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pag.23
Hypogramma hypogrammicum  PURPLE-NAPED SUNBIRD.  Forest, second growth.  Lowlands to 1000 m from n,c,s Burma and sw China s through nw,pen. Thailand, Indochina, (exc. Cambodia), through Malaya to Sumatra, Borneo and N. Natuna Is.

Nectarinia seimundi  LITTLE GREEN SUNBIRD.  Second growth, clearings, edge.  Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Bioko I., Gabon, Congo, sw C. African Rep., n,e Zaire, extreme s Sudan, e Uganda, Rwanda, s to nw Angola and sw,cs,ce Zaire.
Nectarinia batesi  BATES'S SUNBIRD.  Forest edge, clearings, second growth.  Ivory Coast, Ghana, s. Nigeria, s Cameroon, Bioko I., Gabon, c,ce,se Zaire, e Angola and nw Zambia.
Nectarinia olivacea  OLIVE SUNBIRD.  Forest edge, second growth.  Sw Mali, Senegambia, Guinea-Bissau, se Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, s Cameroon, Bioko I., Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, C. African Rep., n,ne Zaire, extreme s Sudan and sw,c Ethiopia and s Somalia, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania s to c Angola, c,n Zambia, e Zimbabwe, Mozambique and se S. Africa.

Nectarinia violacea  ORANGE-BREASTED SUNBIRD.  Protea heathland.  Mts. of s S. Africa in sw,s Cape province.
Nectarinia veroxii  MOUSE-COLORED SUNBIRD.  Coastal and riparian forest.  S. Somalia, e Kenya, e Tanzania s along coast and major rivers, incl. Zanzibar I., Malawi, Zimbabwe and Mozambique to sc s Africa.
Nectarinia reichenbachii  REICHENBACH'S SUNBIRD.  Clearings, palms, shrubs.  Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, e to s Cameroon, nw,cn Zaire, Gabon, Congo, Cabinda s to Congo R. mouth, sw,sc,ce Zaire and ne Angola.
Nectarinia hartlaubii  PRINCIPE SUNBIRD.  Forest, scrub.  Principé I.

Nectarinia newtonii  NEWTON'S SUNBIRD.  Forest, scrub.  São Tomé I.
Nectarinia thomensis  SAO TOME SUNBIRD.  Forest.  Mts. of  São Tomé I.
Nectarinia oritis  CAMEROON SUNBIRD.  Forest.  Mts., 1200-2100 m of se Nigeria and Cameroon, incl. Bioko I. (=Fernando Po).  This and the following species are montane representatives of the N. verticalis superspecies and sometimes are regarded as part of it; however, alinae and amethystina are sympatric in Rwanda.
Nectarinia alinae  BLUE-HEADED SUNBIRD.  Forest.  Mts., 1300-3300 m of ne,ce Zaire, w Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi.

Nectarinia verticalis  GREEN-HEADED SUNBIRD.  Forest, woodland, edge.  Lowlands to 2750 m in Senegambia, s Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, C. African Rep., se Sudan, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, w,c Kenya, w,s Tanzania, s to nw Angola, sw,cs,ce Zaire, ne,ce Zambia and nw Malawi.
Nectarinia bannermani  BANNERMAN'S SUNBIRD.  Forest, woodland.  C,n Angola, se Zaire and extreme nw Zambia.  Sometimes regarded as conspecific  N. verticalis but may be marginally sympatric with it in nw Angola.
Nectarinia cyanolaema  BLUE-THROATED BROWN SUNBIRD.  Forest, second growth.  Sierra Leone, se Guinea, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Bioko I., Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, n,ne Zaire, w,c Uganda, Rwanda and w Kenya and s to nw,ne Angola, sw,cs,ce Zaire and nw Tanzania.

Nectarinia balfouri  SOCOTRA SUNBIRD.  Forest, second growth.  Socotra I.  May be closely related to N. dussumieri.
Nectarinia dussumieri  SEYCHELLES SUNBIRD.  Forest, second growth, farmlands.  Seychelles Is.
Nectarinia fuliginosa  CARMELITE SUNBIRD.  Coastal woodland.  Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, sw Gabon, Congo, sw Zaire and nw Angola.  This and the following two species are closely related; fuliginosa and amethystina hybridize occasionally where they overlap.
Nectarinia amethystina  AMETHYST SUNBIRD.  Open woodland.  Gabon, Congo, Angola, sw,cs,se Zaire, se Sudan, s Ethiopia, s Somalia, Uganda, Burundi, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, ne Namibia, n,se Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and e,s S. Africa.

Nectarinia rubescens  GREEN-THROATED SUNBIRD.  Forest, edge.  S Cameroon, Bioko I., C. African Rep., Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, n,ne Zaire, extreme se Sudan, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and w Kenya s to nw,cn Angola, nw Zambia, s,se Zaire and nw Tanzania.
Nectarinia senegalensis  SCARLET-CHESTED SUNBIRD.  Savanna woodland.  Senegambia, s Mauritania, s Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, s Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, C. Afr. Rep., s Chad and s Sudan to w,c Ethiopia, Eritrea, ne Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya, (exc. ne), Tanzania, incl. Zanzibar and Pemba Is., Zambia, Malawi, s Angola, c Namibia, n Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and ne S. Africa.
Nectarinia hunteri  HUNTER'S SUNBIRD.  Arid thorn savanna.  Extreme se tip of  Sudan, ne Uganda, e,extreme s Ethiopia, Somalia, n,e Kenya, and extreme ne Tanzania.  Sometimes regarded as conspecific with, N. senegalensis but marginally sympatric with the latter in e Kenya, although usually ecologically segregated in the area of overlap.

Nectarinia adelberti  BUFF-THROATED SUNBIRD.  Forest.  Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin and se Nigeria. Related to N. senegalensis and sometimes treated as part of the same superspecies.
Nectarinia zeylonica  PURPLE-RUMPED SUNBIRD.  Forest, farmlands.  Lowlands to 1200 m  in pen.,e India, Sri Lanka, N to Bangladesh and w Burma.
Nectarinia minima  CRIMSON-BACKED SUNBIRD.  Forest, farmlands.  Foothills to 2100 m of w, sw India; possibly Sri Lanka.
Nectarinia sperata  PURPLE-THROATED SUNBIRD.  Forest, mangroves, farmlands, second growth.  Lowlands to 1000 m in e India, w,s Burma, Thailand, (exc. nw,sw), Cambodia, s Laos, s Vietnam, Malaya, Sumatra, Borneo and Java, incl. surrounding is. near these three;  Malay Arch. on Maratua I; Philippine Is. of  Luzon, Babuyan Is., Camiguin Norte s to Palawan and Mindanao, Basilan and Sulu Arch.

Hybridization occurs between the red-backed sperata and the black-backed henkei groups across central Luzon and between the red-breasted sperata and yellow-breasted juliae groups in se Mindanao.

Nectarinia aspasia  BLACK SUNBIRD.  Forest, edge.  Lowlands of Wallacea Is. and Sulawesi, incl. adj. is., s Moluccas, Aru, Kei and w Papuan Is. of Waigeo, Salawati, Misool and New Guinea, incl. adj. is., D'Entrecasteaux Arch., Louisade Arch. and Bismarck Arch.
Nectarinia calcostetha  COPPER-THROATED SUNBIRD.  Mangroves, scrub, farmlands.  Mainly coastal to 1000 m in s Burma, w, pen.,se Thailand, Cambodia, s Vietnam, Malaya, Sumatra, Borneo, Java, and adj. small is., and Philippine Is. of Palawan and Balabac.
Nectarinia jugularis  OLIVE-BACKED SUNBIRD.  Forest edge, second growth, towns, mangroves, farmlands.  Lowlands to 1700 m from se China s through se Asia, (exc. ne Burma, n Vietnam);  Andaman and Nicobar is. to Sumatra, incl. surrounding is., Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Is., Sulawesi, Philippines and  Moluccas,  New Guinea, w Papuan is., Bismarck Arch., Solomon Is., and ne Australia.

Nectarinia buettikoferi  APRICOT-BREASTED SUNBIRD.  Forest edge, second growth, farmlands.  Sw Lesser Sunda Is. of Sumba.
Nectarinia solaris  FLAME-BREASTED SUNBIRD.  Forest edge, second growth, farmlands.  Lowlands to 1000 m of Lesser Sunda Is. of Sumbawa, Flores, Lomblen, Alor, Semau, Roti, Timor, Wetar.
Nectarinia sovimanga  SOUIMANGA SUNBIRD.  Forest, second growth, mangroves.  Lowlands to 2000 m of Madagascar and Aldabra and Glorieuses is.
Nectarinia humbloti  HUMBLOT'S SUNBIRD.  Forest, second growth.  W Comoro Is. of Grand Comoro and Mohéli.

Nectarinia comorensis  ANJOUAN SUNBIRD.  Forest, second growth.  C Comoro Is. of Anjouan.  May be a race of N. sovimanga.
Nectarinia coquerellii  MAYOTTE SUNBIRD.  Forest, second growth.  Se Comoro Is. of Mayotte.
Nectarinia venusta  VARIABLE SUNBIRD.  Open woodland, towns, thorn savanna, forest.  Senegambia, sw Mali, Burkina Faso, Sierra Leone, se Guinea, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, C. African Rep., s Sudan and w,c,s,e Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia s through w,c,e Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, w,s,se,e Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi to c Mozambique, n,e Zimbabwe and ne S. Africa and w through Zambia and s,ce,ne Zaire to Angola, s Gabon and Congo.
Nectarinia ursulae  URSULA'S SUNBIRD.  Forest.  Mts., 1000-2000 m of Cameroon and Bioko I. in the Gulf of Guinea Islands.  Closely related to N. venusta.

Nectarinia talatala  WHITE-BREASTED SUNBIRD.  Dry woodland, thorn savanna, farmlands.  Cw,s,ce Angola e across Zambia, Malawi and extreme se Zaire to extreme s Tanzania and s to n Namibia, n,e Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and ne,e S. Africa.
Nectarinia oustaleti  OUSTALET'S SUNBIRD.  Brachystegia woodland.  Locally in c Angola, extreme ne Zambia, Malawi and extreme sw Tanzania.  N. oustaleti may have originated from hybridization between N. talatala and N. bouvieri.
Nectarinia bouvieri  ORANGE-TUFTED SUNBIRD.  Savanna near forest, woodland.  Extreme se Nigeria, s Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, c,s C. African Rep., ne Zaire and w,s Uganda and w Kenya s (exc. forested areas) to n Angola, s Zaire (exc. extreme se) and extreme nw Zambia.

Nectarinia osea  PALESTINE SUNBIRD.  Thorn savanna.  Locally in Cameroon, n C. African Rep., extreme ne Zaire; s Syria, Israel, w,se Arabia e to s Oman.  Populations in Near East winter to sw Arabia.
Nectarinia asiatica  PURPLE SUNBIRD.  Woodland, forest, thorn scrub, farmlands.  Lowlands to 1500 m from ne Arabia, Aman and se Iran e through Afghanistan, Pakistan and India, incl. Himalayan foothills, Sri Lanka to Burma, sw China, nw,ne,sw Thailand, Cambodia, s,c Laos and c,s Vietnam.
Nectarinia habessinica  SHINING SUNBIRD.  Rocky thornbush country.  Ne Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia, n,c Kenya; sw Saudi Arabia e to s Oman.
Nectarinia lotenia  LONG-BILLED SUNBIRD.  Forest, farmlands.  Plains to 1200 m in s pen. India and Sri Lanka.

Nectarinia manoensis  MIOMBO DOUBLE-COLLARED SUNBIRD.  Forest edge, scrub, farmlands.  Lowlands to 2000 m of c Angola, se Zaire, Zambia,  Malawi and s Tanzania s to e Botswana, Zimbabwe and s Mozambique.  Sometimes considered conspecific with N. chalybea.
Nectarinia chalybea  SOUTHERN DOUBLE-COLLARED SUNBIRD.  Forest edge, scrub, farmlands.  S. Africa and Namibia.
Nectarinia afra  GREATER DOUBLE-COLLARED SUNBIRD.  Forest.  S. Africa in Transvaal, Natal and s Cape Province.

The relationships among the members of the N. afra group (afra, ludovicensis, prigogenei, stuhlmanni) are unclear.  D. A. Turner (pers. comm.) reports that the East African List Committee accept the conclusions of Dr. J. P. Vander Weghe, who is of the opinion that there is only one species of large double-collared sunbird in w Uganda, the Ruwenzori Mts. and the Virunga volcanos of Rwanda and Zaire.  On different mountains they differ in bill size, but are alike vocally and ecologically, and do not differ from the montane populations of Malawi.  The conclusion is that ludovicensis, prigogenei and stuhlmanni should be treated as races of N. afra.  There are many parallel situations in which allopatric populations are similar in several respects, but not in contact and thus unable to be tested for the ability to interbreed.  Different species concepts produce different opinions.  Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993) provide an extensive discussion of the "Nectarinia afra superspecies".  They note that they have had "intensive field experience" with "live birds in the hand and recorded vocalisations".  They include ludovicensis, prigogenei and stuhlmanni as subspecies of N. afra.  This situation is like others involving allopatric populations -- there are differences and similarities and the taxonomic treatment depends on the species concept of the taxonomist.  Treating these populations as "species" calls attention to them.  The fact is, we don't know whether they are "species", "incipient species" or "subspecies" -- we do know that they are closely-related allopatric populations. 

Nectarinia ludovicensis  MONTANE DOUBLE-COLLARED SUNBIRD.  Forest.  Mts. above 1800 m of wc,sw Angola.  Sometimes considered conspecific with N. afra.
Nectarinia prigoginei  PRIGOGINE'S DOUBLE-COLLARED SUNBIRD.  Forest.  Mts., 1800-3650 m in ne,ce, se Zaire (exc. Ruwenzori Mts.), w Uganda, w Malawi and ne Zambia.  Sometimes considered conspecific with N. ludovicensis or N. afra, but may have originated from hybridization between N. mediocris and N. atra.
Nectarinia stuhlmanni  STUHLMANN'S DOUBLE-COLLARED SUNBIRD.  Forest.  Known only from Ruwenzori Mts., 1900-4100 m, of ce Zaire.  Sometimes considered conspecific with N. afra.

Nectarinia preussi  NORTHERN DOUBLE-COLLARED SUNBIRD.  Forest.  Locally common in highlands, 1200-2600 m of se Nigeria, se Cameroon, Bioko I.; s C. Afr. Rep., extreme se Sudan, ne,ce Zaire, w Uganda, Ruanda, Burundi, c,sw Kenya.
Nectarinia mediocris  EASTERN DOUBLE-COLLARED SUNBIRD.  Forest.  Mts. of  Kenya, e,se Tanzania, se Zaire, Zambia, Malawi and n Mozambique.
Nectarinia neergaardi  NEERGAARD'S SUNBIRD.  Thornveld and sand forest.  Se Mozambique and extreme e S. Africa.
Nectarinia chloropygia  OLIVE-BELLIED SUNBIRD.  Forest. Senegambia, s Mali, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Bioko I., Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, C. African Rep., ne Zaire, s Chad, s Sudan, s Ethiopia, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda and w Kenya and s to n Angola, s,se Zaire and nw Tanzania.  An isolated population in sw Ethiopia may be conspecific with N. preussi.

Nectarinia minulla  TINY SUNBIRD.  Forest edge, second growth.  Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Bioko I., Gabon, Congo, e Zaire, w Uganda s to s Zaire.
Nectarinia regia  REGAL SUNBIRD.  Forest. Mts., 1750-2400 m of w Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, e Zaire, and extreme w Tanzania, e of L. Tanganyika.
Nectarinia loveridgei  LOVERIDGE'S SUNBIRD.  Forest, clearings.  Uluguru Mts., 750-2300 m, of ce Tanzania.  Sometimes merged with mediocris.
Nectarinia moreaui  MOREAU'S SUNBIRD.  Forest.  Mts. above 1200 m of ce Tanzania.  Once thought to represent mediocris x loveridgei hybrids, but at least one nest hase been reported; sometimes merged with mediocris.

Nectarinia rockefelleri  ROCKEFELLER'S SUNBIRD. Bamboo, heath.  Mts., 2050-3300 m, of ce Zaire.
Nectarinia cuprea  COPPER SUNBIRD.  Savanna woodland.  Senegambia, s Mauritania, sw Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, se Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, s Niger, Cameroon, C. African Rep., Gabon, Congo, s Chad, s Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, ne Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi, w Kenya, w,s Tanzania s to s Angola, extreme ne Namibia, s Zambia, Malawi, n Zimbabwe and c,n Mozambique.
Nectarinia fusca  DUSKY SUNBIRD.  Arid, rocky areas.  Cw, sw Angola s through Namibia and sw Botswana to nw,nc S. Africa.

Nectarinia rufipennis  RUFOUS-WINGED SUNBIRD.  Forest.  ca. 1000 m, ec Tanzania in Udzungwa Mts.  A recently (1983) discovered species without obvious close relatives.

Nectarinia tacazze  TACAZZE SUNBIRD.  Grassy areas at forest edge.  Mts. above 1800 m of Ethiopia, Eritrea, se Sudan, ne Uganda, w,c Kenya and ne Tanzania.
Nectarinia purpureiventris  PURPLE-BREASTED SUNBIRD.  Forest openings.  Mts., 1500-2600 m of ne,ce Zaire, w Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi.
Nectarinia bocagii  BOCAGE'S SUNBIRD.  Woodland.  Highlands of c Angola and cs Zaire.
Nectarinia kilimensis  BRONZE SUNBIRD.  Clearings, forest edge, bushy grassland.  Mts. of Angola; locally in mts., 1200-1800 m of s Ethiopia, ne,ce,se Zaire, Uganda, incl. lowlands, e Zaire, w,c,se Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi, extreme ne Zambia, Tanzania, Malawi, e Zimbabwe and sc Mozambique.

Nectarinia reichenowi  GOLDEN-WINGED SUNBIRD.  Grassland, bamboo.  Mts. above 1500 m of se Uganda, Kenya and ne Tanzania; mts. above 2100 m in ce Zaire, nw of L. Tanganyika.
Nectarinia famosa  MALACHITE SUNBIRD.  Open areas with aloes, proteas, bushes.  Locally in mts., above 1500 m, of Ethiopia, se Sudan, ne,ce,se Zaire, Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, e Zimbabwe, n Namibia and sc Mozambique; high mts. of S. Africa.
Nectarinia johnstoni  RED-TUFTED SUNBIRD.  Alpine moorlands with Erica and giant lobelias.  Mts., 2100-4300 m of ne,ce Zaire, w Uganda, Rwanda, c Kenya, ne,sw Tanzania, n Zambia and n Malawi.

Nectarinia shelleyi  SHELLEY'S SUNBIRD.  Brachystegia woodland.  S Tanzania, Malawi, se Zaire, e Zambia, e Zimbabwe and n Mozambique.
Nectarinia erythrocerca  RED-CHESTED SUNBIRD.  Riparian areas in savanna, towns.  Ne,ce Zaire, s Sudan, Uganda, w Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi and nw Tanzania.
Nectarinia congensis  CONGO SUNBIRD.  Riparian vegetation.  Forested banks of upper Congo R. in nw,ne Zaire and Congo.
Nectarinia mariquensis  MARIQUA SUNBIRD.  Acacia savanna.  Extreme se Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, nw Somalia, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya (exc.ne), Tanzania  and extreme ne Zambia; c Angola and sw Zambia s through Namibia (exc. w,s), Botswana and w,s Zimbabwe to sw Mozambique and ne S. Africa.

Nectarinia bifasciata  PURPLE-BANDED SUNBIRD.  Acacia savanna, woodland.

The two subspecies groups may be separate species, perhaps sympatric in n Tanzania and possibly in se Kenya.
 N. b. tsavoensis  S Ethiopia, s Somalia and e Kenya to ne Tanzania, but not in coastal areas.
 N. b. bifasciata  Gabon, Congo, s,e Zaire, Rwanda, Uganda, w Kenya and Tanzania, incl. Zanzibar and Mafia is., s to Angola, n Namibia, n Botswana, Zambia, Malawi, n,e Zimbabwe, Mozambique and ne S. Africa in extreme e Transvaal, e Swaziland and Natal.

Nectarinia pembae  PEMBA SUNBIRD.  Acacia savanna.  Se Tanzania on Pemba I.

N. chalcomelas has been treated as a race of N. pembae (e.g., Sibley and Monroe 1990:667), but D. A. Turner (pers. comm.) notes that they differ in plumage and voice and that chalcomelas is much larger than pembae.  The East African List Committee consider them to be separate species and pembae to be far removed from N. notata of Madagascar with which it has been considered conspecific.

Nectarinia chalcomelas  VIOLET-BREASTED SUNBIRD.  From s Somalia and e Kenya s to ne Tanzania.  Included in N. pembae by Dowsett and Forbes-Watson (1993, p. 87).
Nectarinia notata  LONG-BILLED GREEN SUNBIRD.  Forest, edge, brush.  Lowlands to 1800 m of Madagascar and Comoro Is.
Nectarinia coccinigaster  SPLENDID SUNBIRD.  Savanna.  Senegambia, sw Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, nc,ne Zaire, C. African Rep., sw Sudan and Uganda.
Nectarinia johannae  JOHANNA'S SUNBIRD.  Forest clearings.  Guinea, s Mali, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon and nc,ne Zaire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, Cabinda s to mouth of Congo R. and sc,ec Zaire.

Nectarinia superba  SUPERB SUNBIRD.  Woodland, forest edge, clearings.  Sierra Leone, Liberia, se Guinea, s Mali, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, sw C. African Rep., n,ne Zaire, Uganda and extreme w Kenya, and s to cw, nw Angola, sw,sc,ec Zaire and extreme nw Tanzania.
Nectarinia pulchella  BEAUTIFUL SUNBIRD.  Acacia savanna.  Senegambia, Guinea-Bissau, s Mauritania, s Mali, Burkino Faso, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, s Niger, n Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, n Cameroon, s Chad, n C. African Rep. and c,s Sudan to w,c Ethiopia, Eritrea, extreme ne Zaire, Uganda, Kenya (exc. ne) and Tanzania.
Nectarinia nectarinioides  BLACK-BELLIED SUNBIRD.  Acacia savanna.  Se Ethiopia and s Somalia s through c,e Kenya to extreme ne Tanzania.

Aethopyga primigenius  GREY-HOODED SUNBIRD.  Forest, edge.  High mts above 1000 m of  s Philippine I. of Mindanao.
Aethopyga boltoni  APO SUNBIRD. Forest, scrub.  Mts., 1050-2300 m of s Philippine I. of Mindanao.
Aethopyga flagrans  FLAMING SUNBIRD.  Forest, edge, second growth.  Lowlands to 1350 m  of  n,c Philippine Is. of Luzon, Catanduanes, Panay, Guimaras, Negros.
Aethopyga pulcherrima  METALLIC-WINGED SUNBIRD.  Forest, edge, second growth.  Lowlands to 1500 m of Philippine Is. of Luzon, Samar, Leyte, Bohol, Dinagat, Siargao, Mindanao, Basilan.
Aethopyga duyvenbodei  ELEGANT SUNBIRD.  Forest, scrub.  Sangihe Is.

Aethopyga shelleyi  LOVELY SUNBIRD. Forest, scrub.  Lowlands to 2000 m of Philippine Is. of  Luzon, Polillo Is., Lubang, Mindoro, Ticao, Masbate, Calamian Is., Palawan, Balabac, Samar, Leyte, Panay, Negros, Cebu, Dinagat, Siargao, Mindanao, Sulu Arch.
Aethopyga gouldiae  GOULD'S SUNBIRD.  Forest, scrub.  Himalayas, 1200-3700 m. of n,e India s to Tripura, se Bangladesh, Manipur and Nagaland; se Tibet and c,sc China, Burma, Laos and c,s Vietnam.
Aethopyga nipalensis  GREEN-TAILED SUNBIRD.  Forest, scrub, farmlands.  Himalayas, 600-3700 m of n India, se Tibet, w,ne,e Burma, sw China, nw,pen. Thailand, n Laos and n,c Vietnam.
Aethopyga eximia  WHITE-FLANKED SUNBIRD.  Forest, scrub. Mts. of Java.

Aethopyga christinae  FORK-TAILED SUNBIRD.  Forest, second growth.  E China and Vietnam.
Aethopyga saturata  BLACK-THROATED SUNBIRD.  Forest, second growth, scrub.  Mts., 300-1850 m of n India, probably Bangladesh, se Tibet, sw China and through se Asia (exc. c Burma, c Thailand and Cochinchina area of s Vietnam).
Aethopyga siparaja  CRIMSON SUNBIRD.  Forest, edge, second growth, farmlands.  Hills and mts., 300-1200 m, from sw, n,ne India, s to Bangladesh, Manipur and Nagaland; s China s through se Asia and Nicobar Is. to Greater Sunda Is., incl. most surrounding small is., and wc Philippine Is. of Tablas, Sibuyan, Panay, Negros, Cebu.
Aethopyga mystacalis  SCARLET SUNBIRD or JAVAN SUNBIRD.  Forest and forest edge.  Up to 1600 m on Java.

Aethopyga temminckii  TEMMINCK'S SUNBIRD.  Up to 1800 m of sw Thailand, Malaya, Sumatra and Borneo.  Has been considered conspecific with A. mystacalis.
Aethopyga ignicauda  FIRE-TAILED SUNBIRD.  Forest, scrub.  Himalayas, 1500-4000 m, of  n,e India s to Bangladesh, Manipur and Nagaland;  se Tibet, sw China and w,ne Burma.
Arachnothera longirostra  LITTLE SPIDERHUNTER.  Forest, second growth, farmlands.  Lowlands to 1500 m of sw,ne,e India; se Nepal e to Arunachal Pradesh and s to Bangladesh, Manipur and Nagaland; sw China s to Sumatra, incl. most surrounding is., Borneo, incl. Natuna Is., Java and c, s Philippine Is. of Palawan, Samar, Leyte, Bohol, Dinagat, Mindanao, Basilan.

Arachnothera crassirostris  THICK-BILLED SPIDERHUNTER.  Forest, second growth.  Lowlands to 1400 m of  pen. Thailand, Malaya, Sumatra and Borneo.
Arachnothera robusta  LONG-BILLED SPIDERHUNTER.  Forest, second growth.  Lowlands to 1350 m of s pen. Thailand, Malaya, Sumatra, Borneo and Java.
Arachnothera flavigaster  SPECTACLED SPIDERHUNTER.  Second growth.  Lowlands to 1500 m in pen., sw Thailand, Malaya, Sumatra and Borneo.
Arachnothera chrysogenys  YELLOW-EARED SPIDERHUNTER.  Forest, scrub, farmlands.  Lowlands to 1400 m of  Malay Pen., Sumatra, incl. surrounding is.,  Borneo and Java.

Arachnothera clarae  NAKED-FACED SPIDERHUNTER.  Forest, sedge, scrub.  Lowlands to 1350 m of Philippine Is. of c Luzon, Samar, Leyte, Mindanao.
Arachnothera affinis  GREY-BREASTED SPIDERHUNTER.  Forest, second growth, farmlands.  Lowlands to 1100 m of Malay Pen., Sumatra, incl. Siberut, Borneo, Java and Bali.
Arachnothera everetti  BORNEAN SPIDERHUNTER.  Forest.  Mts. to 1200 m of n,c Borneo.  May be conspecific with A. affinis.
Arachnothera magna  STREAKED SPIDERHUNTER.  Forest, second growth.  Mts., 900-1800 m of  n,e India s to se Bangladesh, Manipur and Nagaland, Burma, sw China, nw,sw Thailand, Laos, n,c Vietnam and Malaya.

Arachnothera juliae  WHITEHEAD'S SPIDERHUNTER.  Mossy forest.  Mts. of  n Borneo.

Family MELANOCHARITIDAE:  Berrypeckers, Longbills.  This family was separated from the Nectariniidae on the basis of DNA hybridization comparisons.  Its members have been assigned to the Meliphagidae or Nectariniidae in the past.  Christidis, et al. (1993. Australian J. Zool. 41:423-432), using protein electrophoresis, found that Oedistoma and Melanocharis clustered to form the sister group to Nectarinia + Dicaeum, all distant from the Meliphagidae, in agreement with the DNA hybridization results; however, Toxorhamphus was slightly more similar to Nectarinia and Dicaeum than to Oedistoma.  They did not examine representatives of the Paramythiidae.

Tribe MELANOCHARITINI:  Berrypeckers.  New Guinea and adjacent islands; one species in the Aru Is.  Often placed in the Dicaeidae.  The tongue is relatively simple, i.e., not strongly modified for nectar feeding; bill short, stout with tomial edges serrated; tarsus booted; a well-developed 10th primary.  Most sexually dimorphic, males dark and glossy above, gray below, females dull olive; both sexes dull-plumaged in two species.  Feed on small, soft berries.  Nest a neat cup of felted plant down, decorated externally with pieces of lichen and smoothly fused at its base to a branch.

Melanocharis arfakiana  OBSCURE BERRYPECKER.  Forest.  Known from two specimens from mts., ca. 1000 m, of se New Guinea.
Melanocharis nigra  BLACK BERRYPECKER.  Forest, edge, second growth, towns.  Lowlands to 1200 m of New Guinea region in Aru and w Papuan is. and New Guinea, incl. islands in Geelvink Bay.
Melanocharis longicauda  LEMON-BREASTED BERRYPECKER.  Forest.  Mts., 950-1800 m of New Guinea.
Melanocharis versteri  FAN-TAILED BERRYPECKER.  Forest, second growth.  Mts., 1350-3300, of New Guinea.
Melanocharis striativentris  STREAKED BERRYPECKER  Forest edge, towns.  Mts., 1150-2100 m, of c,e New Guinea.

Melanocharis crassirostris  SPOTTED BERRYPECKER.  Forest, edge, second  growth.  Mts., 1150-2350 m, of New Guinea.  Sometimes placed in Rhamphocaris.

Tribe TOXORHAMPHINI:  Longbills occur in New Guinea and adjacent islands.  Small, short-tailed and long-billed, resembling female sunbirds or short-tailed honeyeaters.  Were usually placed with the honeyeaters, but DNA hybridization comparisons indicate that they are allied with the berrypeckers and sunbirds.  Feed on insects and nectar.  Nest a neat, felted cup fused basally to a branch and decorated with lichens, as in the Melanocharitini.

Toxorhamphus novaeguineae  GREEN-CROWNED LONGBILL.  Forest, undergrowth.  Lowlands to 1200 m of New Guinea region in Aru and w Papuan is. of Waigeo, Batanta, Salawati, Misool and w,c New Guinea, incl. Yapen I.
Toxorhamphus poliopterus  GREY-WINGED LONGBILL.  Forest, edge, second growth.  Mts., 400-2500 m, of c,e New Guinea; occurs at higher elevations than T. novaeguineae.
Toxorhamphus iliolophus  PLUMED LONGBILL.  Forest.  Lowlands to 1500 m  of w Papuan is. of Waigeo, New Guinea, incl. Yapen and Meos Num is. and D'Entrecasteaux Arch.
Oedistoma pygmaeum  PYGMY LONGBILL.  Forest.  Lowlands to 1400 m of w Papuan is. of Waigeo and Misool, New Guinea and  D'Entrecasteaux Arch.

Family PARAMYTHIIDAE:  Painted Berrypeckers.  Confined to New Guinea.  This family was defined by DNA hybridization comparisons; the species usually have been assigned to the Dicaeidae.  Brightly-colored and handsomely marked.  Both species have long, wiry black filoplumes on the flanks.  Food mainly berries and other small fruits, possibly some insects.
 The Tit Berrypecker is small (12-13 cm), sexually dimorphic with spotted tertials in the wing in both sexes.  Male greenish above with black crown and throat; yellow cheeks and yellow to orange breast to belly; tail black with bluish-gray tinge.  Female olive-green above with gray cheeks and throat; pale orange breast, gray belly with darker markings from breast to crissum.  Nest an open cup of moss placed in a fork; information scanty.  The English name reflects the similarity in plumage colors to some oriental species of the genus Parus, which have a similar pattern of black head and throat, a yellow face patch and orange-yellow breast.

The Crested Berrypecker is medium-sized (21 cm), delicate blue-gray above, olive-green wings, black crown with long flattened crest on hindcrown; face and throat black; a broad buffy-gray superciliary extending broadly to the nape; blue-gray underparts and tail; yellow belly and crissum.  Nest a deep cup of coarse moss-like liverworts and moss with lichens and stems, loosely assembled and lined with finer plant material and, in the bottom of the cup, a 5 cm thick pad of golden chaff from the leaf bases of tree-ferns; placed in dense, shrubby bushes amid dense twigs, at timberline.  One white egg with brown and gray markings.  Female incubates, both sexes feed the young.

Oreocharis arfaki  TIT BERRYPECKER.  Forest.  Mts., 1500-2750 m, of New Guinea.
Paramythia montium  CRESTED BERRYPECKER.  Forest edge, second growth.  Mts., 2000-4100 m, of c,ce, se New Guinea.

Family PASSERIDAE:  Sparrows, Petronias, Snowfinches, Wagtails, Longclaws, Pipits, Accentors, Weavers, Waxbills, Munias, Indigobirds.
Subfamily PASSERINAE:  Sparrows, Petronias, Snowfinches.  This subfamily has been treated as a separate family because its hyoid apparatus is uniquely different from that of other finches, weavers and sparrows.  Although this trait provides a morphological definition of the group, DNA hybridization measurements place it at the subfamily level on the genetic distance scale.

Passer:  Sparrows.  Species limits in this genus are difficult to define because many of the taxa hybridize to various degrees where they are in contact or overlap.
Passer ammodendri  SAXAUL SPARROW.  Desert river valleys in thickets, towns, farmlands, oases.  Locally in s Russia e of Caspian Sea in Turkestan, s,e of Aral Sea and around L. Balkhash; s Mongolia and nw,nc China.
Passer domesticus  HOUSE SPARROW.  Commensal of man, towns, farmlands.

Includes P. d. italiae, a partially stabilized hybrid population of P. domesticus x  P. hispaniolensis hybrids, found in Italy and other localities in the Mediterranean Basin including Crete, Malta, Corsica and nc Africa.  The domesticus and indicus groups are sometimes treated as species, but they are reported to intergrade where their ranges meet.
 P. d. domesticus.  British Isles and Scandinavia e across n Russia and nw,c Siberia to Yakutia and Sea of Okhotsk, s to n Africa from Morocco e to n Egypt and s in the Nile Valley to the Sudan border, Sinai Pen., nc Arabia, w,s,e Iran, s Russia (except se region occupied by the indicus group), s Afghanistan, n Mongolia, n Manchuria in w,n Heilungkiang and s Siberia e to w Amurland.

 Introduced in  Iceland, Azores, Cape Verde is., w,s,e Africa, c,e Australia, New Zealand, incl. many is., Hawaiian Is.; from wc, se Canada s to Panama; Bermuda I., Bahama Is., and Greater Antilles;  from w Colombia, Curaçao and e Brazil s to Tierra del Fuego and Falkland Is.
 P. d. indicus.  Locally in Arabia, n Iran, Transcaspia, Turkestan, Afghanistan (except s), Pakistan, India to 5500 m, Sri Lanka, w China in Sinkiang and sw Tibet; possibly introduced in the Nile Valley in Sudan and in s Burma.  Introduced in coastal Somalia, Kenya, S. Africa, Zanzibar and the Comoro and Mascarene islands.

Passer hispaniolensis  SPANISH SPARROW.  Commensal of man, riparian woodland, bushes, fields, towns.  From Cape Verde and Canary is., Spain, s Italy and Balkans, incl. most is.; nw Mauritania e to n Libya e through Turkey, w,n Iran, extreme s Russia, s Russia, Turkestan n to Aral Sea and e to area s of L. Balkhash and Afghanistan to extreme sw China.
Passer pyrrhonotus  SIND SPARROW.  Riparian vegetation, tall grass, scrub, rarely around human habitation.  Se Iran, s Pakistan and w India.
Passer castanopterus  SOMALI SPARROW.  Commensal of man, towns, dry open country.  N Somalia, Djibouti, sw,e Ethiopia, and nc Kenya.
Passer rutilans  RUSSET SPARROW.  Woodland, farmlands, towns.  Mts. to 3350 m of e Afghanistan, n Pakistan, n,e India, s,e Tibet, w,ne,e Burma, c,e,s China, n Laos, n Vietnam, Taiwan, Korea, extreme se Siberia, s Kuril Is. and Japan.  Partly migratory to lower elevations and to s.

Passer flaveolus  PLAIN-BACKED SPARROW.  Second growth, farmlands, human habitation.  Lowlands to 1500 m of w,c,s,e Burma, Thailand (exc. s pen.), Cambodia, s,c Laos, s Vietnam and n,c Malaya.
Passer moabiticus  DEAD SEA SPARROW.  Riparian vegetation.  Locally in sc Turkey, Dead Sea area, Tigris-Euphrates V., e Iraq, sw,e Iran and w Afghanistan.  Winters e to Pakistan.
Passer iagoensis  IAGO SPARROW.  Dry wooded savanna, farmlands, towns.  Locally in Cape Verde Is.  This and the two following species are often merged into P. motitensis; see below.
Passer rufocinctus  KENYA RUFOUS-SPARROW.  Dry wooded savanna, farms, towns.  S Chad, cw,s Sudan, s,e Ethiopia, nw Somalia, ne Uganda, Kenya and ne Tanzania.  See P. motitensis.

Passer insularis  SOCOTRA SPARROW.  Dry areas, towns.  Socotra I., incl. Abd el Kuri is., off ne Somalia.  See P. motitensis.
Passer motitensis  SOUTHERN RUFOUS-SPARROW.  Dry wooded savanna, farms, towns.  S. Angola s to Orange R., Namibia, Botswana, sw Zimbabwe and ne S, Africa.  Closely related to P. domesticus; interactions between motitensis and introduced populations of domesticus are poorly known.

Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993) treat rufocinctus and insularis as subspecies of P. motitensis.  This unites widely allopatric populations in a single species.  It is at least equally appropriate to recognize such populations as species.

Passer melanurus  MOSSIE.  Commensal of man, dry areas, towns, farms.  Sw Angola, Namibia, cs Botswana, sw Zimbabwe and S. Africa.
Passer griseus  GREY-HEADED SPARROW.  Woodland, around human habitations.  Senegambia and sw Mali e to Zaire, Uganda, Ethiopia, w Kenya and w Tanzania and s to Angola, Zambia and Malawi.  P. griseus occurs in all subSaharan African countries except Mozambique, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa and the areas occupied by swainsonii, gongonensis and suahelicus.

The three (or four) following species are often treated as races of griseus; they are reported to hybridize to various degrees, including not at all, where they overlap.  Intermediate individuals occur in Kenya and the East African List Committee have decided to treat swainsonii, gongonensis and suahelicus as races of P. griseus.  The distinctive small-billed form on Pemba Island (mosambicus) is considered to be a race of the southern African P. diffusus (D.A. Turner, pers. comm.).  Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993) also include swainsonii, gongonensis and suahelicus in P. griseus.  They note that these three forms are treated as "megasubspecies (incipient species?) within P. griseus...." and express the hope that a detailed study will be undertaken in zones of contact "to determine to what extent there may be hybridisation or intergrading."  Until such a study has been done it seems equally valid to treat these populations as species or "incipient species?".

Passer swainsonii  SWAINSON'S SPARROW.  Human habitations.  Highlands of Ethiopia and Somalia.
Passer gongonensis  PARROT-BILLED SPARROW.  Arid lowlands.  S Sudan, s Ethiopia, s Somalia, Kenya and ne Tanzania.  Apparently sympatric with P. griseus in w Kenya; hybridizes with P. suahelicus e of L. Victoria.
Passer suahelicus  SWAHILI SPARROW.  Savanna.  S Kenya and Tanzania.  Hybridizes with P. griseus in s Tanzania and possibly elsewhere.
Passer diffusus  CAPE SPARROW.  Savanna, woodland.  Nw Angola, s,e Zambia, Malawi, and e Tanzania, incl. Zanzibar, Mafia and several smaller coastal is., s to s Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and S. Africa.  Does not intergrade with P. griseus in Angola or s Zambia, where ecologically separate.

Passer simplex  DESERT SPARROW.  Commensal of man, desert scrub in sandy areas, towns.  Mauritania, Mali, Nigeria and Chad e to sw Egypt and c Sudan, w of Nile V.; e Iran (probably extirpated), cs Russia.
Passer montanus  EURASIAN TREE SPARROW.  Open woodland, plains, farms, towns, commensal of man.  British Isles and s Scandinavia e across n Russia and nw, c Siberia to Sea of Okhotsk, Sakhalin and s Kuril Is. s to n Mediterranean region, Morocco (rarely), nc Turkey, sw Syria, n,e Iran, Afghanistan, n Pakistan, s Tibet, ne,e India; from Nepal s to Bangladesh, se Asia, Sumatra, incl. Bangka and Riau Arch., Java, Bali, China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan and Ryukyu Is.  Intro. Canary Is., Pescadores Is., Borneo, Sulawesi, Philippines, Lesser Sunda Is. of Lombok, Flores, Sumba, s Moluccas, se Australia, Mariana and Marshall is., c U.S., in c Missouri, w Illinois and Bermuda (now extirpated).

Passer luteus  SUDAN GOLDEN-SPARROW.  Thorn savanna, scrub.  Sw Mauritania, n Senegambia, s Mali, Burkina Faso, s Niger, n Nigeria, n Cameroon, Chad and n,c Sudan to se Egypt and nw Ethiopia and Eritrea.
Passer euchlorus  ARABIAN GOLDEN-SPARROW.  Thorn savanna, scrub.  Sw Arabia and n coast of Somalia and Djibouti.  Sometimes considered conspecific with P. luteus.
Passer eminibey  CHESTNUT SPARROW.  Dry Savanna.  W,s Sudan, c,s Ethiopia and s Somalia s through e Uganda and Kenya to nc,c Tanzania.
 Petronia:  Petronias, Rock Sparrow.
Petronia pyrgita  YELLOW-SPOTTED PETRONIA.  Scrub, dry savanna, rocks.  Locally in s Mali, sw Mauritania, n Senegambia, s Niger; s Chad, sc,e,se Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea and Somalia s to ne Uganda, Kenya and ne Tanzania.  Sometimes treated as a race of P. superciliaris.

Petronia xanthocollis  CHESTNUT-SHOULDERED PETRONIA.  Open country, trees, towns.  Lowlands to 1200 m from se Turkey, se Iraq, s,ec Iran and ne Arabia e through Afghanistan, Pakistan and India.  Ranges to Sri Lanka.  Sometimes considered conspecific with  P. pyrgita.
Petronia superciliaris  YELLOW-THROATED PETRONIA.  Brachystegia woodland, acacia savanna, usually riparian.  Gabon, Congo, s Zaire, Angola, Burundi, c,ne Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, ne Namibia, n,e Botswana, Zimbabwe and e,se S. Africa.
Petronia dentata  BUSH PETRONIA.  Dry woodland, acacia.  S Mauritania, Senegambia, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, s Mali, n Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, s Niger, Ivory Coast, n Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, s Chad, n C. African Rep., c,s Sudan, w Ethiopia, Eritrea; sw Arabia and s Yemen.

Petronia petronia  ROCK SPARROW.  Stony, rocky slopes with scrub.  Madeira and Canary Is., Spain, Portugal, c,s Italy, s Balkans, incl. most is. exc. Crete and Cyprus; Morocco to s Tunisia and nw Libya e through Turkey, Near East s to Israel, Iran, s Russia, n to se Ukraine, s Russia, n to n Caspian and Aral Seas and s Kazakhstan to s Siberia, Mongolia and w,c China.
Carpospiza brachydactyla  PALE ROCKFINCH.  Arid regions with sparse bushy vegetation.  Se Turkey, Near East, n Iraq, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Armenia and s Turkmenia. Nomadic; recorded in Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea and Djibouti.  Position and relationships uncertain but usually regarded as a passerid and placed in Petronia; it is sometimes treated as a fringillid because of evidence from nesting, eggs and downy nestlings, but the cranium is "non-cardueline".  It is tentatively retained in the Passerinae.

Montifringilla:  Snowfinches.
 Gebauer and Kaiser (J. für Orn. 135:55-71, 1994) recommend placing taczanowskii, davidiana, ruficollis, blanfordi and theresae in Pyrgilauda.  M. nivalis and M. adamsi live year around in rocky habitats and use rock crevices and rock burrows for roosting and nesting.  They are not associated with small, burrowing mammals, are social and differ from the other five species in behavior and song.  The species of Pyrgilauda depend on the burrows of small mammals for roosting, breeding and refuge, can burrow with feet and bill and differ in vocalizations and behavior from nivalis and adamsi.  It is a matter of opinion whether to recognize one genus or two genera of snowfinches, unless a quantitative measure of genetic distance can be used.

Montifringilla nivalis  WHITE-WINGED SNOWFINCH.  Barren alpine rocky ground, meadows.  Locally in mts. to 5200 m in Pyrenees, Alps, Appennines, Balkans, Turkey, s Russia in Caucasus, s Russia, Turkestan, sw Sibeia, Iran, n Afghanistan, w Mongolia, w China and Tibet.
Montifringilla adamsi  BLACK-WINGED SNOWFINCH.  Barren alpine rocky areas, meadows.  Himalayas, 3600-4900 m of w China, Tibet and extreme n India and n Nepal.
Montifringilla taczanowskii  WHITE-RUMPED SNOWFINCH.  Barren alpine rocky areas with colonies of mouse hare (Ochotona).  Himalayas, 4250-5100 of w China and Tibet.

Montifringilla davidiana  SMALL SNOWFINCH.  Stony plains with sparse grass, desert edge.  Mts. and deserts of s Siberia, Mongolia and n China.
Montifringilla ruficollis  RUFOUS-NECKED SNOWFINCH.  Barren, stony plains, associated with M. taczanowskii but less attached to mouse hares.  Himalayas, 4250-5200 m of w China and Tibet.
Montifringilla blanfordi  PLAIN-BACKED SNOWFINCH.  Dry sandy plains with sparse grass, stony areas.  Himalayas, 4250-5200 m of w China and Tibet.
Montifringilla theresae  AFGHAN SNOWFINCH.  Open stony ground, farmlands.  Mts. of n Afghanistan; ranges to s Russia, e Transcaspia.

Subfamily MOTACILLINAE:  Wagtails, Longclaws, Pipits.  Usually treated as a separate family without obvious relatives, but DNA hybridization data indicate that they are closest to the sparrows and weavers.
Dendronanthus indicus  FOREST WAGTAIL.  Openings and riparian areas in oak woodland, pine woodland.  Lowlands and hills of se Siberia, Korea and c,e China; ne India.

Motacilla:  Wagtails.
Motacilla alba  WHITE WAGTAIL.  Open country, tundra to desert edge, shores, often near water, farmlands.  Se Greenland, Iceland, Faroe Is. and n Scandinavia e across n Russia and n Siberia to Chukotski Pen., s to n Mediterranean region, incl. most is., Turkey, Syria, s Russia, s Siberia and ne China; w Alaska; n Iran, s Russia, from Transcaspia e to Turkestan and e Kazakhstan, sw Siberia, n Mongolia, extreme w China, e Afghanistan and Pakistan.

A complex of related and morphologically distinct forms that overlap with varying degrees of interbreeding.  There is disagreement about the defining characters and the boundaries of species and subspecies groups.  The subspecies yarrelli interbreeds frequently with alba, whereas interbreeding with M. lugens, often considered conspecific with M. alba, is restricted.  Some other races may be separate species; e.g., personata and dukhunensis interbreed freely in some areas but show limited hybridization in others.  Closely related also are M. grandis, M. madaraspatensis and M. aguimp, all of which are sometimes considered conspecific with M. alba.

Motacilla lugens  BLACK-BACKED WAGTAIL.  Open country, shores, farmlands.  China, s Mongolia, se Siberia and Kuril Is. s to n Pakistan, n India, se Tibet, ne Burma, n Vietnam, s China and n Japan, n Honshu, sw Alaska on Attu I.
Motacilla grandis  JAPANESE WAGTAIL.  Open country, coast, rice paddies, streamsides.  Japan, incl. Sado I.
Motacilla madaraspatensis  WHITE-BROWED WAGTAIL.  Open country, streams, towns.  Lowlands to 1700 m of n Pakistan and India, n to Himalayan foothills and e to Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan and Bangladesh.
Motacilla aguimp  AFRICAN PIED WAGTAIL.  Open country, farmlands, streamsides.  Senegambia, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria and s Mali e through sw Niger, Cameroon, Chad, C. African Rep., cs Egypt and s Sudan to Ethiopia, Eritrea and s Somalia and s in Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, Zaire, Angola, Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, and Zimbabwe to s Namibia, n,e Botswana, Mozambique and South Africa.

Motacilla capensis  CAPE WAGTAIL.  Streams, swamps, farmlands. Highlands from c Angola, and Zaire e to c,w Zambia, Uganda,Rwanda, Burundi, nw Kenya and sw Tanzania; nw,c Namibia, s Botswana, c Zimbabwe and s Mozambique s to S. Africa.  Apparently closest to M. flava complex and sometimes included in that group.
Motacilla flaviventris  MADAGASCAR WAGTAIL.  Open country, towns, streams.  Lowlands to 1800 m of Madagascar.
Motacilla citreola  CITRINE WAGTAIL.  Wet meadows, marshes, banks of slow streams, lakes.  Locally from ne Russia e to nc Siberia; from ec Russia, upper Volga R. se to s Siberia and n Mongolia, thence sw through s Russia, e Kazakhstan, e Turkestan and w,n China to ne Iran, Afghanistan and Tibet.  Occasionally hybridizes with M. flava.

Motacilla flava  YELLOW WAGTAIL.  Open meadows, marshes, river banks, seacoasts, fields.  Lowlands and hills of  Great Britain and adj. coasts of nw France, Belgium, Netherlands and sw Norway;  Scandinavia e across c Russia to  Siberia and s Russia, Kirghiz steppes, Turkestan, n Caspian and Aral Seas, n Kazakhstan and s to Mauritania and Mali e to n Algeria, Spain, Portugal, incl. Balearic Is., s France, Alps, Italy , Sicily and Sardinia, Balkans, Greece, Turkey and Near East, across s Russia; n Egypt, Nile V.; nw,w,ne China, w,c Mongolia; w,n Alaska.

Variation in this species is complex.  Males, especially, differ greatly in appearance, and there are several regions where two or more morphological types occur in sympatry with various degrees of intermixing, but whether they are morphs, intergrading subspecies or sympatric species is unclear.  M. flava is closely related to M. capensis, M. flaviventris and M. citreola.

Motacilla cinerea  GREY WAGTAIL.  Banks of swift streams, lakes, rarely meadows, seacoast.  Hills and  mts. from British Isles, extreme s Scandinavia and cont. Europe e to Poland and w Ukraine s to Azores, Madeira and Canary Is., Morocco, n Algeria, n Mediterranean region, incl. most is., and Turkey, thence e across Iran, Afghanistan, s Russia, s Russia, Transcaspia, Turkestan to w Himalayas, to 4300 m, of n Pakistan, n India, Kashmir e to c Nepal and probably w China, thence nw,n through e, nc Russia to Urals and Arctic circle, e across c,s Siberia to Kolyma R., Kamchatka, Sakhalin and Kuril Is., and s to Mongolia, c,ne China, Korea and Japan. Closely related to M. clara.
Motacilla clara  MOUNTAIN WAGTAIL.  Banks of swift streams in forest.  Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, se Nigeria, sw C. African Rep., Cameroon and Gabon; highlands from cw,cn,ne Angola, sc,ce,ne Zaire, w Uganda, w,c Ethiopia and w,c Kenya s through Rwanda, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe and Mozambique to e S. Africa.

Tmetothylacus tenellus  GOLDEN PIPIT.  Open arid country, bushes, small trees.  From extreme se Sudan, s,e Ethiopia and Somalia s to Uganda, c,e Kenya and ne,ce Tanzania.  Ranges rarely to Zimbabwe and ne S. Africa.
 Macronyx:  LONGCLAWS.
Macronyx croceus  YELLOW-THROATED LONGCLAW.  Acacia thornveld near trees, moist grassland.  Senegambia e to Cameroon, s C. African Rep., s Sudan, Uganda, Kenya and s Somalia and s to nw Angola, sw,n,ne,ce Zaire, Burundi and e,s Tanzania, thence s through e Zambia, Malawi, e Zimbabwe and Mozambique to e S. Africa.  M. croceus, M. fuellebornii and M. capensis are closely related.
Macronyx fuellebornii  FUELLEBORN'S LONGCLAW.  Moist grassy areas, brachystegia woodland.  Angola, exc. nw, extreme n Namibia, sc,se Zaire, Zambia and sw Tanzania.

Closely related to M. croceus and largely allopatric with marginal sympatry, but with ecological separation in central Angola.  M. capensis
 is more distantly related and the area of sympatry is considerably greater, but ecological segregation is usually evident in areas of overlap.

Macronyx capensis  CAPE LONGCLAW.  Open grassland, absent from arid areas.  E Zimbabwe,  extreme s Mozambique, Namibia and S. Africa in s Transvaal, Swaziland, Natal, Orange Free State, Lesotho, sw,cn,e Cape Province.
Macronyx flavicollis  ABYSSINIAN LONGCLAW.  Open grasslands.  Highlands above 1200 m of w,c Ethiopia.
Macronyx  sharpei  SHARPE'S PIPIT.  Open grassy areas.  Mts., 2100-2450 m, of w,c Kenya.  Often treated as conspecific with  Macronyx flavicollis.  Placed in Anthus by some authors, including Sibley and Monroe (1990:675).  However, the East African List Committee considers its behavior and vocalizations to be typical of Macronyx species (D. A. Turner, pers. comm., and Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire 1993).

Macronyx ameliae  ROSY-THROATED LONGCLAW.  Moist,grassy areas.  Locally in wc,cs Kenya and cn Tanzania; from c,ne,cs Angola, extreme ne Namibia, se Zaire and sw Tanzania s through Malawi, Zambia, n Botswana and Zimbabwe to w,c Mozambique and e S. Africa.
Macronyx aurantiigula  PANGANI LONGCLAW.  Arid savanna, thorn bush.  From Somalia s through e,se Kenya to ne Tanzania.  Closely related to M. ameliae; both occur in ne Tanzania but are ecologically separate.
Macronyx grimwoodi  GRIMWOOD'S LONGCLAW.  Open wet grassland.  C,e Angola, cs Zaire and extreme nw Zambia.
 Anthus:  Pipits.  Species limits in Anthus are difficult to determine and different species concepts produce different classifications.  Some authors include widespread populations in a single species (e.g., novaeseelandiae), others split them into several species.  It should not be assumed that any given arrangement is final and correct -- widely allopatric populations may be separate species although they are so much alike that present evidence cannot distinguish among them.  African forms are especially complex.  Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993) and Keith, et al. (1992. Vol. 4. Birds of Africa) include the most recent treatments.  The "species" listed below are those in Sibley and Monroe (1990) and the quotations from other sources are intended to indicate the difficulties involved in the taxonomy of this group.

Clancey (1990. Durban Mus. Novitates 15:42-68) resurrected Hemimacronyx for Sharpe's Pipit and the Yellow-breasted Pipit, considering them to be intermediate between typical Anthus and Macronyx species.  See note above under Macronyx sharpei.  The Yellow-breasted Pipit remains Anthus chloris.  Dowsett and Dowsett-Lemaire (1993, p. 349) consider A. chloris and M. sharpei to be "morphologically the most closely related, and place them next to one another in a systematic list ...."
 Arctander, et al. (1994. Ibis, in press) sequenced 1041 bases of the mtDNA cytochrome b gene of seven species of Anthus with Motacilla alba as the outgroup.  Their results confirm earlier proposals that Berthelot's Pipit is most closely related to the Tawny Pipit; Richard's Pipit is the next nearest relative of the Tawny-Berthelot's clade.  The Rock and Water pipits are close relatives, thus supporting other evidence noted below under the species accounts.

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        .Sibley's Sequence
         Passeriformes 24