Guide of NUCLEAR WEAPON DESIGN
Howstuffworks "How Nuclear Bombs Work"
Graphic animations show what gives nuclear bombs such immense power and what the
long-term dangers are.
Photo courtesy NARA Atomic Cannon Test, 1953 We have seen that these devices have incredible destructive power, but how do they work? In this article, you will learn about the physics that makes a nuclear bomb so powerful, how nuclear bombs are designed and what happens after a nuclear explosion
We will discuss the designs of the following devices: Fission bombs (in general) Gun-triggered fission bomb (Little Boy), which was detonated over Hiroshima, Japan, in 1945 Implosion-triggered fission bomb (Fat Man), which was detonated over Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 Fusion bombs (in general) Teller-Ulam design of a hydrogen fusion bomb , which was test-detonated on Elugelap Island in 1952 A fission bomb uses an element like uranium-235 to create a nuclear explosion
This separation brings about several problems in the design of a fission bomb that must be solved: The two or more subcritical masses must be brought together to form a mass, which will provide more than enough neutrons to sustain a fission reaction, at the time of detonation
North Korea's nuclear program, 2005 | thebulletin.org
Review of the current status of their nuclear program.
In the second half of the 1990s, Abdul Qadeer Khan, scientist and 'father' of Pakistan's nuclear program, supplied uranium enrichment equipment and perhaps even warhead designs to North Korea, according to some news reports
Khan originally came to world attention for stealing centrifuge designs and equipment while working in the Netherlands in the 1970s
The precise amount of plutonium, or uranium, needed to build a bomb depends upon two variables: the desired yield and design, which hinges on the technical capabilities of the scientists and engineers
(The IAEA and some nongovernmental institutes use a different analytical approach, assuming that the necessary quantity is some fixed, arbitrary amount.)  With approximately 1 kilogram of plutonium, designers with high technical capabilities could make a bomb with a 1-kiloton yield; with approximately 3 kilograms, a 20-kiloton yield is possible
Designers with low technical capabilities would need about 3 kilograms for a 1-kiloton yield and about 6 kilograms for a 20-kiloton yield (see )
No one knows the skill level of North Korean bomb designers
In the 60 years since the Manhattan Project, a large amount of information on nuclear weapons design has become available, and a medium capability certainly seems possible
The Khariton version | thebulletin.org
A history of the politics and policies of the Soviet atomic and thermonuclear
weapons research by one of the USSR's leading nuclear scientists.
Yevgeni Negin recalled that one of the chiefs of the design bureau was talking to his colleagues on the eve of the first test of the Soviet hydrogen bomb, leaning against the very device
Thus, one of the participants in that work, explaining the design of the first Soviet atomic bomb, which was tested on August 29, 1949, concluded that almost everything was based on the dimensions of the bomb-hatch of the American plane
By subtracting the thickness of the ballistic case of the aviation bomb, and the thickness of the case for the spherical charge--which insures that the design will be strong enough--we will obtain the initial dimensions of the spherical charge of the high explosives
This will define the dimensions of all the design elements in that spherical charge.'  The reality was very different
When work on the first bomb was under way, Khariton went to the Tupolev design bureau
But he went there to meet with aircraft designers to make sure that the new bomb would fit into the bomb-hatch of the Tu-4, and to discuss other aspects of transporting the bomb by air
Stolen plans As is now well known, the design of the first Soviet atomic bomb was based on a rather detailed diagram and description of the first American bomb, which the Soviet Union obtained through the efforts of Klaus Fuchs and Soviet intelligence
CNN.com - Al Qaeda documents outline serious weapons program ...
info: NUCLEAR WEAPON DESIGN
Photo by www.gwu.edu
Cox Report - May 25, 1999
Nuclear Warhead Design Information page 2 PRC Theft of U.S
Nuclear Warhead Design Information & The Peopleís Republic of Chinaís penetration of our national weapons laboratories spans at least the past several decades, and almost certainly continues today
& The PRCís warhead designs of the late 1970s were large, multi-megaton thermonuclear weapons that could only be carried on large ballistic missiles and aircraft
warheads designed in the 1950s
thermonuclear design information that helped it fabricate and successfully test a new generation of strategic warheads
weapons design concepts, on weaponization features, and on warhead reentry vehicles (the hardened shell that protects a warhead during reentry)
The PRC had previously stolen design information on the U.S
W-70 warhead in the late 1970s; that earlier theft, which included design information, was discovered several months after it took place
Following the initial theft of W-70 design information, the PRC tested a neutron bomb in 1988
Nuclear Weapons Information Acquired by the PRC Designation& & Design Laboratory& & Weapon Platform & W-88 & & Los Alamos & & & Trident D-5 SLBM& & W-87 & & Lawrence Livermore& & Peacekeeper/M-X ICBM& & W-78 & & Los Alamos& & & Minuteman III Mark 12A ICBM& & W-76 & & Los Alamos& & & Trident C-4 SLBM & W-70 & & Lawrence Livermore& & Lance SRBM& & W-62 & & Lawrence Livermore& & Minuteman III ICBM & W-56 & & Lawrence Livermore& & Minuteman II ICBM& & The PRC may have also acquired classified U.S
The Nuclear Weapon Archive - A Guide to Nuclear Weapons
A guide to nuclear weapons. Links to nuclear test images. Provides current
information, technical data, and informative write-ups.
NPR 4.3: PAKISTANS NUCLEAR WEAPONS PROGRAM: A STATUS REPORT
Study by the Monterrey Institute of International Studies on the country's
facilities for making fissionable materials, plutonium reprocessing, and weapons ...
Tri-Valley CAREs Home Page
Communities Against a Radioactive Environment. Citizens group opposed to the
environmental pollution and wasteful spending of nuclear weapons labs in Livermore, ...
Security, Result in New Nuclear Weapons Designs Less Safe and Reliable Than the Current Arsenal Read our press release, and download the report
'...a federal nuclear agency found taped-up cracks in the ventilation system and 'hot boxes' without adequate seismic restraints...' DOE's 10-Year Plans for Livermore Lab The recently-released S ite- W ide E nvironmental I mpact S tatement (SWEIS) for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory lays out plans for huge increases in nuclear weapons design and manufacture in Livermore over the next ten years
You can also convey your thoughts on pre-designed postcards - for template artwork and instructions
NUCLEAR WEAPON DESIGN ?
Nuclear weapon research on the Internet
Nuclear news, as well as background information, searches on nuclear topics,
software to model nuclear blast effects, commentary, links.
NUCLEAR WEAPON LINKS & AUTO-LINKS This page is designed to facilitate nuclear weapons research on the Internet
Nukes on Afghanistan?
Counter punch article discusses the development and use of small low yield deep
penetrator war heads.
Gordon, director of the National Nuclear Security Administration, groused that for the past decade the Pentagon had not been able to actively pursue new weapons designs
"But I am not now exercising design capabilities, and because of that, I believe this capacity and capability is atrophying rapidly"
Over the past decade the Pentagon and its weapons designers have been quietly busy crafting a variety of new weapons
"For example, the nuclear labs have said they make new design weapons if only to maintain design expertise"
(Apparently, this good neighbor policy hasn't infected the Bush Star Wars team, which is toiling away on a contraption that would, if it works, knock incoming missiles down and onto the fields of the Poland, Germany and France.) But Robinson's real passion is for the Category III weapon, the bunker-busting nuke that is designed for the assassination of the leadership of "rogue regime", a not so subtle code word for Iraq, although it really does serve as a stand-in for any troublesome non-nuclear nation
Loose nukes | csmonitor.com
Christian Science Monitor special report on missing nuclear materials and the
spectre of terrorists making/using a 'dirty' bomb.
In the early 1990s, Aum actively recruited adherents from Russia's nuclear design facilities, as well as student physicists from Moscow State University
Chelyabinsk is home to some of Russia's most important nuclear facilities, including a nuclear-weapons assembly and disassembly plant at Trekhgorny, and a weapons-design lab at Snezhinsk
World Stories: for 08/11/2006 Links of interest Most-viewed stories (for 08/09/06) (08/10/06) (08/09/06) (08/10/06) (08/10/06) (08/09/06) Today's print issue Sponsored Links Apparel Business Resources Financial Gifts Graphic Design - LogoBee Home Remodeling Legal Services Real Estate Self Storage Travel Web Services | www.csmonitor.com | Copyright &© 2006 The Christian Science Monitor
Weidlinger: Blast-Resistant Structures
List of some blast resistant buildings by Weidlinger Associates.
2003 - $40.0 M General Services Administration Oklahoma City Federal Complex Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Ross Barney + Jankowski Architects Vulnerability assessment and blast design based on GSA criteria of new office building to house Federal agencies within a secure environment
2002 - $30.0 M General Services Administration US Federal Courthouse - Cape Girardeau Cape Girardeau, Missouri Ross Barney + Jankowski Structural design and blast analysis for new facility in historic Central Business District
Design of new construction for blast hazard, including partial or progressive collapse
2001 - $N/A Department of State, FBO US Embassy - Athens (Blast Design, Upgrade) Athens, Greece Davis Brody Bond Investigation of structure and curtain wall system for improvement of blast resistance capability that least alters original architecture of an historically significant building
2001 - $N/A Department of State, FBO US Embassy - Dushanbe (Blast Design, Addition) Dushanbe, Tajikistan Hayes Seay Mattern and Mattern Blast design for new embassy complex on a one-acre site
Blast engineering, design build
2001 - $N/A Department of State, FBO US Embassy - Vilnius (Blast Design, Addition) Vilnius, Lithuania Bradley/Parker & Associates Engineering Applications Consultants Blast engineering services for embassy addition
The Viridian Design Movement
Online design movement about global warming.
Send comments, queries, and rants to info at viridiandesign.org Viridian Note 00472: Wall Street's Darling by Bruce Sterling Key concepts: ethanol, biomass, solar, fuel cells, investors, Business Week, industrial coalitions, speculative investors, Khosla, Gates, Buffet, Doerr, Page, Brin, Branson, Immelt, JP Morgan Chase, Carlyle Group, Credit Suisse, Goldman Sachs Attention Conservation Notice: BUSINESS WEEK supplies a handy scorecard for the movers and players in the Global War on Terror green-fuels industry
The winner: Email: info at viridiandesign.org
Nuclear Weapons - Israel
Detailed account of the Isreaeli nuclear weapons programme and arsenal. From the
Federation of American Scientists.
For reactor design and construction, Israel sought the assistance of France
On 3 October 1957, France and Israel signed a revised agreement calling for France to build a 24 MWt reactor (although the cooling systems and waste facilities were designed to handle three times that power) and, in protocols that were not committed to paper, a chemical reprocessing plant
Uranium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Properties of the element, including its history, applications, and characteristics.
Commercial plants use fuel typically enriched to 2â3% 235 U, though some reactor designs (such as the reactors) can use (unenriched, less than 1% 235 U) fuel
From (PWRs) of typical design (most USA reactors are PWR) we note the fuel goes in with about 4% 235 U and 96% 238 U and comes out with about 1% 235 U, 1% 239 Pu and 95% 238 U
National Nuclear Security Administration
Quasi-autonomous agency within DOE, established to oversee the nuclear weapons
program and related activities.
By 2030, NNSA will employ a smaller, safer and more secure nuclear weapons stockpile that has assured reliability over the long term, and is backed by the industrial and design capabilities needed to respond to changing technical, geopolitical or military needs