from ne,s Colombia and w Venezuela s through Andes of e Ecuador and e Peru; se Peru and c Bolivia.

 "...fairly large, long-tailed and stout-billed birds of humid premontane forest, distributed from Venezuela to southern Bolivia.  The blackish S. femoralis atratus (and similar forms) is narrowly bound to primary forest and (has) a white crown-patch and monotonous series of sharp notes ... it is sympatric with S. f. micropterus from Colombia to extreme northern Peru and S. f. femoralis further south in Peru.  The latter two taxa give an endless series of well-spaced resonant notes which are single (femoralis) or distinctively double (micropterus).  Yet other vocalizations are given by populations in northern Colombia and in Bolivia."

Scytalopus panamensis   TACARCUNA TAPACULO.  Humid, mossy forest undergrowth.  Mts., 1050-1850 m, of e Panama.
Scytalopus vicinior   NARINO TAPACULO.  Forest undergrowth.  Locally in mts., 1200-1800 m, of e Panama, w,c Colombia and nw Ecuador.  Sometimes considered conspecific with S. panamensis, but has been recognized as a species.

 "... medium-sized, fairly long-tailed and gray, and gives a rapid series of notes of increasing amplitude; it inhabits humid forest at 1250-2000 (2350) m on the Pacific slope of Colombia and northwestern Ecuador.  Very similar but smaller birds, usually with only 10 rectrices, inhabit mature, wet foothill forest in western Ecuador.  The Esmeraldas Bird represents the southern extreme of a population inhabiting the Colombian Choco region.  The El Oro bird represents a small isolated population in southwestern Ecuador.  Both have songs composed of long series of rapid notes (double notes in the El Oro bird)."

Scytalopus argentifrons   SILVERY-FRONTED TAPACULO.  Humid forest undergrowth, brushy edge.  Mts., 1350-2450 m, of Costa Rica; w Panama.  Reasons have been given for considering S. a. chiriquensis of w Panama conspecific with argentifrons.
Scytalopus latebricola   BROWN-RUMPED TAPACULO.  Humid, mossy forest undergrowth, woodland thickets.  Mts., 1600-3650 m, of Colombia and w Venezuela; coastal mts. of n Venezuela.

 "... refers to a complex group of fairly small to large brown-rumped birds in the northern part of the Andes.  S. l. spillmani is slightly heavier than S. vicinior, and gives long, fast trills.  It inhabits tall forest and bamboo at 1900-3200 m in northern and central Ecuador.  The Zapote Najda Birds represent a population previously included in S. l. spillmani, but having a slower song which descends at first.  It inhabits large stands of bamboo, in particular, at 2200-3200 m along the continental divide in southern Ecuador."

Scytalopus magellanicus   ANDEAN TAPACULO.  Humid forested ravines, bamboo, riparian thickets.  Locally in Andes, 2300-3800 m, of Colombia, w Venezuela and e Ecuador; Peru and wc Bolivia; Chile and w,c Argentina; s Chile, s at lower elevations to Cape Horn, and s Argentina s to Tierra del Fuego, incl. Falkland Is.

 "... comprises several populations of small, fine-billed birds, most of them with densely barred rump and flanks, replacing each other along the Andes in ecotone habitat at the treeline (3200-4200 m in the Tropical Andes Region).  Among the 15 recognized populations, most use various combinations of well spaced single or vibrant notes, but some have strikingly different songs.  The Ampay and Millpo Birds, both probably of very restricted distribution, resemble S. m. simonsi (silvery gray superciliary), and have distinctive songs of well spaced tras notes and well spaced vibrating chirps, respectively ... , but similar call notes.  S. m. opacus is nearly a uniform gray and its song an endless, fast trill with a stuttering start; it is distributed throughout Ecuador, and replaced by a very similar form, S. m. canus (with similar song) in the western and central Andean ranges of Colombia.  The name S. m. acutirostris has been applied to three or four different populations, but the type probably represents a population inhabiting dense cloud forest shrubbery at 2400-3450 m on both sides of the gap formed in the Cordillera Central by the Upper Huallaga River, in the Carpish Mountains in Huánaco and in the Panao Mountains in Pasco ... ; this form (has been) presented as an unnamed species ... It is virtually indistinguishable from S. u. parvirostris, but the vocalizations are qualitatively more like Peruvian S. magellanicus populations, a monotonous series of well spaced keek calls and a song of short trills keek-keekrrr.  It is replaced near the treeline by the Millpo Bird in Pasco and by S. magellanicus altirostris in Huánaco."

Scytalopus superciliaris   WHITE-BROWED TAPACULO.  Alder thickets.  Andes, 2300-3500 m of se Bolivia and nw Argentina.  Sometimes regarded as conspecific with S. magellanicus.
Scytalopus speluncae   MOUSE-COLORED TAPACULO.  Forest undergrowth, bamboo thickets.  Mts., 1800-2600 m, of e,se Brazil and ne Argentina.
Scytalopus novacapitalis   BRASILIA TAPACULO.  Riparian woodland.  Known only from ec Brazil in vicinity of Brasilia, Distrito Federal.  Originally described as a subspecies of S. indigoticus, but has been considered a distinct species.
Scytalopus psychopompus   CHESTNUT-SIDED TAPACULO.  Undergrowth in flooded forest.  Coastal lowlands of se Brazil.  This species is closest morphologically to S. indigoticus.

Scytalopus indigoticus   WHITE-BREASTED TAPACULO.  Undergrowth, second growrth, bracken, riparian woodland.  Se Brazil.
Scytalopus schulenbergi  DIADEMED TAPACULO.  Bret M. Whitney.  A new Scytalopus tapaculo (Rhinocryptidae) from Bolivia, with notes on other Bolivian members of the genus and the magellanicus superspecies.  Wilson Bull. 106:585-614, 1994.  Humid temperate cloud forest and elfin forest.  E slope of Andes , 2975-3400 m from Valcón, Depto. of Puno, Peru s in Bolivia to La Paz and Prov. of Chapare, Depto. of Cochabamba.

 The quotations from Arctander and Fjeldså (1994) demonstrate the complexity of the variation within some populations and/or species of Scytalopus.  The names, Millpo, Ampay, Zapote Nadja, Esmeraldas and El Oro are related to DNA specimens from individual birds from these locations.  Each of these is separable from other populations defined by DNA sequence data; they may represent additional species.  The Millpo Bird is especially distinctive; its DNA sequence places it as the sister group to the other populations represented in the DNA sequence study.  Only Melanopareia differs more from the Scytalopus sequences.  The geographic and taxonomic variation in Scytalopus indicated by these results is incomplete, but they reveal the complexity that can evolve in sedentary birds occupying rough terrain and occurring in disjunct populations.  The original publication should be consulted for details.
 Dr. Thomas S. Schulenberg has generously provided the following information.
 The following three new species, A,B,C will be described and named by N. Krabbe and T. S. Schulenberg.  In press.  The Scytalopus tapaculos (Rhinocryptidae) of Ecuador, with descriptions of three new species and notes on extralimital forms.  Auk (Parker Memorial Issue).

Scytalopus sp nov A  CHOCO TAPACULO.  Panama (Darien) s to nw Ecuador.
Scytalopus sp nov B  ECUADORIAN TAPACULO.  Sw Ecuador.
Scytalopus sp nov C  CHUSQUEA TAPACULO.  Andes of s Ecuador and n Peru.

 These authors also indicate that the "Millpo Bird" and the "Ampay Bird" (see above) are new subspecies of S. superciliaris.  The 25 species of Scytalopus recognized by Krabbe and Schulenberg are:  unicolor, parvirostris, speluncae, macropus, sanctaemartae, atratus, femoralis, bolivianus, argentifrons, panamensis, vicinior, Sp. nov. A, Sp. nov. B, latebricola, meridanus, caracae, spillmani, Sp. nov. C., indigoticus, griseicollis, canus, acutirostris, superciliaris, fuscus, magellanicus.

 Several of these 25 species were originally described as subspecies and have been raised to species level on the basis of new information.  These are indicated in the following list:  S. parvirostris (from unicolor);  S. sanctaemartae (from femoralis);  S. bolivianus (from femoralis);  S. vicinior (from panamensis);  S. meridanus (from latebricola);  S. caracae (from latebricola);  S. spillmani (from latebricola);  S. canus (from magellanicus);  S. acutirostris (from magellanicus);  S. fuscus (from magellanicus).  Two or more species may be involved under the names S. parvirostris, S. atratus confusus and S. bolivianus.  The following subspecies may be specifically distinct:  S. femoralis micropterus and S. griseicollis fuscicauda.

 Thus, the 13 species recognized by Sibley and Monroe (1990) have increased to 25 as a result of detailed field studies, use of vocalizations and 'playbacks', and comparisons of DNA sequences -- and it seems likely that the number of species will increase further by at least 5 or 6.  The furtive, sedentary Scytalopus tapaculos present a special situation that is not expected to be found in many other groups.

Acropternis orthonyx   OCELLATED TAPACULO.  Forest undergrowth.  Locally in Andes, 2250-3500 m, of Colombia in the c Andes and e Andes in Cundinamarca, nw Venezuela in Mérida and Táchira, in Ecuador and n Peru in Piura and Amazonas.
 Suborder PASSERI
Parvorder CORVIDA
Superfamily MENUROIDEA

Cormobates placens  PAPUAN TREECREEPER.  Forest.  Mts., 1250-3050 m of New Guinea in the Vogelkop, Weyland, Snow and se ranges, but absent from the c,e highlands.
Cormobates leucophaea  WHITE-THROATED TREECREEPER.  Moist forest.
 C. l. minor.  Ne Queensland from Cooktown s to the Eungella Range.  Intermediate population in se Queensland between minor and leucophaea.
 C. l. leucophaea.  E, se Australia from se Queensland n to Rockhampton, s through e New South Wales and s Victoria to se S. Australia in the Mt. Lofty Range.
Climacteris affinis  WHITE-BROWED TREECREEPER.  Dry woodland.  From wc Australia between upper Gascoyne R. and Kalgoorlie, e through s N. Territory and S. Australia to sw Queensland, w New South Wales and nw Victoria to Wyperfeld Natl. Park.  Schodde (1993. Bull. Brit. Orn. Club 113:230-232) has stabilized the name affinis as the correct name for this species.
Climacteris erythrops  RED-BROWED TREECREEPER.  Rain forest, dense eucalypt woods.  Se Queensland n to near Gympie, s through e New South Wales to e,sc Victoria w to Melbourne area.
Climacteris picumnus  BROWN TREECREEPER.  Open forest, riparian woods.
 C. p. melanota.  Nw Queensland from the w coast of Cape York Pen. s to Normanton.
 C. p. picumnus.  E Australia from Queensland n on e coast to Townsville, s through New South Wales and Victoria to se S. Australia at Spencer Gulf.
 C. picumnus is closely related to rufa and melanura -- the two groups hybridize in a narrow zone in the Burdekin-Lynd Divide region.
Climacteris melanura  BLACK-TAILED TREECREEPER.  Open forest, riparian woods, especially among Eucalyptus camaldulensis.
 C. m. melanura.  From n W. Australia w to Carnarvon and n N. Territory to w,c Queensland e to Leichhardt River and Cloncurry.
 C. m. wellsi.  Wc W. Australia between Gascoyne R. and DeGrey River.
Climacteris rufa  RUFOUS TREECREEPER.  Open forest, fallen trees.  From sw W. Australia n to Shark Bay and Nullarbor Plain e to s S. Australia on the Eyre Peninsula.
Menura alberti  ALBERT'S LYREBIRD.  Forest, palm forest, treefern gullies, often in rocky areas.  Humid highlands of ce Australia in extreme se Queensland and adjacent ne New South Wales.
Menura novaehollandiae  SUPERB LYREBIRD.  Forest, treefern gullies.  E, se Australia from extreme se Queensland (inland of the range of alberti) 
 s through e New South Wales to e Victoria, w to the Melbourne area.  Introduced in Tasmania.
Atrichornis rufescensRUFOUS SCRUB-BIRD.  Dense forest undergrowth.  Moist highlands above 500 m in extreme se Queensland in the McPherson Range and Great Dividing Range, and ne New S. Wales, s to Barrington Tops.
Atrichornis clamosus  NOISY SCRUB-BIRD.  Dense undergrowth, often near water.  Extreme sw W. Australia near Two People Bay, e of Albany, W.A.  Now confined to a small area near Albany.  Was thought to be extinct by 1889, but ca. 40 individuals were discovered in 1961 and are now protected in a reserve.
Bowers and Mating Systems:
 Ailuroedus buccoides  WHITE-EARED CATBIRD.  Humid forest.  Up to 1200 m on the w Papuan islands of Waigeo, Batanta, Salawati and Japen islands; widespread on New Guinea, except the Trans-Fly River area of sc New Guinea where melanotis occurs.  Occurs below melanotis in most areas, but above it in the Fly River region.
Ailuroedus melanotis  SPOTTED CATBIRD or BLACK-EARED CATBIRD.  Humid forest.  Mts. 600-2250 m of mainland New Guinea and to sea level in Fly R. area of s New Guinea where it inhabits Melaleuca monsoon woodlands; lowlands in the Aru Is. and on Misool in the w Papuan islands; ne Australia in ne Queensland from Claudie River s to Townsville.
Ailuroedus crassirostris  GREEN CATBIRD.  Humid forest.  Se Queensland and e New South Wales, s to Narooma area.
Scenopooetes dentirostris  TOOTH-BILLED CATBIRD.  Humid forest.  Highlands, 600-1450 m in ne Queensland from Cooktown s to Townsville area.  Often placed in Ailuroedus, but the DNA sequence data cited above (Kusmierski, et al.) support the assignment to Scenopoeetes.
Archboldia papuensis  ARCHBOLD'S BOWERBIRD.  Humid forest.  Locally in mts., 2000-3050 m of New Guinea in the Nassau Mts. sector of the w New Guinea Snow Mts. and near Wissel Lakes (fide W. S. Peckover).
Archboldia sanfordi  SANFORD'S BOWERBIRD or TOMBA BOWERBIRD.  Humid forest.  Mts. 1800-2800 m of c New Guinea on Mt. Hagen, Mt. Giluwe and Tari Gap area of the Doma Peaks.  Often considered conspecific with papuensis, but here treated as an allospecies.
Amblyornis inornatus  VOGELKOP BOWERBIRD.  Humid forest.  Mts. 800-2000 m of nw New Guinea in 
the Arfak, Tamrau, Wandammen, Fak Fak and Kumawa ranges.
Amblyornis macgregoriae  MACGREGOR'S BOWERBIRD.  Humid forest.  Mts. 1050-2800 m of New Guinea from the Weyland and Oranje mts. to the Adelbert Mts., Huon Peninsula, Owen Stanley Mts. and the se ranges.
Amblyornis subalaris  STREAKED BOWERBIRD.  Humid forest.  Mts. 650-1500 m of se New Guinea; s slope of Owen Stanley Mts. from the Angabanga River e to Mt. Simpson.  Occurs at lower elevations than macgregoriae.
Amblyornis flavifrons  GOLDEN-FRONTED BOWERBIRD.  Known only from the Foya Mts., 1000-2000 m of nc New Guinea.
Prionodura newtoniana  GOLDEN BOWERBIRD.  Humid forest.  Mts., 500-1650 m in ne Queensland, from Cairns and the Atherton Tableland s to Townsville.
Sericulus aureus  FLAME BOWERBIRD.  Forest.  Locally in lowlands and foothills to 1400 m of nw, sc New Guinea from the Vogelkop e to Sepik River and Fly River and to Mt. Bosavi; also occurs in the nc Torricelli and Prince Alexander mts. from 900-1100 m.
Sericulus bakeri  FIRE-MANED BOWERBIRD.  Humid forest.  Mts. 900-1400 m in the Adelbert Mts. of ne New Guinea.
Sericulus chrysocephalus  REGENT BOWERBIRD.  Humid forest.  Se Queensland in the Eungella Range, s to ce New South Wales in the Barrington Tops and s to the Sydney area.
Ptilonorhynchus violaceus  SATIN BOWERBIRD.  Forest, edge, towns.  E Australia in highlands, 600-1200 m of e Queensland; coastal lowlands to 1050 m from se Queensland s through e New South Wales to e,s Victoria, w to Otway Peninsula.
Chlamydera guttata  WESTERN BOWERBIRD.  Woodland, savanna, rocky hills.  Inland w,c Australia from ranges of sw N. Territory and nw S. Australia w to cw W. Australia.  Often considered conspecific with maculata, but they behave as "semispecies" where in contact.
Chlamydera maculata  SPOTTED BOWERBIRD.  Woodland, savanna, rocky hills.  Inland e, se Australia from c Queensland s through c and coastal New South Wales to nc Victoria; formerly to se S. Australia.
Chlamydera nuchalis  GREAT BOWERBIRD.  Humid forest, woods, thickets.  Coastal n Australia from ne W. Australia e through N. Territory to n Queensland, from Cape York Peninsula, s to Mt. Isa and near Mackay.
Chlamydera lauterbachi  YELLOW-BREASTED BOWERBIRD.  Kunai grassland, bushes, edge.  Lowlands to 1800 m of nw,s New Guinea from Geelvink Bay and Siriwo River e to Digul River; nc New Guinea from upper Mamberamo River e to Ramu River.
Chlamydera cerviniventris  FAWN-BREASTED BOWERBIRD.  Savanna, woods, edge.  Locally in lowlands to 1400 m in nw,c,e, se,s New Guinea in the s Vogelkop and from Humboldt Bay and Mamberano River east to the eastern tip of New Guinea and coastally on the s,se coast w to the Fly River and Morehead; islands in Torres Strait and ne Queensland from Cape York Peninsula s to Jardine River and Chester River and on the Mitchell and Palmer rivers in c Queensland.

        .               Sibley's Sequence
                          Passeriformes 5