Amalocichla sclateriana GREATER GROUND-ROBIN. Forest
floor. Mts., 2700-3900 m in the Snow Mts. and Owen Stanley Mts. of
c,se New Guinea.
Amalocichla incerta LESSER GROUND-ROBIN. Forest
floor. Mts. 1200-2750 m in the Arfak Mts.; from the Wandammen, Weyland
and Snow mts. to the n coastal ranges, e highlands, Saruwaged and Herzog
mts. and se ranges of New Guinea.
Monachella muelleriana TORRENT ROBIN. Rushing, open,
boulder-strewn streams. Up to 1800 m, usually above 300 m, in New
Guinea and on New Britain I. in the cs Bismarck Archipelago.
Microeca fascinans JACKY-WINTER. Open woods, often
with large fallen branches, savanna. Se New Guinea near Port Moresby
and Australia; absent from humid forest and extreme desert.
Microeca hemixantha GOLDEN-BELLIED FLYROBIN. Forest,
woods, mangroves. Lowlands of Tanimbar Islands. Closely related
Microeca flavigaster LEMON-BELLIED FLYROBIN. Savanna,
forest swamps, mangroves. Locally in ne W. Australia (Kimberleys
from King Sound to w shores of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf) and n N. Territory
e to ne Queensland from Cape York Peninsula s to Carmila; widespread in
s New Guinea, local in n New Guinea. Includes tormenti.
Microeca griseoceps YELLOW-LEGGED FLYROBIN. Forest,
edge, second growth. Mts., 600-1500 m in the Arfak, Weyland, Mamberano,
Victor Emanuel, Cyclops and Herzog mts., and the se ranges of New Guinea,
incl. lowlands in s New Guinea; ne Australia from n Queensland s to Claudie
River and Atherton area. In New Guinea occurs between the elevations
occupied by flavovirescens and papuana.
Microeca flavovirescens OLIVE FLYROBIN. Forest understory,
shrubs. Lowlands, occasionally up to 1500 m in the Aru Is. and w
Papuan is. of Waigeo, Batanta, Misool; New Guinea, incl. Yapen I., occurs
above 600 m only where griseoceps is absent.
Microeca papuana CANARY FLYROBIN. Forest. Mts.,
1450-3500 m from the Vogelkop to the c,se ranges of New Guinea. Occurs
Eugerygone rubra GARNET ROBIN. Forest undergrowth,
mossy forest. Mts., 1400-3650 m of New Guinea in the Arfak, Kumawa,
Weyland, Snow, Foya and Saruwaged mts. and the se ranges. Affinities
uncertain; has been placed in the Sylviidae but seems related to Petroica.
Petroica bivittata ALPINE ROBIN. Forest, bushes
in grassland. Mts., 2700-3500 m of New Guinea in the Snow Mts., Hagen
Mts. and vicinity, and the se ranges.
Petroica archboldi SNOW MOUNTAIN ROBIN. Bare rocks,
cliffs and talus slopes above alpine grasslands. Mts., 3650-4200
m of wc New Guinea in the Snow Mts., on Carstenz Massif and Mt. Wilhelmina.
Petroica multicolor SCARLET ROBIN. Dry forest, towns,
woods. Solomon Is. on Bougainville, Kulambangra, Guadalcanal, San
Cristobal; Vanuatu; Banks Is.; Fijian Is. on Vanua Levu, Taveuni, Viti
Levu and Kandavu; Samoan Is. on Savaii and Upolu; Norfolk I.; sw W. Australia,
n to Jurien Bay and e to Esperance; from se Queensland s through e,s New
S. Wales to Victoria and se S. Australia, w to Eyre Peninsula and Kangaroo
I. Tasmania and Flinders I.
Petroica macrocephala TOMTIT. Forest, woods, scrub.
New Zealand on the North, South and adjacent small islands; Chatham, Auckland
and Snares islands.
Petroica goodenovii RED-CAPPED ROBIN. Forest, scrub,
mulga, Callitris, Melaleuca. Interior Australia. Absent from
coastal areas and the n tropics of ne W. Australia, n N. Territory and
n Queensland, but incl. Flinders I. of s S.Australia and Rottnest I. off
Petroica phoenicea FLAME ROBIN. Dry forest, woods,
open country. From se Queensland, ne,e,s New S. Wales to Victoria
and se S. Australia; Tasmania and islands in Bass Strait.
Petroica rosea ROSE ROBIN. Forest. Se Queensland
n to Rockhampton, through e, se New S. Wales and Victoria to se S. Australia
w to the Mt. Lofty Range.
Petroica rodinogaster PINK ROBIN. Forest understory.
Se New S. Wales, s Victoria to extreme se S. Australia; Tasmania and islands
in Bass Strait. Breeds mainly in Tasmania; has bred in Victoria and
winters more widely.
Petroica australis NEW ZEALAND ROBIN. Forest, second
growth. Locally in New Zealand, incl. adjacent small islands.
Petroica traversi CHATHAM ISLANDS ROBIN. Coastal
forest, scrub. Originally on all Chatham Islands; now a small population
on Little Mangare I.
Melanodryas cucullata HOODED ROBIN. Open forest,
arid savanna. Australia except ne Queensland, coastal New S. Wales
Melanodryas vittata DUSKY ROBIN. Open woods with
fallen branches. Tasmania, incl. islands in Bass Strait. Closely
related to cucullata.
Tregellasia capito PALE-YELLOW ROBIN. Humid forest,
often associated with "lawyer vine".
These disjunct populations may be allospecies.
T. c. nana. Locally in lowlands to 1500 m in ne
Queensland from Cardwell and Atherton Tablelands to Cooktown area, incl.
T. c. capito. Se Queensland n to Blackall and ne
New S. Wales in the Newcastle area.
Tregellasia leucops WHITE-FACED ROBIN. Forest undergrowth.
Mts., 500-1800 m in New Guinea from the Vogelkop, Fakfak, Kumawa and Snow
mts. to the c ranges, Cyclops Mts., Huon Peninsula and se ranges, incl.
Yapen I. Lowlands of ne Queensland from Cape York Peninsula s to
Eopsaltria australis YELLOW ROBIN. Forest, woods,
towns. From coastal ne Queensland n to Atherton Tableland and Cooktown,
s through e Queensland and e New S. Wales to e,s Victoria and se S. Australia.
Eopsaltria griseogularis GREY-BREASTED ROBIN. Forest,
woods, towns. From sw,s W. Australia n to Shark Bay and Murchison
River, e to coastal s S. Australia to the Eyre Peninsula. Sometimes
lumped with australis. Also called Western Yellow Robin.
Eopsaltria flaviventris YELLOW-BELLIED ROBIN. Forest,
bushes, ground. New Caledonia.
Eopsaltria georgiana WHITE-BREASTED ROBIN. Forest,
thickets, coastal acacia scrub. Sw W. Australia n to Geraldton and
e to Albany.
Eopsaltria pulverulenta MANGROVE ROBIN. Mangroves.
Coastal lowlands of nw,s New Guinea from Geelvink Bay e to Sepik River;
from Mimika River to Milne Bay; Aru Is.; coastal n Australia from nw W.
Australia w to Exmouth Gulf, e through n N. Territory to ne Queensland
from the Cape York Peninsula s to the Burdekin River. The name E.
leucura, sometimes used for this species, is a synonym of pulverulenta.
Poecilodryas brachyura BLACK-CHINNED ROBIN. Forest
undergrowth. Up to 650 m of nw,n New Guinea from the Vogelkop e to
Wandammen and Weyland mts. and the Sepik River, incl. Yapen I.
Poecilodryas hypoleuca BLACK-SIDED ROBIN. Forest
understory, thickets, second growth. Up to 300 m, occasionally to
1100 m, in the w Papuan islands on Waigeo, Salawati and Misool and New
Guinea, except the e, se peninsula.
Poecilodryas superciliosa WHITE-BROWED ROBIN. Humid
forest, riparian vegetation, mangroves. Coastal ne W. Australia w
to Derby, e through n N. Territory to n Queensland from Cape York s to
Poecilodryas placens OLIVE-YELLOW ROBIN. Forest undergrowth.
Locally up to 1100 m on Batanta in the w Papuan islands and in New Guinea
in the Fakfak, Kumawa, Wandammen and Weyland mts., head of Geelvink Bay,
Astrolabe Bay, Owen Stanley Mts., Port Moresby area. Probably occurs
widely in the lowlands.
Poecilodryas albonotata BLACK-THROATED ROBIN. Forest.
Mts. 1350-2750 m in New Guinea from the Vogelkop to the Snow Mts., c highlands,
Huon Peninsula and the se ranges.
Peneothello sigillatus WHITE-WINGED ROBIN. Thickets
in moss forest, edge, shrubs. Mts. 2100-3900 m of c,e New Guinea
from the Snow and Hagen mts. and c highlands e to Huon Peninsula and the
se ranges. Replaces cyanus at higher elevations.
Peneothello cryptoleucus SMOKY ROBIN. Forest undergrowth.
Mts., 1400-2100 m of w New Guinea in the Arfak, Fakfak, Kumawa, Weyland,
Foya and Snow mts.
Peneothello cyanus BLUE-GREY ROBIN. Forest undergrowth.
Mts., 950-2750 m of New Guinea from the Arfak, Wandammen and Snow mts.
to the c highlands, Cyclops Mts., Huon Peninsula and the se ranges.
Occurs below sigillatus.
Peneothello bimaculatus WHITE-RUMPED ROBIN. Forest
undergrowth, edge. Locally in mts., 350-1000 m of New Guinea in the
Arfak, Weyland, Van Rees, Foya, Snow and Adelbert mts., Huon Peninsula
and the se ranges, incl. Yapen I.
Heteromyias albispecularis ASHY ROBIN. Forest undergrowth,
edge. Mts., 850-2550 m of New Guinea from the Vogelkop to Weyland,
Kumawa, Snow and Foya mts., n slopes of c ranges, Saruwaged and Herzog
mts. and the se ranges.
Heteromyias cinereifrons GREY-HEADED ROBIN. Forest
undergrowth, edge. Coastal highlands of ne Queensland from Cooktown
s to the Townsville area. Often lumped with albispecularis.
Pachycephalopsis hattamensis GREEN-BACKED ROBIN.
Dense forest undergrowth. Mts., 600-1650 m of w,c New Guinea from
the Vogelkop and Wandammen mts. to the Weyland, Snow and Foya mts., incl.
Yapen I.; se Victor Emanuel Mts.
Pachycephalopsis poliosoma WHITE-EYED ROBIN. Dense
forest undergrowth. Mts. 1000-2150 m of c,e New Guinea from the Weyland
and Snow mts. to the c,e highlands, Hunstein, Saruwaged and Herzog mts.,
Huon Peninsula and se ranges.
Drymodes superciliaris NORTHERN SCRUB-ROBIN. Humid
forest floor, edge, vine scrub. Lowlands to 1450 m in the Aru Is.,
w,c,se New Guinea on the slopes of the Arfak, Wandammen, Cyclops and Snow
mts., se ranges to the Oriomo River; lowlands near mouth of the Fly River;
ne Queensland from Cape York Peninsula s to lower Archer River and Coen.
Drymodes brunneopygia SOUTHERN SCRUB-ROBIN. Mallee,
broombrush, dry scrub, heath, coastal thickets. Locally in w W. Australia
n to Shark Bay and e to e of Israelite Bay; from se S. Australia from the
Eyre Peninsula to Flinders Range, e to sw New S. Wales, e to Cocopara Natl.
Park and nw Victoria.
Irena puella ASIAN FAIRY-BLUEBIRD. Forest, edge.
Lowlands to 1800 m in sw, ne India, Sikkim, Bhutan, Bangladesh, sw China,
se Asia, Andaman Is., Sumatra, Java, Borneo and adj. is., and Calamian
Is. and Palawan in the Philippines.
Irena cyanogaster PHILIPPINE FAIRY-BLUEBIRD. Forest, edge.
Philippines Luzon, Polillo Is., Catanduanes, Samar, Leyte, Mindanao and
Chloropsis flavipennis PHILIPPINE LEAFBIRD. Forest,
edge. Lowlands to 1500 m in the c,s Philippines on Leyte, Cebu and
Chloropsis palawanensis YELLOW-THROATED LEAFBIRD.
Forest, edge, scrub. Sw Philippines on the Calamian Is., Palawan
Chloropsis sonnerati GREATER GREEN LEAFBIRD. Woods.
Lowlands to 1000 m in sw Thailand, Malaya, Sumatra, Java and Borneo.
Chloropsis cyanopogon LESSER GREEN LEAFBIRD. Forest,
second growth. Lowlands to 1000 m on the Malay Pen., Sumatra and
adj. islands of Nias, Batu Is., Riau Arch., Bangka and Belitung; Borneo
and Banggi I.
Chloropsis cochinchinensis BLUE-WINGED LEAFBIRD.
Forest, edge, farms. Lowlands to 1200 m of s India and Sri Lanka;
e India in Assam, Bangladesh and Manipur, sw China in s Yunnan, se Asia,
Sumatra, Lingga Arch., Bangka and Belitung, Java and Borneo incl. Natuna
Chloropsis aurifrons GOLDEN-FRONTED LEAFBIRD. Open
woods, scrub, forest. Lowlands to 1800 m in n India w in Himalayan
foothills to Garhwal and from Gujarat s to Kerala and Tamil Nadu, ne to
Bihar; Sri Lanka, sw China, se Asia (exc. c Thailand and n Vietnam) and
Chloropsis hardwickii ORANGE-BELLIED LEAFBIRD. Open
forest, scrub. Hills to 2400 m in nw India, Burma, s China, nw Thailand,
n,c Laos, n,c Vietnam and Malaya.
Chloropsis venusta BLUE-MASKED LEAFBIRD. Forest.
Foothills, 600-1500 m, of Sumatra.
Orthonyx temminckii LOGRUNNER. On ground in wet forest.
Locally in mts. 1200-2850 m of New Guinea; lowlands and hills in se Queensland
n to Blackall and e New South Wales s to the Illawarra District.
Orthonyx spaldingii CHOWCHILLA. On ground in wet
forest. Ne Queensland from Cooktown s to Townsville area and inland
to the Atherton Tableland.
Pomatostomus superciliosus White-browed Babbler.
Arid woods, brush. From c,s W. Australia n to N.W. Cape, e across
s N. Territory and S. Australia (exc. extreme ne), to Victoria, New S.
Wales and inland se Queensland n to Chinchilla. Largely allopatric
Pomatostomus halli Hall's Babbler. Open woods,
acacia shrubs on rocky hills, light mulga, spinifex. Sw Queensland
n to Boulia and Winton and e to Charleville and Cunnmulla, and extreme
nw New S. Wales.
Pomatostomus ruficeps Chestnut-crowned Babbler. Arid woods,
mallee, mulga, saltbush, riparian vegetation. Sw Queensland n to
Windoran and Dirranbandi, w New S. Wales e to Nyngan and Balranald, extreme
nw Victoria and ce,ne S. Australia w to the head of Spencer Gulf.
Lanius tigrinus TIGER SHRIKE. Open forest, edge.
Se Siberia, Korea and ne,c China from s Shensi, Hopeh and Kirin s to e
Szechwan, Hunan and n Chekiang.
Lanius bucephalus BULL-HEADED SHRIKE. Open country,
towns. Se Siberia, Sakhalin, s Kuril Is., ne China, Korea, Japan
and the Izu Is.
Lanius collurio RED-BACKED SHRIKE. Open woods, scrub,
savanna, desert, farms. From s British Isles and s Scandinavia e
across nw,c Russia and w Siberia e to Yenisei River, Altai and w Transbaicalia,
s to n Mediterranean region, incl. Corsica, Sardinia and Cyprus (absent
from c,s Spain), Turkey, Near East, nw Iran, s Russia, c Caspian Sea area,
Aral Sea, n Kazakhstan, n China and Mongolia.
Relationships among collurio, isabellinus and cristatus
Lanius isabellinus RUFOUS-TAILED SHRIKE. Open woods,
scrub, savanna, desert, farms. Iran (except nw,n), Afghanistan w
to Transcaspia and n to Aral Sea, c Kazakhstan and Kirghiz steppes and
w China in Sinkiang and n Tsinghai.
Lanius cristatus BROWN SHRIKE. Open woods,
thorn scrub, savanna, farms. C,s Siberia to s Kamchatka and Sakhalin,
n Mongolia, ne,c China from e Inner Mongolia to e Szechwan, s Shensi, Hopeh,
Fukien, Kiangsi and Kwangsi; Korea and n Japan. Vagrants have been
recorded in Alaska and California.
Lanius collurioides BURMESE SHRIKE. Scrub, farms.
Mts. to 1800 m in ne India, Burma, s China and se Asia, except Malay Peninsula.
Lanius gubernator EMIN'S SHRIKE. Savanna.
Locally in n Ghana, n Nigeria, Cameroon, ne Zaire s Sudan and n Uganda.
Lanius souzae SOUSA'S SHRIKE. Brachystegia woods.
Congo Rep., sw,sc,se Zaire, Rwanda, s Uganda and w Tanzania s to Angola,
n Namibia, n Botswana, Zambia, Malawi and nw Mozambique.
Lanius vittatus BAY-BACKED SHRIKE. Scrub, open country,
farms. Lowlands in extreme s Russia (sc Transcaspia), Afghanistan,
Pakistan and India, except Assam and Bangladesh.
Lanius schach LONG-TAILED SHRIKE. Open country (not
desert), scrub. Lowlands and mts. to 3000-4300 m from ne Iran and
s Russia e through s Turkestan, Tadzhikistan, Pakistan, India, se Tibet,
s,sw China, Burma (exc. Tenasserim), Thailand (exc. peninsula), Laos, n,c
Vietnam; Hainan, Taiwan, Malaya, Sumatra, Java, Lesser Sunda Is. (e to
Wetar, Kisar, Timor); mid-mountain grasslands of c,e New Guinea w to the
Victor Emanuel Mts. and Huon Peninsula; n Borneo and the Philippines, incl.
the Sulu Archipelago.
Lanius tephronotus GREY-BACKED SHRIKE. Open country,
forest clearings. Himalayas above 2100 m from n India and Tibet e
to w,c China in n Yunnan and Shensi.
Lanius validirostris MOUNTAIN SHRIKE. Forest clearings,
open woods, edge, scrub in grasslands. Mts. above 1000 m on the Philippine
Is. of Luzon, Mindoro and Mindanao.
Lanius minor LESSER GREY SHRIKE. Forest, woods,
orchards with open grassy areas. From c,e Europe (Netherlands, Belgium,
c France, Italy) e to c,s Russia, sw Siberia (Altai) and s Russia, s to
Turkey, Iran and n Afghanistan; absent from area between Caspian and Aral
seas and the north of Transcaspia and Turkestan.
Lanius ludovicianus LOGGERHEAD SHRIKE. Open country.
From California (exc. nw), incl. Channel Islands, e Oregon, e Washington
and c Alberta e across s Canada to sw New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, s
to s Baja California, Cedros I., through Mexico to Oaxaca and Vera Cruz,
and to the Gulf coast and s Florida. Formerly common but disappearing
from many parts of breeding range, esp. the ne.
Occasionally treated as a subspecies group of L. excubitor.
Lanius excubitor NORTHERN SHRIKE. Open country, tundra,
The meridionalis subspecies group sometimes is treated as a separate
species, but the two groups are no longer incontact, perhaps as a result
of the population decline in Europe.
L. e. excubitor. Continental Europe and n Scandinavia
e across n Russia and n Siberia to Anadyrland (absent from Kamchatka),
s to c France, n Italy, Balkans, Crimea, Ukraine, Ural Mts., nw China in
Sinkiang, Kansu, Ningsia, Mongolia, s Siberia (except s Amurland and Ussuriland,
but including Sakhalin and s Kuril Islands; n N. America from w,n Alaska
and n Canada, s to s Alaska, n British Columbia, n Alberta and n Manitoba;
from n Quebec to c Quebec and s Labrador.
L. e. meridionalis. From s France, Iberian Peninsula,
and Canary Is., e across n Africa s to s Mauritania, s Mali, Senegambia,
Burkina Faso, s Niger, ne Nigeria, Cameroon, s Chad, c Sudan, Eritrea,
Djibouti, Somalia, Socotra I., Arabia, Middle East, to n,e Caspian Sea
area e through Aral Sea region and Transcaspia to e Kazakhstan and Lake
Balkash region, Pakistan and w,n India and Bangladesh.
Lanius sphenocercus CHINESE GREY SHRIKE. Scrub, sparse
woods. High mts. in Mongolia, se Siberia, n,c,se China and Korea.
Lanius excubitoroides GREY-BACKED FISCAL. Open acacia
savanna. S Mauritania, s Mali, ne Nigeria, Cameroon, C. Afr. Rep.,
Chad, Sudan and Ethiopia, s through ne,ce Zaire, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi
and w Kenya to w,s Tanzania.
Lanius cabanisi LONG-TAILED FISCAL. Arid thorn bush.
Se Somalia through c,se Kenya to ne Tanzania.
Lanius dorsalis TAITA FISCAL. Arid thorn bush.
From extreme s Sudan, s Ethiopia and s Somalia s through e Uganda and Kenya
to ne Tanzania.
Lanius somalicus SOMALI FISCAL. Dry thorn bush.
Extreme se Sudan, Ethiopia (exc. nw), Somalia and n Kenya.
Lanius mackinnoni MACKINNON'S SHRIKE. Woods, edge.
Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, Cabinda s to n Angola;
ne,ce,sc Zaire, Uganda, w Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi, nw Tanzania.
Lanius collaris COMMON FISCAL. Grass, open areas,
farms. Lowlands and mts. in S Mali, Burkina Faso, Sierra Leone, se
Guinea, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Niger, s Cameroon,
Gabon, Congo, Zaire, C. African Rep., s Chad, s Sudan, Ethiopia (exc. e),
Eritrea, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia and Malawi s
to Angola, Botswana, Zimbabwe and sw Mozambique, w through S. Africa to
Lanius newtoni NEWTON'S FISCAL. Grassland, farms.
São Tomé I. off w Africa. Sometimes lumped with collaris.
It is reasonable to treat sedentary, insular populations as separate species.
Lanius marwitzi UHEHE FISCAL. Grassland, clearings,
farms. Highlands of ne,c,sw Tanzania. Usually considered to
be a race of collaris but marwitzi is ecologically distinct and apparently
doesn't interbreed with adjacent lowland collaris. "The East African
List Committee continue to consider the distinctive marwitzi as a race
of collaris." (D. A. Turner, pers. comm.). Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire
(1993) agree, but intergradation is uncertain -- the question can remain
open for additional evidence.
Lanius senator WOODCHAT SHRIKE. Open areas with
sparse woods, orchards, edge. From w Europe n to France, Germany
and Poland, s to the Mediterranean, including most islands; n Africa from
Morocco e to s Tunisia and n Libya; Balkans, w,s Turkey, Near East, n Iraq,
w,s Iran and s Russia in the Transcaucasus.
Lanius nubicus MASKED SHRIKE. Sparse forest, scrub,
orchards. From Greece and w,s Turkey s to Israel and e to Iraq and
Corvinella corvina YELLOW-BILLED SHRIKE. Acacia
savanna. S Mauritania, s Mali, Burkind Faso, Senegambia, Guinea-Bissau,
Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Togo, n Benin, Ghana, s Niger,
Nigeria, Cameroon, s Chad and n C. African Rep., s Chad, s Sudan, extreme
ne Zaire, Uganda and w Kenya.
Corvinella melanoleuca MAGPIE SHRIKE. Acacia savanna.
S Angola, s Zambia, Tanzania and sw Kenya, Zimbabwe and Mozambique to c
Namibia, Botswana and ne S. Africa in cn Cape Prov., Transvaal, w Orange
Free State and n Natal.
"The East African List Committee are of the opinion that corvina
and melanoleuca are not closely related, and place melanoleuca back into
Urolestes." (D. A. Turner, pers. comm.). Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire
(1993) agree. Degrees of relationship, unless based on genetic measurements,
are subjective -- either treatment can be defended or criticized.
Eurocephalus rueppelli WHITE-RUMPED SHRIKE. Dry,
open, acacia woodland. From se Sudan, c,s,e Ethiopia and Somalia
s through e Uganda and Kenya to s Tanzania.
Eurocephalus anguitimens WHITE-CROWNED SHRIKE. Dry,
open, acacia woodland. S Angola, n,c Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe,
s Mozambique and n S. Africa in n Cape Prov. and Transvaal.
The East African and South African List Committees place the species
of Eurocephalus with the Helmet-Shrikes in the "Prionopidae" (= in part,
Corvidae/Vangini of Sibley and Monroe 1990:501). DNA hybridization
evidence indicates that the "Prionopidae" was a composite group of superficially
Cyclarhis gujanensis RUFOUS-BROWED PEPPERSHRIKE.
Humid forest edge, second growth, deciduous woods, scrub. Lowlands
and foothills up to 2600 m (mostly below 1500 m) from c,s Mexico (San Luis
Potosí to Chiapas, incl. Yucatán, Cozumel and Cancun is.),
s to Panama (incl. I. Coiba), and from sw,n,c,e Columbia, Venezuela, Trinidad
and Guianas s, through Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Brazil to n Argentina,
Paraguay and Uruguay.
Cyclarhis nigrirostris BLACK-BILLED PEPPERSHRIKE.
Humid forest edge, second growth. Andes, 1300-2700 m in Colombia
and w,e Ecuador s to El Oro and Zamora.
Vireolanius melitophrys CHESTNUT-SIDED SHRIKE-VIREO.
Oak forest, open woods, second growth. Highlands, 1200-3050 m from
Mexico from Jalisco, San Luis Potosí and Veracruz s to w Guatemala.
Vireolanius pulchellus GREEN SHRIKE-VIREO. Humid
forest, edge, second growth. Up to 1800 m from s Mexico in Veracruz,
n Oaxaca and Chiapas s on the Caribbean slope to Nicaragua, locally on
Pacific slope of El Salvador and on both slopes of Costa Rica (exc. nw),
and Panama, e to the Canal Zone and e Panamá province.
Vireolanius eximius YELLOW-BROWED SHRIKE-VIREO.
Humid forest. Up to 1700 m in e Panama, n Colombia and w Venezuela.
Sometimes treated as a race of V. pulchellus.
Vireolanius leucotis SLATY-CAPPED SHRIKE-VIREO.
Humid forest, second growth. Foothills and mts., 200-2100 m from
w,cs Colombia, s Venezuela and the Guianas s, w of the Andes to w Ecuador
and e of the Andes through e Ecuador and e Peru to n,e Bolivia and Amazonian
Vireo brevipennis SLATY VIREO. Pine-oak, oak scrub.
Highlands, 1200-2100 m of c Mexico in Jalisco, Guerrero, Morelos, Oaxaca
Vireo bellii BELL'S VIREO. Dense brush, mesquite
thickets, riparian thickets, arid scrub oak. From coastal sc, interior,
se California, s Nevada, sw Utah, nw,ec Arizona, s New Mexico, e Colorado,
c Nebraska, e Dakotas, se Minnesota, s Wisconsin, ne Illinois, nw,c Indiana
and w Ohio s to n Baja California, s Sonora, s Durango, Zacatecas, s Nuevo
Leon, s Tamaulipas, s,e Texas, ne Louisiana, sw Tennessee and w Kentucky.
Vireo atricapillus BLACK-CAPPED VIREO. Dense low
thickets, oak scrub on rocky hillsides. From sc Kansas s through
c Oklahoma and c Texas to c Coahuila.
Vireo nelsoni DWARF VIREO. Arid scrub. Highlands
of Mexico from Jalisco and Guanajuato s through Michoacán and México
s to Guerrero and Oaxaca.
Vireo huttoni HUTTON'S VIREO. Pine-oak, oak woods,
riparian woods, scrub. From sw British Columbia s, w of the Cascades
and Sierra Nevada, through w Washington, w Oregon and California to nw
Baja California; s Baja California in the Cape San Lucas area; from c Arizona,
sw New Mexico and w Texas s through the highlands, 1850-3500 m, of Mexico
Vireo carmioli YELLOW-WINGED VIREO. Humid forest
edge, open woods. Mts. in Costa Rica and w Panama in w Chiriquí.
Related to huttoni.
Vireo griseus WHITE-EYED VIREO. Thickets, undergrowth,
scrubby forest edge, brushy woods.
The two subspecies groups are sometimes treated as separate species.
V. g. griseus. From e Nebraska, c Iowa, s Wisconsin,
s Michigan, s Ontario, s New York and s Massachusetts s (mainly e of the
Great Plains) to e San Luis Potosí, n Hidalgo, extreme n Veracruz,
Tamaulipas, s Texas, the Gulf Coast, s Florida (incl. Florida Keys) and
V. g. perquisitor E Mexico in ne Puebla and nc Veracruz.
Vireo pallens MANGROVE VIREO. Mangroves, swampy thickets.
V. pallens, griseus, gundlachii, crassirostris and caribaeus
are closely related and sometimes regarded
as conspecific, but they are geographically separated. Vocal
differences between some of the species in this complex are known.
V. p. pallens. From sw Sonora s to c Costa Rica.
V. p. semiflavus. Gulf-Caribbean coast of the Yucatán
Peninsula (incl. Holbox and Mujeres is.) to Belize and Honduras and Bay
Is. s to Nicaragua.
Vireo bairdi COZUMEL VIREO. Heavy underbrush of deciduous
forest. Cozumel Island.
Vireo gundlachii CUBAN VIREO. Undergrowth, second
growth. Cuba and the Isle of Pines, incl. many smaller islands.
Vireo crassirostris THICK-BILLED VIREO. Scrub, shrubbery,
The two subspecies may be separate species.
V. c. crassirostris. Bahama Is., Cayman Is. (extirpated
on Little Cayman), Tortue I. off Hispaniola.
V. c. approximans. Isla de Providencia off e Nicaragua.
Vireo caribaeus ST. ANDREW VIREO. Shrubbery, mangroves.
Isla San Andrés off e Nicaragua. Probably closely related
to and derived from V. pallens, see above.
Vireo vicinior GREY VIREO. Oak-juniper woods, pinyon-juniper,
chaparral, mesquite, thorn scrub. Locally from s Calif., s Nevada,
s Utah, nw,c New Mexico and w Oklahoma s to nw Baja Calif., c,se Arizona,
s New Mexico, w Texas and nw Coahuila.
Vireo hypochryseus GOLDEN VIREO. Deciduous forest,
brushy slopes, arid scrub, riparian woods. Pacific lowlands to 1500
m of w Mexico from s Sonora s to c Oaxaca, incl. the Tres Marías
Vireo modestus JAMAICAN VIREO. Low trees, shrubbery.
Vireo nanus FLAT-BILLED VIREO. Dry lowland scrub,
humid hilly country. Hispaniola, incl. Gonâve Island.
Vireo latimeri PUERTO RICAN VIREO. Undergrowth on
limestone hills, coastal shrubbery. Puerto Rico, except eastern.
Vireo osburni BLUE MOUNTAINS VIREO. Low growth in
forest, woods. Hills and mts. of Jamaica.
Vireo cassinii CASSIN'S VIREO. Pinyon-juniper, oak
woods. Hills, mts. of w N. America from s British Columbia, n Idaho
and nw Montana, s through Washington, Oregon, w Idaho and Calif. to n Baja
California; s Baja Calif. in the mts. of the Cabo San Lucas area.
Formerly included in solitarius.
Vireo plumbeus PLUMBEOUS VIREO. Pinyon-juniper, oak
woods. Pine savanna in Belize. Mts. from s Idaho, Wyoming,
se Montana and sw S. Dakota s through sw U.S. and Mexico to Guatemala,
El Salvador and Honduras; pine ridge region of Belize. Formerly included
Vireo solitarius BLUE-HEADED VIREO. Mixed coniferous-deciduous
woods, humid montane forest. From ne British Columbia, sw Mackenzie,
n,c,se Alberta, Saskatchewan and c,s Manitoba e across Canada to Nova Scotia
and sw Newfoundland, and s to nc N. Dakota, nc,ne Minnesota, s Wisconsin,
n Illinois, sc Indiana, sc Ohio, e Pennsylvania, n New Jersey and Massachusetts;
s in the Appalachians to ne Alabama, c Georgia and nw S. Carolina.
Vireo flavifrons YELLOW-THROATED VIREO. Open deciduous
forest, woodland, riparian woods. From s Manitoba, Minnesota, c Wisconsin,
c Michigan, s Ontario, sw Quebec and New England s to e Texas, Gulf coast
and c Florida.
Vireo philadelphicus PHILADELPHIA VIREO. Open woods,
edge, second growth, towns, thickets. From ec British Columbia, n,sc
Alberta and c,s Manitoba e across s Canada to se Newfoundland, and s to
nc N. Dakota, ne Minnesota, n Michigan, n New England and Prince Edward
Vireo olivaceus RED-EYED VIREO. Deciduous forest,
open woods, second growth.
V. o. olivaceus. From se Alaska, se,ne British Columbia,
wc,sw Mackenzie, n Alberta, and nw,c Saskatchewan e across s Canada to
Nova Scotia and sw Newfoundland, s to n Oregon, n Idaho, sw,c Montana,
Wyoming, e Colorado, w Oklahoma, sc,e Texas, Gulf coast and s Florida.
V. o. chivi. Lowlands to 1700 m from Colombia, Venezuela
(incl. Margarita I.), Trinidad, Tobago and Guianas s, w of the Andes to
nw Peru and e of the Andes to e Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, Uruguay and n,c
Vireo flavoviridis YELLOW-GREEN VIREO. Open forest,
woods, second growth, riparian scrub, mangroves. Lowlands to 1500
m from c Sonora, c Nuevo León and s Texas (lower Rio Grande valley),
s (incl. Tres Marías Is.) to c Panama, incl. Coiba I. and the Pearl
Is. Differs in song and wing shape from V. o. olivaceus.
Vireo sp. CHOCO VIREO. A new species discovered
by Paul Salman in August 1991 in sw Colombia at 1400 m on the Río
Ñambi. Later found by F. G. Stiles at 1500 m in w Colombia
at Alto de Pisones.
To be named for the person who donates $105,000 (£70,000) to
help pay for 30,000 hectares of forest that have been bought as a reserve
(1994. Nature 368:781; Bird Life International, special publ.).
Vireo gracilirostris NORONHA VIREO. Woods.
Fernando de Noronha I. off e Brazil. Usually included in chivi, but
this distinct population may be allied to altiloquus. Olson (1994.
Wilson Bull. 106:1-17) presented a field study of this species and evidence
supporting its species status.
Vireo altiloquus BLACK-WHISKERED VIREO. Mangroves,
open woods, fruit groves, towns. Coastal areas and islands in c,s
Florida, Bahamas, Antilles, Cayman Is. (Little Cayman, Cayaman Brac), Providencia,
Santa Catalina, San Andrés; from the Netherlands Antilles e to Margarita
Sometimes merged with V. olivaceus, but songs differ and
their ranges approach without evidence of intergradation.
Vireo magister YUCATAN VIREO. Mangroves, open woods,
coastal scrub, towns. Grand Cayman I.; Yucatán Peninsula,
incl. Mujeres, Holbox and Cozumel islands, Belize, incl. small islands,
and the Bay and Hog islands off Honduras.
Vireo swainsonii WESTERN WARBLING-VIREO. Open woods,
riparian woods, thickets, pine-oak, towns. From se Alaska, n British
Columbia e to w,n Alberta, s to c Wyoming, sw S. Dakota and w Nebraska
and s to California, s Nevada, c,se Arizona, mts. of Mexico s to México,
Morelos and c Oaxaca; w Texas and Colorado (exc. se).
Vireo victoriae VICTORIA MOUNTAINS WARBLING-VIREO.
Woods. Victoria Mts., Cape San Lucas region of s Baja California.
The warbling vireo (V. victoriae) that occurs in the oak
woods of the Victoria Mts. of s Baja California usually is included in
swainsonii, but it is morphologically distinct and separated from swainsonii
by the deserts of central Baja California, w Mexico and by the Gulf of
It seems as reasonable to consider it a separate species as it is to
separate swainsonii and leucophrys from gilvus. (Sibley, C. 1940. Condor
Vireo gilvus EASTERN WARBLING-VIREO. Open woods,
riparian woods, thickets, towns. From sw Alberta, c Saskatchewan
and s Manitoba e across extreme s Canada to New Brunswick and s Nova Scotia,
s to se Montana, n,e N. Dakota, e S. Dakota, e Nebraska, Kansas and se
Colorado to se Texas, s Louisiana (formerly), c Mississippi, n Alabama,
se Tennessee, w S. Carolina, N. Carolina and Virginia.
Vireo leucophrys BROWN-CAPPED VIREO. Humid forest
edge, second growth, thickets, pine-oak. Mts. 750-2500 m from e San
Luis Potosí and s Tamaulipas s (locally) through Hidalgo, Puebla,
Veracruz, e Oaxaca, Chiapas and Guatemala to Honduras; locally in mts.
of Costa Rica and w,e Panama; mts. 700-2800 m from Colombia and w,n Venezuela
s through the Andes of w,e Ecuador to Peru and c Bolivia. Often included
in gilvus, but differs in morphology and vocalizations.